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World Electr. Veh. J., Volume 15, Issue 4 (April 2024) – 52 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The acceptance of Electric Vehicles (EVs) can be hindered from a consumer’s perspective by two main factors: the range anxiety and the charging infrastructure. To overcome the challenges, the trend is to design larger EVs with a longer range. However, some studies found that ultra-long-range EV might not be needed. In addition, such solutions can come with various burdens such as rising costs or an increasing demand in battery materials. Other solutions are therefore developed, including features to facilitate the execution of long trips. Such advanced features can include eco-driving or charging recommendations based on predictive models enhancing the accuracy of range estimations. In the paper, the benefits of these developments are assessed from an economic and environmental point of view. View this paper
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40 pages, 31460 KiB  
Article
Bill It Right: Evaluating Public Charging Station Usage Behavior under the Presence of Different Pricing Policies
by Markus Fischer, Wibke Michalk, Cornelius Hardt and Klaus Bogenberger
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040175 - 22 Apr 2024
Viewed by 669
Abstract
This study investigates for the first time how public charging infrastructure usage differs under the presence of diverse pricing models. About 3 million charging events from different European countries were classified according to five different pricing models (cost-free, flat-rate, time-based, energy-based, and mixed) [...] Read more.
This study investigates for the first time how public charging infrastructure usage differs under the presence of diverse pricing models. About 3 million charging events from different European countries were classified according to five different pricing models (cost-free, flat-rate, time-based, energy-based, and mixed) and evaluated using various performance indicators such as connection duration; transferred energy volumes; average power; achievable revenue; and the share of charging and idle time for AC, DC, and HPC charging infrastructure. The study results show that the performance indicators differed for the classified pricing models. In addition to the quantitative comparison of the performance indicators, a Kruskal–Wallis one-way analysis of variance and a pairwise comparison using the Mann–Whitney-U test were used to show that the data distributions of the defined pricing models were statistically significantly different. The results are discussed from various perspectives on the efficient design of public charging infrastructure. The results show that time-based pricing models can improve the availability of public charging infrastructure, as the connection duration per charging event can be roughly halved compared to other pricing models. Flat-rate pricing models and AC charging infrastructure can support the temporal shift of charging events, such as shifting demand peaks, as charging events usually have several hours of idle time per charging process. By quantifying various performance indicators for different charging technologies and pricing models, the study is relevant for stakeholders involved in the development and operation of public charging infrastructure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Smart Charging Strategies for Plug-In Electric Vehicles)
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21 pages, 6392 KiB  
Article
End-to-End Differentiable Physics Temperature Estimation for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
by Pengyuan Wang, Xinjian Wang and Yunpeng Wang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 174; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040174 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 591
Abstract
Differentiable physics is an approach that effectively combines physical models with deep learning, providing valuable information about physical systems during the training process of neural networks. This integration enhances the generalization ability and ensures better consistency with physical principles. In this work, we [...] Read more.
Differentiable physics is an approach that effectively combines physical models with deep learning, providing valuable information about physical systems during the training process of neural networks. This integration enhances the generalization ability and ensures better consistency with physical principles. In this work, we propose a framework for estimating the temperature of a permanent magnet synchronous motor by combining neural networks with the differentiable physical thermal model, as well as utilizing the simulation results. In detail, we first implement a differentiable thermal model based on a lumped parameter thermal network within an automatic differentiation framework. Subsequently, we add a neural network to predict thermal resistances, capacitances, and losses in real time and utilize the thermal parameters’ optimized empirical values as the initial output values of the network to improve the accuracy and robustness of the final temperature estimation. We validate the conceivable advantages of the proposed method through extensive experiments based on both synthetic data and real-world data and then provide some further potential applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Deep Learning Applications for Electric Vehicles)
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14 pages, 2430 KiB  
Article
Deep Reinforcement Learning Lane-Changing Decision Algorithm for Intelligent Vehicles Combining LSTM Trajectory Prediction
by Zhengcai Yang, Zhengjun Wu, Yilin Wang and Haoran Wu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 173; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040173 - 21 Apr 2024
Viewed by 579
Abstract
Intelligent decisions for autonomous lane-changing in vehicles have consistently been a focal point of research in the industry. Traditional lane-changing algorithms, which rely on predefined rules, are ill-suited for the complexities and variabilities of real-world road conditions. In this study, we propose an [...] Read more.
Intelligent decisions for autonomous lane-changing in vehicles have consistently been a focal point of research in the industry. Traditional lane-changing algorithms, which rely on predefined rules, are ill-suited for the complexities and variabilities of real-world road conditions. In this study, we propose an algorithm that leverages the deep deterministic policy gradient (DDPG) reinforcement learning, integrated with a long short-term memory (LSTM) trajectory prediction model, termed as LSTM-DDPG. In the proposed LSTM-DDPG model, the LSTM state module transforms the observed values from the observation module into a state representation, which then serves as a direct input to the DDPG actor network. Meanwhile, the LSTM prediction module translates the historical trajectory coordinates of nearby vehicles into a word-embedding vector via a fully connected layer, thus providing predicted trajectory information for surrounding vehicles. This integrated LSTM approach considers the potential influence of nearby vehicles on the lane-changing decisions of the subject vehicle. Furthermore, our study emphasizes the safety, efficiency, and comfort of the lane-changing process. Accordingly, we designed a reward and penalty function for the LSTM-DDPG algorithm and determined the optimal network structure parameters. The algorithm was then tested on a simulation platform built with MATLAB/Simulink. Our findings indicate that the LSTM-DDPG model offers a more realistic representation of traffic scenarios involving vehicle interactions. When compared to the traditional DDPG algorithm, the LSTM-DDPG achieved a 7.4% increase in average single-step rewards after normalization, underscoring its superior performance in enhancing lane-changing safety and efficiency. This research provides new ideas for advanced lane-changing decisions in autonomous vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motion Planning and Control of Autonomous Vehicles)
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21 pages, 4916 KiB  
Article
Optimal Allocation of Fast Charging Stations on Real Power Transmission Network with Penetration of Renewable Energy Plant
by Sami M. Alshareef and Ahmed Fathy
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 172; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040172 - 20 Apr 2024
Viewed by 1018
Abstract
Because of their stochastic nature, the high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) places demands on the power system that may strain network reliability. Along with increasing network voltage deviations, this can also lower the quality of the power provided. By placing EV fast [...] Read more.
