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Viruses, Volume 10, Issue 9 (September 2018)

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Open AccessArticle Robust Innate Immunity of Young Rabbits Mediates Resistance to Rabbit Hemorrhagic Disease Caused by Lagovirus Europaeus GI.1 But Not GI.2
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090512
Received: 16 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
The rabbit caliciviruses Lagovirus europaeus GI.1 and GI.2 both cause acute necrotizing hepatitis in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Whilst GI.2 is highly virulent in both young and adult rabbits, rabbits younger than eight weeks of age are highly resistant to disease
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The rabbit caliciviruses Lagovirus europaeus GI.1 and GI.2 both cause acute necrotizing hepatitis in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Whilst GI.2 is highly virulent in both young and adult rabbits, rabbits younger than eight weeks of age are highly resistant to disease caused by GI.1, although they are still permissive to infection and viral replication. To investigate the underlying mechanism(s) of this age related resistance to GI.1, we compared liver transcriptomes of young rabbits infected with GI.1 to those of adult rabbits infected with GI.1 and young rabbits infected with GI.2. Our data suggest that kittens have constitutively heightened innate immune responses compared to adult rabbits, particularly associated with increased expression of major histocompatibility class II molecules and activity of natural killer cells, macrophages, and cholangiocytes. This enables them to respond more rapidly to GI.1 infection than adult rabbits and thus limit virus-induced pathology. In contrast, these responses were not fully developed during GI.2 infection. We speculate that the observed downregulation of multiple genes associated with innate immunity in kittens during GI.2 infection may be due to virally-mediated immunomodulation, permitting fatal disease to develop. Our study provides insight into the fundamental host–pathogen interactions responsible for the differences in age-related susceptibility, which likely plays a critical role in defining the success of GI.2 in outcompeting GI.1 in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessReview HSV-Induced Systemic Inflammation as an Animal Model for Behçet’s Disease and Therapeutic Applications
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 511; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090511
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 17 September 2018 / Accepted: 18 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Behçet’s disease (BD) affects multiple organs. It is mainly characterized by recurrent oral, skin, and genital aphthous ulcers, and eye involvement. Successful management of BD is increasing, although its etiology remains unclear. A number of etiologies have been proposed, including environmental, genetic, viral,
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Behçet’s disease (BD) affects multiple organs. It is mainly characterized by recurrent oral, skin, and genital aphthous ulcers, and eye involvement. Successful management of BD is increasing, although its etiology remains unclear. A number of etiologies have been proposed, including environmental, genetic, viral, and immunological factors. To understand its complex etiology and improve its management, animal models of BD have been used to enable more effective therapeutic applications with increased clinical significance. An herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1-induced BD mouse model has shown disease characteristics similar to those seen in BD patients. An HSV-induced BD animal model has been used to test various therapeutic modalities. The applied modalities are several materials that are derived from natural products, conventional therapeutics, and possible biologics. In this review, we provided how they regulate inflammation in an HSV-induced BD model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances of Natural Products in HSV Research)
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Open AccessReview Baculovirus as a Tool for Gene Delivery and Gene Therapy
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090510
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 14 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 19 September 2018
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Abstract
Based on its ability to express high levels of protein, baculovirus has been widely used for recombinant protein production in insect cells for more than thirty years with continued technical improvements. In addition, baculovirus has been successfully applied for foreign gene delivery into
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Based on its ability to express high levels of protein, baculovirus has been widely used for recombinant protein production in insect cells for more than thirty years with continued technical improvements. In addition, baculovirus has been successfully applied for foreign gene delivery into mammalian cells without any viral replication. However, several CpG motifs are present throughout baculoviral DNA and induce an antiviral response in mammalian cells, resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I interferon through a Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent or -independent signaling pathway, and ultimately limiting the efficiency of transgene expression. On the other hand, by taking advantage of this strong adjuvant activity, recombinant baculoviruses encoding neutralization epitopes can elicit protective immunity in mice. Moreover, immunodeficient cells, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV)- or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected cells, are more susceptible to baculovirus infection than normal cells and are selectively eliminated by the apoptosis-inducible recombinant baculovirus. Here, we summarize the application of baculovirus as a gene expression vector and the mechanism of the host innate immune response induced by baculovirus in mammalian cells. We also discuss the future prospects of baculovirus vectors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Baculovirus Advances and Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Estimating Vaccine-Driven Selection in Seasonal Influenza
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 509; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090509
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Vaccination could be an evolutionary pressure on seasonal influenza if vaccines reduce the transmission rates of some (“targeted”) strains more than others. In theory, more vaccinated populations should have a lower prevalence of targeted strains compared to less vaccinated populations. We tested for
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Vaccination could be an evolutionary pressure on seasonal influenza if vaccines reduce the transmission rates of some (“targeted”) strains more than others. In theory, more vaccinated populations should have a lower prevalence of targeted strains compared to less vaccinated populations. We tested for vaccine-induced selection in influenza by comparing strain frequencies between more and less vaccinated human populations. We defined strains in three ways: first as influenza types and subtypes, next as lineages of type B, and finally as clades of influenza A/H3N2. We detected spatial differences partially consistent with vaccine use in the frequencies of subtypes and types and between the lineages of influenza B, suggesting that vaccines do not select strongly among all these phylogenetic groups at regional scales. We did detect a significantly greater frequency of an H3N2 clade with known vaccine escape mutations in more vaccinated countries during the 2014–2015 season, which is consistent with vaccine-driven selection within the H3N2 subtype. Overall, we find more support for vaccine-driven selection when large differences in vaccine effectiveness suggest a strong effect size. Variation in surveillance practices across countries could obscure signals of selection, especially when strain-specific differences in vaccine effectiveness are small. Further examination of the influenza vaccine’s evolutionary effects would benefit from improvements in epidemiological surveillance and reporting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue What’s New with Flu?)
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Open AccessCommunication A Paradigmatic Interplay between Human Cytomegalovirus and Host Immune System: Possible Involvement of Viral Antigen-Driven CD8+ T Cell Responses in Systemic Sclerosis
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 508; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090508
Received: 30 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a highly prevalent opportunistic agent in the world population, which persists as a latent virus after a primary infection. Besides the well-established role of this agent causing severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals, more recently, HCMV has been evoked as
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Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a highly prevalent opportunistic agent in the world population, which persists as a latent virus after a primary infection. Besides the well-established role of this agent causing severe diseases in immunocompromised individuals, more recently, HCMV has been evoked as a possible factor contributing to the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases such as systemic sclerosis (SSc). The interplay between HCMV and immune surveillance is supposed to become unbalanced in SSc patients with expanded anti-HCMV immune responses, which are likely involved in the exacerbation of inflammatory processes. In this study, blood samples from a cohort of SSc patients vs. healthy subjects were tested for anti-HCMV immune responses (IgM, IgG antibodies, and T cells to peptide pools spanning the most immunogenic HCMV proteins). Statistically significant increase of HCMV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in SSc patients vs. healthy subjects was observed. Moreover, significantly greater HCMV-specific CD8+ T cell responses were found in SSc patients with a longer disease duration and those with higher modified Rodnan skin scores. Given the known importance of T cells in the development of SSc and that this virus may contribute to chronic inflammatory diseases, these data support a relevant role of HCMV-specific CD8+ T cell responses in SSc pathogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Caerin1.1 Suppresses the Growth of Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus In Vitro via Direct Binding to the Virus
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 507; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090507
Received: 13 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has re-emerged in recent years and has already caused huge economic losses to the porcine industry all over the world. Therefore, it is urgent for us to find out efficient ways to prevent and control this disease. In this
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Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has re-emerged in recent years and has already caused huge economic losses to the porcine industry all over the world. Therefore, it is urgent for us to find out efficient ways to prevent and control this disease. In this study, the antiviral activity of a cationic amphibian antimicrobial peptide Caerin1.1 against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was evaluated by an in vitro system using Vero cells. We found that even at a very low concentration, Caerin1.1 has the ability to destroy the integrity of the virus particles to block the release of the viruses, resulting in a considerable decrease in PEDV infections. In addition, Caerin1.1 showed powerful antiviral activity without interfering with the binding progress between PEDV and the receptor of the cells, therefore, it could be used as a potential antiviral drug or as a microbicide compound for prevention and control of PEDV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessReview Mimiviridae: An Expanding Family of Highly Diverse Large dsDNA Viruses Infecting a Wide Phylogenetic Range of Aquatic Eukaryotes
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 506; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090506
Received: 14 August 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Since 1998, when Jim van Etten’s team initiated its characterization, Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) had been the largest known DNA virus, both in terms of particle size and genome complexity. In 2003, the Acanthamoeba-infecting Mimivirus unexpectedly superseded PBCV-1, opening the
[...] Read more.