Because of their stochastic nature, the high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs) places demands on the power system that may strain network reliability. Along with increasing network voltage deviations, this can also lower the quality of the power provided. By placing EV fast charging stations (FCSs) in strategic grid locations, this issue can be resolved. Thus, this work suggests a new methodology incorporating an effective and straightforward Red-Tailed Hawk Algorithm (RTH) to identify the optimal locations and capacities for FCSs in a real Aljouf Transmission Network located in northern Saudi Arabia. Using a fitness function, this work’s objective is to minimize voltage violations over a 24 h period. The merits of the suggested RTH are its high convergence rate and ability to eschew local solutions. The results obtained via the suggested RTH are contrasted with those of other approaches such as the use of a Kepler optimization algorithm (KOA), gold rush optimizer (GRO), grey wolf optimizer (GWO), and spider wasp optimizer (SWO). Annual substation demand, solar irradiance, and photovoltaic (PV) temperature datasets are utilized in this study to describe the demand as well as the generation profiles in the proposed real network. A principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to reduce the complexity of each dataset and to prepare them for the k-means algorithm. Then, k-means clustering is used to partition each dataset into k distinct clusters evaluated using internal and external validity indices. The values of these indices are weighted to select the best number of clusters. Moreover, a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) is applied to probabilistically determine the daily profile of each data set. According to the obtained results, the proposed RTH outperformed the others, achieving the lowest fitness value of 0.134346 pu, while the GRO came in second place with a voltage deviation of 0.135646 pu. Conversely, the KOA was the worst method, achieving a fitness value of 0.148358 pu. The outcomes attained validate the suggested approach’s competency in integrating FCSs into a real transmission grid by selecting their best locations and sizes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable EV Rapid Charging, Challenges, and Development)
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19 pages, 10426 KiB  
Article
Leveraging 5G Technology to Investigate Energy Consumption and CPU Load at the Edge in Vehicular Networks
by Salah Eddine Merzougui, Xhulio Limani, Andreas Gavrielides, Claudio Enrico Palazzi and Johann Marquez-Barja
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 171; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040171 - 19 Apr 2024
Viewed by 630
Abstract
The convergence of vehicular communications, 5th generation mobile network (5G) technology, and edge computing marks a paradigm shift in intelligent transportation. Vehicular communication systems, including Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure, are integral to Intelligent Transportation Systems. The advent of 5G enhances connectivity, while edge computing [...] Read more.
The convergence of vehicular communications, 5th generation mobile network (5G) technology, and edge computing marks a paradigm shift in intelligent transportation. Vehicular communication systems, including Vehicle-to-Vehicle and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure, are integral to Intelligent Transportation Systems. The advent of 5G enhances connectivity, while edge computing brings computational processes closer to data sources. This synergy holds the potential to revolutionize transportation efficiency and safety. This research investigates vehicular communication and edge computing dynamics within a 5G network, considering varying distances between On Board Units and Roadside Units. Energy consumption patterns and CPU load at the RSU are analyzed through meticulous real-world experiments and simulations. Our results show stable energy consumption at shorter distances, with fluctuations increasing at greater ranges. CPU load correlates with communication distance, highlighting the need for adaptive algorithms. While experiments exhibit higher variability, our simulations validate these findings, emphasizing the importance of considering transmission range in vehicular communication network design. Full article
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27 pages, 6248 KiB  
Article
Optimal Scheduling of Integrated Energy System Considering Electric Vehicle Battery Swapping Station and Multiple Uncertainties
by Haihong Bian, Quance Ren, Zhengyang Guo and Chengang Zhou
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 170; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040170 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 532
Abstract
In recent years, there has been rapid advancement in new energy technologies aimed at mitigating greenhouse gas emissions stemming from fossil fuels. Nonetheless, uncertainties persist in both the power output of new energy sources and load. To effectively harness the economic and operational [...] Read more.
In recent years, there has been rapid advancement in new energy technologies aimed at mitigating greenhouse gas emissions stemming from fossil fuels. Nonetheless, uncertainties persist in both the power output of new energy sources and load. To effectively harness the economic and operational potential of an Integrated Energy System (IES), this paper introduces an enhanced uncertainty set. This set incorporates N-1 contingency considerations and the nuances of source–load distribution. This framework is applied to a robust optimization model for an Electric Vehicle Integrated Energy System (EV-IES), which includes Electric Vehicle Battery Swapping Station (EVBSS). Firstly, this paper establishes an IES model of the EVBSS, and then proceeds to classifies and schedules the large-scale battery groups within these stations. Secondly, this paper proposes an enhanced uncertainty set to account for the operational status of multiple units in the system. It also considers the output characteristics of both new energy sources and loads. Additionally, it takes into consideration the N-1 contingency state and multi-interval distribution characteristics. Subsequently, a multi-time-scale optimal scheduling model is established with the objective of minimizing the total cost of the IES. The day-ahead robust optimization fully considers the multivariate uncertainty of the IES. The solution employs the Nested Column and Constraint Generation (C&CG) algorithm, based on the distribution characteristics of multiple discrete variables in the model. The intraday optimal scheduling reallocates the power of each unit based on the robust optimization results from the day-ahead scheduling. Finally, the simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method effectively reduces the conservatism of the uncertainty set, ensuring economic and stable operation of the EV-IES while meeting the demands of electric vehicle users. Full article
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17 pages, 4772 KiB  
Article
Research on the Stability Control Strategy of High-Speed Steering Intelligent Vehicle Platooning
by Guangbing Xiao, Zhicheng Li, Ning Sun and Yong Zhang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 169; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040169 - 18 Apr 2024
Viewed by 486
Abstract
Based on an investigation of how vehicle structural characteristics and system parameters influence the motion stability of high-speed steering intelligent vehicle platooning, a control strategy for ensuring motion stability is proposed. This strategy is based on a virtual articulated concept and is validated [...] Read more.