Since 1998, when Jim van Etten’s team initiated its characterization, Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus 1 (PBCV-1) had been the largest known DNA virus, both in terms of particle size and genome complexity. In 2003, the Acanthamoeba-infecting Mimivirus unexpectedly superseded PBCV-1, opening the era of giant viruses, i.e., with virions large enough to be visible by light microscopy and genomes encoding more proteins than many bacteria. During the following 15 years, the isolation of many Mimivirus relatives has made Mimiviridae one of the largest and most diverse families of eukaryotic viruses, most of which have been isolated from aquatic environments. Metagenomic studies of various ecosystems (including soils) suggest that many more remain to be isolated. As Mimiviridae members are found to infect an increasing range of phytoplankton species, their taxonomic position compared to the traditional Phycodnaviridae (i.e., etymologically “algal viruses”) became a source of confusion in the literature. Following a quick historical review of the key discoveries that established the Mimiviridae family, we describe its current taxonomic structure and propose a set of operational criteria to help in the classification of future isolates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Virus)
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Open AccessReview Interferon-Mediated Response to Human Metapneumovirus Infection
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 505; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090505
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is one of the leading causes of respiratory diseases in infants and children worldwide. Although this pathogen infects mainly young children, elderly and immunocompromised people can be also seriously affected. To date, there is no commercial vaccine available against it.
[...] Read more.
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is one of the leading causes of respiratory diseases in infants and children worldwide. Although this pathogen infects mainly young children, elderly and immunocompromised people can be also seriously affected. To date, there is no commercial vaccine available against it. Upon HMPV infection, the host innate arm of defense produces interferons (IFNs), which are critical for limiting HMPV replication. In this review, we offer an updated landscape of the HMPV mediated-IFN response in different models as well as some of the defense tactics employed by the virus to circumvent IFN response. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytokine Responses in Viral Infections)
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Open AccessArticle The NS Segment of H1N1pdm09 Enhances H5N1 Pathogenicity in a Mouse Model of Influenza Virus Infections
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 504; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090504
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
In 2009, the co-circulation of H5N1 and H1N1pdm09 raised concerns that a reassortment event may lead to highly pathogenic influenza strains. H1N1pdm09 and H5N1 are able to infect the same target cells of the lower respiratory tract. To investigate the capacity of the
[...] Read more.
In 2009, the co-circulation of H5N1 and H1N1pdm09 raised concerns that a reassortment event may lead to highly pathogenic influenza strains. H1N1pdm09 and H5N1 are able to infect the same target cells of the lower respiratory tract. To investigate the capacity of the emergence of reassortant viruses, we characterized viruses obtained from the co-infection of cells with H5N1 (A/Turkey/13/2006) and H1N1pdm09 (A/Lyon/969/2009 H1N1). In our analysis, all the screened reassortants possessed the PB2, HA, and NP segments from H5N1 and acquired one or two of the H1N1pdm09 segments. Moreover, the in vivo infections showed that the acquisition of the NS segment from H1N1pdm09 increased the virulence of H5N1 in mice. We conclude, therefore, that reassortment can occur between these two viruses, even if this process has never been detected in nature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessReview Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid RNA-Templated Transcription: Factors and Regulation
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 503; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090503
Received: 27 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 15 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
Viroids are circular noncoding RNAs that infect plants. Without encoding any protein, these noncoding RNAs contain the necessary genetic information for propagation in hosts. Nuclear-replicating viroids employ DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (Pol II) for replication, a process that makes a DNA-dependent enzyme recognize
[...] Read more.