Based on an investigation of how vehicle structural characteristics and system parameters influence the motion stability of high-speed steering intelligent vehicle platooning, a control strategy for ensuring motion stability is proposed. This strategy is based on a virtual articulated concept and is validated using both characteristic equation analysis and time domain analysis methods. To create a system, any two adjacent front and rear vehicles in the intelligent vehicle platooning are connected using a virtual articulated model constructed through the virtual structure method. A ten-degrees-of-freedom model of the intelligent vehicle platooning system is established, taking into account the nonlinearities of the tire and steering systems, utilizing the principles of the second Lagrange equation theory. The system damping ratio is determined through characteristic equation analysis, and the system’s dynamic critical speed is assessed by examining the relationship between the damping ratio and the motion stability of the intelligent vehicle platooning, serving as an indicator of system stability. By applying sensitivity analysis, control variable analysis, and time domain analysis methods, the influence of vehicle structural characteristics and system parameters on the system’s dynamic critical speed and motion stability under lateral disturbances within the intelligent vehicle platooning is thoroughly investigated, thereby validating the soundness of the proposed control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Design Theory, Method and Control of Intelligent and Safe Vehicles)
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23 pages, 15041 KiB  
Article
Research on Obstacle Avoidance Trajectory Planning for Autonomous Vehicles on Structured Roads
by Yunlong Li, Gang Li and Kang Peng
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 168; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040168 - 17 Apr 2024
Viewed by 691
Abstract
This paper focuses on the obstacle avoidance trajectory planning problem for autonomous vehicles on structured roads. The objective is to design a trajectory planning algorithm that can ensure vehicle safety and comfort and satisfy the rationality of traffic regulations. This paper proposes a [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on the obstacle avoidance trajectory planning problem for autonomous vehicles on structured roads. The objective is to design a trajectory planning algorithm that can ensure vehicle safety and comfort and satisfy the rationality of traffic regulations. This paper proposes a path and speed decoupled planning method for non-split vehicle trajectory planning on structured roads. Firstly, the path planning layer adopts the improved artificial potential field method. The obstacle-repulsive potential field, gravitational potential field, and fitting method of the traditional artificial potential field are improved. Secondly, the speed planning aspect is performed in the Frenet coordinate system. Speed planning is accomplished based on S-T graph construction and solving convex optimization problems. Finally, simulation and experimental verification are performed. The results show that the method proposed in this paper can significantly improve the safety and comfortable riding of the vehicle. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Intelligent Vehicle Path Planning Algorithm)
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21 pages, 5634 KiB  
Article
Path Tracking and Anti-Roll Control of Unmanned Mining Trucks on Mine Site Roads
by Ruochen Wang, Jianan Wan, Qing Ye and Renkai Ding
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 167; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040167 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 569
Abstract
Aiming to address the tracking accuracy and anti-rollover problem of the unmanned mining truck path tracking process under the complex unstructured road conditions in mining areas, a coordinated control strategy for path tracking and anti-rollover based on topology theory is proposed. Moreover, optimal [...] Read more.
Aiming to address the tracking accuracy and anti-rollover problem of the unmanned mining truck path tracking process under the complex unstructured road conditions in mining areas, a coordinated control strategy for path tracking and anti-rollover based on topology theory is proposed. Moreover, optimal equilibrium weights are assigned to path tracking control and anti-rollover control to ensure that the path tracking accuracy of the mining vehicle can be effectively improved in a safe and stable driving state. Regarding the path tracking problem, a lateral preview error model is established, and a path tracking controller is designed using LQR (linear quadratic regulator) control theory. In the design of the anti-rollover controller, the effects of understeer and trip-type rollover on the stability of the vehicle are taken into account, and the ideal transverse swing angular velocity and trip-type rollover evaluation index are introduced for controller design, which reduce the effects of the curves and roadway excitation on the mining truck and improve the rollover motion. Based on a joint simulation using Trucksim and Simulink and the construction of a hardware-in-the-loop simulation platform for verification, the single control strategy and coordinated control strategy are compared and analyzed. The final simulation results show that the tracking error, yaw velocity, and center of mass side deviation angle are optimized by 45%, 32.5%, and 20%, respectively. Therefore, the Extension theory-based coordinated controller satisfies the complex road conditions in the mining area and improves the tracking accuracy to the maximum extent while ensuring the safety and smoothness of vehicle driving and exhibiting good adaptability and robustness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Vehicle System Dynamics and Control)
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21 pages, 15213 KiB  
Article
Omnidirectional AGV Path Planning Based on Improved Genetic Algorithm
by Qinyu Niu, Yao Fu and Xinwei Dong
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 166; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040166 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 582
Abstract
To address the issues with traditional genetic algorithm (GA) path planning, which often results in redundant path nodes and local optima, we propose an Improved Genetic Algorithm that incorporates an ant colony algorithm (ACO). Firstly, a new population initialization method is proposed. This [...] Read more.
To address the issues with traditional genetic algorithm (GA) path planning, which often results in redundant path nodes and local optima, we propose an Improved Genetic Algorithm that incorporates an ant colony algorithm (ACO). Firstly, a new population initialization method is proposed. This method adopts a higher-quality random point generation strategy to generate random points centrally near the start and end of connecting lines. It combines the improved ACO algorithm to connect these random points quickly, thus greatly improving the quality of the initial population. Secondly, path smoothness constraints are proposed in the adaptive function. These constraints reduce the large-angle turns and non-essential turns, improving the smoothness of the generated path. The algorithm integrates the roulette and tournament methods in the selection stage to enhance the searching ability and prevent premature convergence. Additionally, the crossover stage introduces the edit distance and a two-layer crossover operation based on it to avoid ineffective crossover and improve convergence speed. In the mutation stage, we propose a new mutation method and introduce a three-stage mutation operation based on the idea of simulated annealing. This makes the mutation operation more effective and efficient. The three-stage mutation operation ensures that the mutated paths also have high weights, increases the diversity of the population, and avoids local optimality. Additionally, we added a deletion operation to eliminate redundant nodes in the paths and shorten them. The simulation software and experimental platform of ROS (Robot Operating System) demonstrate that the improved algorithm has better path search quality and faster convergence speed. This effectively prevents the algorithm from maturing prematurely and proves its effectiveness in solving the path planning problem of AGV (automated guided vehicle). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Intelligent Vehicle Path Planning Algorithm)
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29 pages, 3179 KiB  
Review
An Overview of Diagnosis Methods of Stator Winding Inter-Turn Short Faults in Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motors for Electric Vehicles
by Yutao Jiang, Baojian Ji, Jin Zhang, Jianhu Yan and Wenlong Li
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 165; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040165 - 15 Apr 2024
Viewed by 788
Abstract
This article provides a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art techniques for detecting and diagnosing stator winding inter-turn short faults (ITSFs) in permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) for electric vehicles (EVs). The review focuses on the following three main categories of diagnostic approaches: motor model-based, signal [...] Read more.
This article provides a comprehensive overview of state-of-the-art techniques for detecting and diagnosing stator winding inter-turn short faults (ITSFs) in permanent-magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) for electric vehicles (EVs). The review focuses on the following three main categories of diagnostic approaches: motor model-based, signal processing-based, and artificial intelligence (AI)-based fault detection and diagnosis methods. Motor model-based methods utilize motor state estimation and motor parameter estimation as the primary strategies for ITSF diagnosis. Signal processing-based techniques extract fault signatures from motor measured data across time, frequency, or time-frequency domains. In contrast, AI-based methods automatically extract higher-order fault signatures from large volumes of preprocessed data, thereby enhancing the effectiveness of fault diagnosis. The strengths and limitations of each approach are thoroughly examined, providing valuable insights into the advancements in ITSF detection and diagnosis techniques for PMSMs in EV applications. The emphasis is placed on the application of signal processing methods and deep learning techniques in the diagnosis of ITSF in PMSMs in EV applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle Control and Drive Systems for Electric Vehicles)
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17 pages, 4357 KiB  
Article
Design and Analysis Models with PID and PID Fuzzy Controllers for Six-Phase Drive
by Roma Rinkeviciene and Brone Mitkiene
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 164; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040164 - 12 Apr 2024
Viewed by 627
Abstract
Due to their reliability, design and analysis models with PID and PID fuzzy controllers for six-phase drive are being applied in new areas in various industries, including transportation. First, the development of any system with multiphase motors requires an elaborate model to define [...] Read more.
Due to their reliability, design and analysis models with PID and PID fuzzy controllers for six-phase drive are being applied in new areas in various industries, including transportation. First, the development of any system with multiphase motors requires an elaborate model to define the control mode and controllers. The modeling of a control system for six-phase drive is based on its conventional d-q mathematical model and indirect field-oriented control. In this study, a Simulink six-phase drive model is designed with indirect field-oriented control and simulated with two types of fuzzy controller, PID and PID fuzzy. The simulation results are presented and analyzed; these results reflect the step response and performance at the provided speed reference law while keeping the load application at a constant speed. A fuzzy controller with 49 rules is considered and applied. With field-oriented control and a well-tuned PID controller, the six-phase electric drive has good step response specifications: a short settling time when starting without a load, no overshoot in the step response, small size, and a slight decrease in speed when loaded. The system employing a PID fuzzy controller shows slightly better results in response to the application of torque: the decrease in speed is eliminated more quickly. The simulation results were tabulated with the PID and with the results of previous research that rearranged some models to only operate in the classical controller mode. The simulation results indicate the robustness to disturbance of both the systems with six-phase drive and provide high-quality transient specifications at the provided reference speed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Electrical Drives for EV Applications)
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17 pages, 6954 KiB  
Article
Torque Ripple Reduction in Brushless Wound Rotor Vernier Machine Using Third-Harmonic Multi-Layer Winding
by Muhammad Zulqarnain, Sheikh Yasir Hammad, Junaid Ikram, Syed Sabir Hussain Bukhari and Laiq Khan
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 163; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040163 - 11 Apr 2024
Viewed by 573
Abstract
This article aims to realize the brushless operation of a wound rotor vernier machine (WRVM) by a third-harmonic field produced through stator auxiliary winding (X). In the conventional model, a third-harmonic current is generated by connecting a 4-pole armature and 12-pole excitation windings [...] Read more.
This article aims to realize the brushless operation of a wound rotor vernier machine (WRVM) by a third-harmonic field produced through stator auxiliary winding (X). In the conventional model, a third-harmonic current is generated by connecting a 4-pole armature and 12-pole excitation windings serially with a three-phase diode rectifier to develop a pulsating field in the airgap of a machine. However, in the proposed model, the ABC winding is supplied by a three-phase current source inverter, whereas the auxiliary winding (X) carries no current due to an open circuit. The fundamental MMF component developed in the machine airgap creates a four-pole stator field, while the third-harmonic MMF induces the harmonic current in the specialized rotor harmonic winding. The rotor on the other side contains the harmonic and the field windings connected through a full-bridge rectifier. The electromagnetic interaction of the stator and rotor fields generates torque. Due to the open-circuited winding pattern, the proposed machine results in a low torque ripple. A 2D model is designed using JMAG-Designer, and 2D field element analysis (FEA) is carried out to determine the output torque and machine’s efficiency. A comparative performance analysis of both the conventional and proposed topologies is discussed graphically. The quantitative analysis of the proposed topology shows better performance as compared to the recently developed third-harmonic-based brushless WRVM topology in terms of output torque and torque ripples. Full article
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15 pages, 10322 KiB  
Article
The Performance Enhancement of a Vehicle Suspension System Employing an Electromagnetic Inerter
by Chen Luo, Xiaofeng Yang, Zhihong Jia, Changning Liu and Yi Yang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040162 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 857
Abstract
As a newly conceived vibration isolation element, an inerter can be implemented in different forms, and it is easily introduced in different vibration isolation scenarios. This paper focuses on a novel inerter device called an electromagnetic inerter (EMI), which combines a linear generator [...] Read more.
As a newly conceived vibration isolation element, an inerter can be implemented in different forms, and it is easily introduced in different vibration isolation scenarios. This paper focuses on a novel inerter device called an electromagnetic inerter (EMI), which combines a linear generator with a fluid inerter. Firstly, the structure and the working principle of the EMI is stated. Then, the parameter sensitivity of the fluid inerter is analyzed, and two parameters that have great influence on the inertance coefficient are obtained. Subsequently, the influence of the change of the external circuit on the output characteristics of the device is also discussed. This proves that the introduction of external circuits can simplify complex mechanical topologies. Finally, the topological structures of vehicle suspension are changed in the form of an EMI (including external circuit), and the dynamic performance of these structures in the typical vibration isolation system of a vehicle’s suspension is obtained. It is found that an L4 layout should be considered as the best suspension structure. Compared with traditional passive suspension, it not only ensures that its handling stability is not weakened, but also reduces the root mean square value of body acceleration and the peak of suspension work space by 4.56% and 11.62%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamics, Control and Simulation of Electrified Vehicles)
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28 pages, 549 KiB  
Article
A Scalable Approach to Minimize Charging Costs for Electric Bus Fleets
by Daniel Mortensen and Jacob Gunther
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040161 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 830
Abstract
Incorporating battery electric buses into bus fleets faces three primary challenges: a BEB’s extended refuel time, the cost of charging, both by the consumer and the power provider, and large compute demands for planning methods. When BEBs charge, the additional demands on the [...] Read more.