Viroids are circular noncoding RNAs that infect plants. Without encoding any protein, these noncoding RNAs contain the necessary genetic information for propagation in hosts. Nuclear-replicating viroids employ DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (Pol II) for replication, a process that makes a DNA-dependent enzyme recognize RNA templates. Recently, a splicing variant of transcription factor IIIA (TFIIIA-7ZF) was identified as essential for Pol II to replicate potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd). The expression of TFIIIA-7ZF, particularly the splicing event, is regulated by a ribosomal protein (RPL5). PSTVd modulates its expression through a direct interaction with RPL5 resulting in optimized expression of TFIIIA-7ZF. This review summarizes the recent discoveries of host factors and regulatory mechanisms underlying PSTVd-templated transcription processes and raises new questions that may help future exploration in this direction. In addition, it briefly compares the machinery and the regulatory mechanism for PSTVd with the replication/transcription system of human hepatitis delta virus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viroid-2018: International Conference on Viroids and Viroid-Like RNAs)
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Open AccessReview Acute Phase Protein Levels as An Auxiliary Tool in Diagnosing Viral Diseases in Ruminants—A Review
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090502
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 9 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
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Abstract
We examined acute phase protein (APP) concentrations in viral infections of dairy ruminants and assessed the potential role of characteristic patterns of APP changes in auxiliary diagnosing viral diseases. All viruses reviewed are common causes of farm animal diseases. APPs are among the
[...] Read more.
We examined acute phase protein (APP) concentrations in viral infections of dairy ruminants and assessed the potential role of characteristic patterns of APP changes in auxiliary diagnosing viral diseases. All viruses reviewed are common causes of farm animal diseases. APPs are among the first agents of immunity, and their concentrations could be diagnostically relevant. In the most common ruminant viral diseases, elevated serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) levels in blood serum have been observed. However, since these proteins are the main APPs in many viral infections, it is impossible to use their levels for diagnosing particular infections. Decreased Cp and albumin expression could help differentiate the bluetongue virus infection from other diseases. Lastly, analysis of SAA levels in blood serum and milk could be helpful in diagnosing small ruminant lentivirus infection. While promising, APP levels can only be considered as an auxiliary tool in diagnosing viral diseases in ruminants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Open AccessReview The Surveillance of Chikungunya Virus in a Temperate Climate: Challenges and Possible Solutions from the Experience of Lazio Region, Italy
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090501
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
CHIKV has become an emerging public health concern in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere as a consequenceof the expansion of the endemic areas of its vectors (mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus). In 2017, a new outbreak of CHIKV was
[...] Read more.
CHIKV has become an emerging public health concern in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere as a consequenceof the expansion of the endemic areas of its vectors (mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus). In 2017, a new outbreak of CHIKV was detected in Italy with three clusters of autochthonous transmission in the Lazio Region (central Italy), in the cities of Anzio, Rome, and Latina and a secondary cluster in the Calabria Region (south Italy). Given the climate characteristics of Italy, sporadic outbreaks mostly driven by imported cases followed by autochthonous transmission could occur during the summer season. This highlights the importance of a well-designed surveillance system, which should promptly identify autochthonous transmission. The use of a surveillance system integrating different surveillance tools, including entomological surveillance in a one health approach, together with education of the health care professionals should facilitate the detection, response, and control of arboviruses spreading. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Large-Scale Screening of HCMV-Seropositive Blood Donors Indicates that HCMV Effectively Escapes from Antibodies by Cell-Associated Spread
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 500; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090500
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Immunoglobulins are only moderately effective for the treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, possibly due to ineffectiveness against cell-associated virus spread. To overcome this limitation, we aimed to identify individuals with exceptional antibodies in their plasma that can efficiently block the cell-associated spread
[...] Read more.