Incorporating battery electric buses into bus fleets faces three primary challenges: a BEB’s extended refuel time, the cost of charging, both by the consumer and the power provider, and large compute demands for planning methods. When BEBs charge, the additional demands on the grid may exceed hardware limitations, so power providers divide a consumer’s energy needs into separate meters even though doing so is expensive for both power providers and consumers. Prior work has developed a number of strategies for computing charge schedules for bus fleets; however, prior work has not worked to reduce costs by aggregating meters. Additionally, because many works use mixed integer linear programs, their compute needs make planning for commercial-sized bus fleets intractable. This work presents a multi-program approach to computing charge plans for electric bus fleets. The proposed method solves a series of subproblems where the solution to the charge problem becomes more refined with each problem, moving closer to the optimal schedule. The results demonstrate how runtimes are reduced by using intermediate subproblems to refine the bus charge solution so that the proposed method can be applied to large bus fleets of 100+ buses. Not only will we demonstrate that runtimes scale linearly with the number of buses but we will also show how the proposed method scales to large bus fleets of over 100 buses while managing the monthly cost of energy. Full article
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18 pages, 9953 KiB  
Article
Research on an Intelligent Vehicle Trajectory Tracking Method Based on Optimal Control Theory
by Shuang Wang, Gang Li, Jialin Song and Boju Liu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 160; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040160 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 844
Abstract
This study aims to explore an intelligent vehicle trajectory tracking control method based on optimal control theory. Considering the limitations of existing control strategies in dealing with signal delays and communication lags, a control strategy combining an anthropomorphic forward-looking reference path and longitudinal [...] Read more.
This study aims to explore an intelligent vehicle trajectory tracking control method based on optimal control theory. Considering the limitations of existing control strategies in dealing with signal delays and communication lags, a control strategy combining an anthropomorphic forward-looking reference path and longitudinal velocity closure is proposed to improve the accuracy and stability of intelligent vehicle trajectory tracking. Firstly, according to the vehicle dynamic error tracking model, a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) transverse controller is designed based on the optimal control principle, and a feedforward control strategy is added to reduce the system steady-state error. Secondly, an anthropomorphic look-ahead prediction model is established to mimic human driving behavior to compensate for the signal lag. The double proportional–integral–derivative (DPID) control algorithm is used to track the longitudinal speed reference value. Finally, a joint simulation is conducted based on MatLab/Simulink2021b and CarSim2019.0 software, and the effectiveness of the control strategy proposed in this paper is verified by constructing a semi-physical experimental platform and carrying out a hardware-in-the-loop test. The simulation and test results show that the control strategy can significantly improve the accuracy and stability of vehicle path tracking, which provides a new idea for future intelligent vehicle control system design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Motion Planning and Control of Autonomous Vehicles)
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24 pages, 6162 KiB  
Article
Power Signal Analysis for Early Fault Detection in Brushless DC Motor Drivers Based on the Hilbert–Huang Transform
by David Marcos-Andrade, Francisco Beltran-Carbajal, Eduardo Esquivel-Cruz, Ivan Rivas-Cambero, Hossam A. Gabbar and Alexis Castelan-Perez
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040159 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 798
Abstract
Brushless DC machines have demonstrated significant advantages in electrical engineering by eliminating commutators and brushes. Every year, these machines increase their presence in transportation applications. In this sense, early fault identification in these systems, specifically in the electronic speed controllers, is relevant for [...] Read more.
Brushless DC machines have demonstrated significant advantages in electrical engineering by eliminating commutators and brushes. Every year, these machines increase their presence in transportation applications. In this sense, early fault identification in these systems, specifically in the electronic speed controllers, is relevant for correct device operation. In this context, the techniques reported in the literature for fault identification based on the Hilbert–Huang transform have shown efficiency in electrical systems. This manuscript proposes a novel technique for early fault identification in electronic speed controllers based on the Hilbert–Huang transform algorithm. Initially, currents from the device are captured with non-invasive sensors in a time window during motor operation. Subsequently, the signals are processed to obtain pertinent information about amplitudes and frequencies using the Hilbert–Huang transform, focusing on fundamental components. Then, estimated parameters are evaluated by computing the error between signals. The existing electrical norms of a balanced system are used to identify a healthy or damaged driver. Through amplitude and frequency error analysis between three-phase signals, early faults caused by system imbalances such as current increasing, torque reduction, and speed reduction are detected. The proposed technique is implemented through data acquisition devices at different voltage conditions and then physical signals are evaluated offline through several simulations in the Matlab environment. The method’s robustness against signal variations is highlighted, as each intrinsic mode function serves as a component representation of the signal and instantaneous frequency computation provides resilience against these variations. Two study cases are conducted in different conditions to validate this technique. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method in identifying early faults in brushless DC motor drivers. This study provides data from each power line within the electronic speed controller to detect early faults and extend different approaches, contributing to addressing early failures in speed controllers while expanding beyond the conventional focus on motor failure analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dynamic Control of Traction Motors for EVs)
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16 pages, 15476 KiB  
Article
Collaborative Misbehaviour Response System for Improving Road Safety
by Khaled Chikh, Chinmay Satish Shrivastav and Roberto Cavicchioli
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040158 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 746
Abstract
This paper advocates for a proactive approach to traffic safety by introducing a collaborative Misbehaviour Response System (MBR) designed to preemptively address hazardous driving behaviours such as wrong-way driving and distracted driving. The system integrates with electric vehicles (EVs), leveraging advanced technologies like [...] Read more.
This paper advocates for a proactive approach to traffic safety by introducing a collaborative Misbehaviour Response System (MBR) designed to preemptively address hazardous driving behaviours such as wrong-way driving and distracted driving. The system integrates with electric vehicles (EVs), leveraging advanced technologies like ADAS, edge computing, and cloud services to enhance road safety. Upon detection of misbehaviour, the MBR system utilizes data from interconnected parking facilities to identify the nearest safe location and provides navigation guidance to authorities and nearby vehicles. The paper presents a prototype of the MBR system, demonstrating its efficiency in detecting misbehaviours and coordinating swift responses. It also discusses the system’s limitations and societal implications, outlining future research directions, including integration with autonomous vehicle systems and variable speed limit technologies, to further improve road safety through proactive and context-aware response mechanisms. Full article
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18 pages, 7305 KiB  
Article
Research on Operation Characteristics of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor at Zero and Low Speeds Based on Pulse Vibration High-Frequency Injection Method
by Jianfei Wang, Hua Fan, Kai Liu and Xu Liu
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 157; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040157 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 513
Abstract
In order to reduce costs, compress space, and improve system stability under harsh operating conditions, the current vehicle motor drive systems often use position sensorless control methods. However, due to the introduction of filters and the hysteresis of position observers, the position sensorless [...] Read more.
In order to reduce costs, compress space, and improve system stability under harsh operating conditions, the current vehicle motor drive systems often use position sensorless control methods. However, due to the introduction of filters and the hysteresis of position observers, the position sensorless control has the problem of deteriorating dynamic performance when vehicles start from zero and low speeds or their loads change. Therefore, this article focuses on the problem of position sensorless control applied by permanent magnet synchronous motors when vehicles start and operate at zero and low speed. Combined with high-frequency pulse vibration injection method, the relationship between the types of position observers, parameter selection, and position tracking performance is analyzed and compared. The short-pulse injection method is proposed to locate the initial position of the motor, overcoming the inherent 180° position deviation of pulse vibration high-frequency injections. Subsequently, the impact of the amplitude and frequency of the injected high-frequency signal on the performance of position estimation is focused on. Considering the adverse effects caused by the phase delay of the filter, a design method for filter parameters is proposed to achieve a smooth start and operation of the permanent magnet synchronous motor under position sensorless control. Finally, the rationality of the theoretical analysis and the effectiveness of the adopted methods are fully verified through simulation and experiments. Full article
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18 pages, 6707 KiB  
Article
Research on Energy Management Strategy for Series Hybrid Tractor under Typical Operating Conditions Based on Dynamic Programming
by Xianghai Yan, Yifan Zhao, Xiaohui Liu, Mengnan Liu, Yiwei Wu and Jingyun Zhang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040156 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 731
Abstract
In response to the issues of hybrid tractors’ energy management strategies, such as reliance on experience, difficulty in achieving optimal control, and incomplete analysis of typical operating conditions of tractors, an energy management strategy based on dynamic programming is proposed in combination with [...] Read more.
In response to the issues of hybrid tractors’ energy management strategies, such as reliance on experience, difficulty in achieving optimal control, and incomplete analysis of typical operating conditions of tractors, an energy management strategy based on dynamic programming is proposed in combination with various typical operating conditions of tractors. This is aimed at providing a reference for the modeling and energy management strategies of series hybrid tractors. Taking the series hybrid tractor as the research object, the tractor dynamics models under three typical working conditions of plowing, rotary tillage, and transportation were established. With the minimum total fuel consumption of the tractor as the optimization target, the engine power as the control variable, and the state of charge of the power battery as the state variable, an energy management strategy based on a dynamic programming algorithm was established and simulation experiments were conducted. The simulation results show that, compared with the power-following energy management strategy, the energy management strategy based on the dynamic programming algorithm can reasonably control the operating state of the engine. Under the three typical working conditions of plowing, rotary tillage, and transportation, the battery SOC consumption increased by approximately 8.37%, 7.24%, and 0.77%, respectively, while the total fuel consumption decreased by approximately 25.28%, 21.54%, and 13.24%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Energy Special Vehicle, Tractor and Agricultural Machinery)
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21 pages, 4797 KiB  
Article
Sliding Mode Control of an Electric Vehicle Driven by a New Powertrain Technology Based on a Dual-Star Induction Machine
by Basma Benbouya, Hocine Cheghib, Daniela Chrenko, Maria Teresa Delgado, Yanis Hamoudi, Jose Rodriguez and Mohamed Abdelrahem
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040155 - 9 Apr 2024
Viewed by 911
Abstract
This article examines a new powertrain system for electric vehicles based on the dual-star induction machine, presented as a promising option due to its significant advantages in terms of performance, energy efficiency, and reliability. This system could play a key role in the [...] Read more.
This article examines a new powertrain system for electric vehicles based on the dual-star induction machine, presented as a promising option due to its significant advantages in terms of performance, energy efficiency, and reliability. This system could play a key role in the evolution of electro-mobility technology. The dual-star induction machine reduces electromagnetic torque fluctuations, limits current harmonics, improves power factor, and enables half-speed operation. Our study focuses on the control strategy and operation of the traction chain for electric vehicles propelled by the dual-star induction machine (DSIM) using Matlab software with version 2017. We integrate the battery as the main energy source, along with three-level static converters for energy conversion in the vehicle’s four operating quadrants. We have opted for sliding mode control, which has proven to be feasible and robust against external disturbances. Although we have modeled driver behavior, we consider it as an aspect of control, to which we add the driving profile to guide our evaluation of the control to be used for vehicle operation. The results of our study demonstrate the reliability and robustness of DSIM for electric vehicle motorization and speed control. Promoting this technology is essential to improve the overall performance and efficiency of electric vehicles, especially in traction and braking modes for energy recovery. This underscores the importance of DSIM in the sustainable development of the electric transportation system. Full article
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21 pages, 6430 KiB  
Article
Research on Automatic Optimization of a Vehicle Control Strategy for Electric Vehicles Based on Driver Style
by Guozhen Song, Jianguo Xi and Jianping Gao
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 154; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040154 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 819
Abstract
In order to reduce energy consumption, improve driving mileage, and make vehicles adopt driver styles, research on automatic optimization of control strategy based on driver style is conducted in this paper. According to the structure of the powertrain, the vehicle control strategy is [...] Read more.
In order to reduce energy consumption, improve driving mileage, and make vehicles adopt driver styles, research on automatic optimization of control strategy based on driver style is conducted in this paper. According to the structure of the powertrain, the vehicle control strategy is designed and a driver-style recognition model based on fuzzy recognition is added to the rule-based control strategy to improve the driver adaptation of the vehicle. In order to further improve the energy-saving effect of the strategy, the control strategy based on driver style is automatically optimized by the Isight optimization platform to make the strategy reach optimum. The test results show that the strategy based on driver style is able to adapt to different styles of drivers and the economy of the vehicle is improved by 2.06% compared with pre-optimization, which validates the effectiveness of the strategy. Full article
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14 pages, 2673 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of Vehicle-to-Grid in Sweden Using MATLAB/Simulink
by Jennifer Leijon, Jéssica Santos Döhler, Johannes Hjalmarsson, Daniel Brandell, Valeria Castellucci and Cecilia Boström
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 153; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040153 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 793
Abstract
With more electric vehicles introduced in society, there is a need for the further implementation of charging infrastructure. Innovation in electromobility may result in new charging and discharging strategies, including concepts such as smart charging and vehicle-to-grid. This article provides an overview of [...] Read more.
With more electric vehicles introduced in society, there is a need for the further implementation of charging infrastructure. Innovation in electromobility may result in new charging and discharging strategies, including concepts such as smart charging and vehicle-to-grid. This article provides an overview of vehicle charging and discharging innovations with a cable connection. A MATLAB/Simulink model is developed to show the difference between an electric vehicle with and without the vehicle-to-grid capabilities for electricity grid prices estimated for Sweden for three different electric vehicle user profiles and four different electric vehicle models. The result includes the state-of-charge values and price estimations for the different vehicles charged with or without a bidirectional power flow to and from the electric grid. The results show that there is a greater difference in state-of-charge values over the day investigated for the electric vehicles with vehicle-to-grid capabilities than for vehicles without vehicle-to-grid capabilities. The results indicate potential economic revenues from using vehicle-to-grid if there is a significant variation in electricity prices during different hours. Therefore, the vehicle owner can potentially receive money from selling electricity to the grid while also supporting the electric grid. The study provides insights into utilizing vehicle-to-grid in society and taking steps towards its implementation. Full article
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15 pages, 5250 KiB  
Article
Second-Order Central Difference Particle Filter Algorithm for State of Charge Estimation in Lithium-Ion Batteries
by Yuan Chen and Xiaohe Huang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 152; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040152 - 7 Apr 2024
Viewed by 622
Abstract
The estimation of the state of charge (SOC) in lithium-ion batteries is a crucial aspect of battery management systems, serving as a key indicator of the remaining available capacity. However, the inherent process and measurement noises created during battery operation pose significant challenges [...] Read more.
The estimation of the state of charge (SOC) in lithium-ion batteries is a crucial aspect of battery management systems, serving as a key indicator of the remaining available capacity. However, the inherent process and measurement noises created during battery operation pose significant challenges to the accuracy of SOC estimation. These noises can lead to inaccuracies and uncertainties in assessing the battery’s condition, potentially affecting its overall performance and lifespan. To address this problem, we propose a second-order central difference particle filter (SCDPF) method. This method leverages the latest observation data to enhance the accuracy and noise adaptability of SOC estimation. By employing an improved importance density function, we generate optimized particles that better represent the battery’s dynamic behavior. To validate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm, we conducted comprehensive comparisons at both 25 °C and 0 °C under the new European driving cycle condition. The results demonstrate that the SCDPF algorithm exhibits a high accuracy and rapid convergence speed, with a maximum error which never exceeds 1.30%. Additionally, we compared the SOC estimations with both Gaussian and non-Gaussian noise to assess the robustness of our proposed algorithm. Overall, this study presents a novel approach to enhancing SOC estimation in lithium-ion batteries, addressing the challenges posed by the process itself and measurement noises. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Modelling & Simulation Technology of E-Mobility)
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20 pages, 4833 KiB  
Article
MLD Modeling and MPC-Based Energy Management Strategy for Hydrogen Fuel Cell/Supercapacitor Hybrid Electric Vehicles
by Wenguang Luo, Guangyin Zhang, Ke Zou and Cuixia Lin
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040151 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 858
Abstract
Energy management strategies for hydrogen fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs) are a key factor in achieving real-time vehicle energy optimization control, vehicle driving economy, and fuel cell durability. In this paper, for an FCHEV equipped with a fuel cell and supercapacitor, the [...] Read more.
Energy management strategies for hydrogen fuel cell hybrid electric vehicles (FCHEVs) are a key factor in achieving real-time vehicle energy optimization control, vehicle driving economy, and fuel cell durability. In this paper, for an FCHEV equipped with a fuel cell and supercapacitor, the quantitative information, logic rules, and operational constraints are transformed into linear integer inequalities according to its different operating modes, and the Hysdel language is used to establish its mixed logic dynamic model (MLD). Then, the energy management strategy based on model predictive control (MPC) is developed using the MLD model as the prediction model and the equivalent hydrogen consumption and the performance degradation of the fuel cell as the optimization performance indexes. Finally, under the World Light Vehicle Test Cycle, a joint simulation was carried out with Advisor and Simulink to verify the proposed strategy’s superiority by comparing it with the power following control strategy (PFCS) and the compound fuzzy control strategy (CFCS). The results show that the strategy not only ensures real-time FCHEV energy control, but also reduces hydrogen consumption by 10.98% and 1.98% and the number of start/stop times of a fuel cell by six and four, compared to PFCS and CFCS, respectively, which improves the economy of the whole vehicle as well as the durability of the fuel cell. Full article
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15 pages, 3745 KiB  
Article
A K-Additive Fuzzy Logic Approach for Optimizing FCS Sizing and Enhanced User Satisfaction
by Nivine Guler and Zied Ben Hazem
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 150; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040150 - 5 Apr 2024
Viewed by 783
Abstract
Traditional electric vehicle (EV) charging methods can lead to extended waiting times for users, resulting in decreased travel efficiency and user satisfaction, therefore impacting overall convenience. Moreover, a limited number of charging stations can lead to congestion, exacerbating waiting times, while an excessive [...] Read more.
Traditional electric vehicle (EV) charging methods can lead to extended waiting times for users, resulting in decreased travel efficiency and user satisfaction, therefore impacting overall convenience. Moreover, a limited number of charging stations can lead to congestion, exacerbating waiting times, while an excessive number of stations incurs inefficient costs and reduces utilization. While prior research has primarily focused on sizing and allocating charging stations to enhance user performance, there has been comparatively less emphasis on optimizing waiting times and determining the optimal number of charging stations, which is crucial from the EV user’s perspective. This study introduces a K-additive fuzzy logic algorithm to predict the average waiting time and the optimal number of charging stations. The K-additive fuzzy inference system (K-FIS) defines membership functions, expert rules, and a formulation for achieving the optimal solution. The proposed approach integrates uncertain and independent input parameters into weighted control variables, addressing the objective function to optimize EV waiting times and costs represented by the number of charging stations. The scheme utilizes both Type 1 and Type 2 membership functions, offering a detailed comparison. To validate its efficiency, the proposed scheme undergoes a comparative study against related state-of-the-art approaches. Full article
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17 pages, 3089 KiB  
Article
Application of Real-Life On-Road Driving Data for Simulating the Electrification of Long-Haul Transport Trucks
by K. Darcovich, H. Ribberink, E. Soufflet and G. Lauras
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 149; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040149 - 4 Apr 2024
Viewed by 792
Abstract
The worldwide commitment to the electrification of road transport will require a broad overhaul of equipment and infrastructure. Heavy-duty trucks account for over one-third of on-road energy use. Electrified roadways (e-Hwys) are an emerging technology where electric vehicles receive electricity while driving via [...] Read more.
The worldwide commitment to the electrification of road transport will require a broad overhaul of equipment and infrastructure. Heavy-duty trucks account for over one-third of on-road energy use. Electrified roadways (e-Hwys) are an emerging technology where electric vehicles receive electricity while driving via dynamic wireless power transfer (DWPT), which is becoming highly efficient, and can bypass the battery to directly serve the motor. A modeling study was undertaken to compare long-haul trucks on e-Hwys with conventional battery technology requiring off-road recharging to assess the most favorable pathway to electrification. Detailed data taken from on-road driving trips from five diesel transport trucks were obtained for this study. This on-road data provided the simulations with both real-life duty cycles as well as performance targets for electric trucks, enabling an assessment and comparison of their performance on e-Hwys or with fast recharging. Battery-only trucks were found to have lifetimes down to 60% original battery capacity (60% SOH) of up to 9 years with 1600 kWh packs, and were similar to conventional diesel truck performance. On e-Hwys smaller pack sizes in the 500 to 900 kWh capacity range were sufficient for the driving duty, and showed lifetimes upwards of 20 years, comparing favorably to the battery calendar life limit of about 26 years. For a 535 kWh battery pack, an e-Hwy DWPT level of 250 kW was sufficient for a 36 tonne truck to complete all the daily driving as defined by the diesel reference trucks, and reach a battery pack end of life point of 60% SOH. Full article
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17 pages, 1933 KiB  
Article
Influence of Wide-Bandgap Semiconductors in Interleaved Converters Sizing for a Fuel-Cell Power Architecture
by Victor Mercier, Toufik Azib, Adriano Ceschia and Cherif Larouci
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 148; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040148 - 3 Apr 2024
Viewed by 723
Abstract
This study presents a decision-support methodology to design and optimize modular Boost converters in the context of fuel-cell electric vehicles. It involves the utilization of interleaved techniques to reduce fuel-cell current ripple, enhance system efficiency, tackle issues related to weight and size concerns, [...] Read more.
This study presents a decision-support methodology to design and optimize modular Boost converters in the context of fuel-cell electric vehicles. It involves the utilization of interleaved techniques to reduce fuel-cell current ripple, enhance system efficiency, tackle issues related to weight and size concerns, and offer better flexibility and modularity within the converter. The methodology incorporates emerging technologies by wide-bandgap semiconductors, providing better efficiency and higher temperature tolerance. It employs a multiphysical approach, considering electrical, thermal, and efficiency constraints to achieve an optimal power architecture for FCHEVs. Results demonstrate the advantages of wide-bandgap semiconductor utilization in terms of volume reduction and efficiency enhancements for different power levels. Results from one of the considered power levels highlight the feasibility of certain architectures through the utilization of WBG devices. These architectures reveal improvements in both efficiency and volume reduction as a result of incorporating WBG devices. Additionally, the analysis presents a comparison of manufacturing cost between standard and wide-bandgap semiconductors to demonstrate the market penetration potential. Full article
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20 pages, 9302 KiB  
Article
Research on Thermal Runaway Characteristics of High-Capacity Lithium Iron Phosphate Batteries for Electric Vehicles
by Qing Zhu, Kunfeng Liang and Xun Zhou
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 147; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040147 - 3 Apr 2024
Viewed by 975
Abstract
With the rapid development of the electric vehicle industry, the widespread utilization of lithium-ion batteries has made it imperative to address their safety issues. This paper focuses on the thermal safety concerns associated with lithium-ion batteries during usage by specifically investigating high-capacity lithium [...] Read more.
With the rapid development of the electric vehicle industry, the widespread utilization of lithium-ion batteries has made it imperative to address their safety issues. This paper focuses on the thermal safety concerns associated with lithium-ion batteries during usage by specifically investigating high-capacity lithium iron phosphate batteries. To this end, thermal runaway (TR) experiments were conducted to investigate the temperature characteristics on the battery surface during TR, as well as the changes in battery mass and expansion rate before and after TR. Meanwhile, by constructing a TR simulation model tailored to lithium iron phosphate batteries, an analysis was performed to explore the variations in internal material content, the proportion of heat generation from each exothermic reaction, and the influence of the heat transfer coefficient during the TR process. The results indicate that as the heating power increases, the response time of lithium-ion batteries to TR advances. Furthermore, the heat released from the negative electrode–electrolyte reaction emerges as the primary heat source throughout the entire TR process, contributing to 63.1% of the total heat generation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Vehicle)
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13 pages, 1699 KiB  
Article
Game-Based Vehicle Strategy Equalization Algorithm for Unsignalized Intersections
by Guangbing Xiao, Kang Liu, Ning Sun and Yong Zhang
World Electr. Veh. J. 2024, 15(4), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj15040146 - 2 Apr 2024
Viewed by 678
Abstract
To address the coordination issue of connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs) at unsignalized intersections, this paper proposes a game-theory-based distributed strategy equalization algorithm. To begin, the vehicles present in the scene are conceptualized as participants in a game theory. The decision-payoff function takes into [...] Read more.
To address the coordination issue of connected autonomous vehicles (CAVs) at unsignalized intersections, this paper proposes a game-theory-based distributed strategy equalization algorithm. To begin, the vehicles present in the scene are conceptualized as participants in a game theory. The decision-payoff function takes into account three critical performance indicators: driving safety, driving comfort, and driving efficiency. Then, virtual logic lines connect the front and rear extremities of vehicles with odd and even numbers at the intersection to create a virtual logic ring. By dividing the virtual logic ring into numerous overlapping game groups, CAVs can engage in negotiation and interaction within their respective game groups. This enables the revision of action strategies and facilitates interaction between the overlapping game groups. A further application of the genetic algorithm (GA) is the search for the optimal set of strategies in constrained multi-objective optimization problems. The proposed decision algorithm is ultimately assessed and certified through a collaborative simulation utilizing Python and SUMO. In comparison to the first-come, first-served algorithm and the cooperative driving model based on cooperative games, the average passing delay is decreased by 40.7% and 6.17%, respectively, resulting in an overall improvement in the traffic system’s passing efficiency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Vehicle Safe Motion in Mixed Vehicle Technologies Environment)
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