Immunoglobulins are only moderately effective for the treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections, possibly due to ineffectiveness against cell-associated virus spread. To overcome this limitation, we aimed to identify individuals with exceptional antibodies in their plasma that can efficiently block the cell-associated spread of HCMV. A Gaussia luciferase-secreting mutant of the cell-associated HCMV strain Merlin was generated, and luciferase activity evaluated as a readout for the extent of cell-associated focal spread. This reporter virus-based assay was then applied to screen plasma samples from 8400 HCMV-seropositive individuals for their inhibitory effect, including direct-acting antiviral drugs as positive controls. None of the plasmas reduced virus spread to the level of these controls. Even the top-scoring samples that partially reduced luciferase activity in the screening assay failed to inhibit focal growth when reevaluated with a more accurate, immunofluorescence-based assay. Selected sera with high neutralizing capacity against free viruses were analyzed separately, and none of them prevented the focal spread of three recent clinical HCMV isolates nor reduced the number of particles transmitted, as demonstrated with a fluorescent Merlin mutant. We concluded that donors with cell-to-cell-spread-inhibiting plasma are nonexistent or extremely rare, emphasizing cell-associated spread as a highly efficient immune escape mechanism of HCMV. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Proteogenomic Identification of a Novel Protein-Encoding Gene in Bovine Herpesvirus 1 That Is Expressed during Productive Infection
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 499; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090499
Received: 19 July 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is one of several microbes that contributes to the development of the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and can also induce abortions in cattle. As other alpha-herpesvirinae subfamily members, BoHV-1 efficiently replicates in many cell types and subsequently establishes
[...] Read more.
Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1) is one of several microbes that contributes to the development of the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and can also induce abortions in cattle. As other alpha-herpesvirinae subfamily members, BoHV-1 efficiently replicates in many cell types and subsequently establishes a life-long latent infection in sensory neurons. BoHV-1 encodes more than 70 proteins that are expressed in a well-defined manner during productive infection. However, in silico open reading frame (ORF) prediction of the BoHV-1 genome suggests that the virus may encode more than one hundred proteins. In this study we used mass spectrometry followed by proteogenomic mapping to reveal the existence of 92 peptides that map to previously un-annotated regions of the viral genome. Twenty-one of the newly termed “intergenic peptides” were predicted to have a viable ORF around them. Twelve of these produced an mRNA transcript as demonstrated by strand-specific RT-PCR. We further characterized the 5′ and 3′ termini of one mRNA transcript, ORF-A, and detected a 55 kDa protein produced during active infection using a custom-synthesized antibody. We conclude that the coding potential of BoHV-1 is underestimated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessReview Heartland Virus Epidemiology, Vector Association, and Disease Potential
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 498; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090498
Received: 9 August 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
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Abstract
First identified in two Missouri farmers exhibiting low white-blood-cell and platelet counts in 2009, Heartland virus (HRTV) is genetically closely related to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), a tick-borne phlebovirus producing similar symptoms in China, Korea, and Japan. Field isolations of
[...] Read more.
First identified in two Missouri farmers exhibiting low white-blood-cell and platelet counts in 2009, Heartland virus (HRTV) is genetically closely related to severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome virus (SFTSV), a tick-borne phlebovirus producing similar symptoms in China, Korea, and Japan. Field isolations of HRTV from several life stages of unfed, host-seeking Amblyomma americanum, the lone star tick, implicated it as a putative vector capable of transstadial transmission. Laboratory vector competence assessments confirmed transstadial transmission of HRTV, demonstrated vertical infection, and showed co-feeding infection between A. americanum. A vertical infection rate of 33% from adult females to larvae in the laboratory was observed, while only one of 386 pools of molted nymphs (1930) reared from co-feeding larvae was positive for HRTV (maximum-likelihood estimate of infection rate = 0.52/1000). Over 35 human HRTV cases, all within the distribution range of A. americanum, have been documented. Serological testing of wildlife in areas near the index human cases, as well as in widely separated regions of the eastern United States where A. americanum occur, indicated many potential hosts such as raccoons and white-tailed deer. Attempts, however, to experimentally infect mice, rabbits, hamsters, chickens, raccoons, goats, and deer failed to produce detectable viremia. Immune-compromised mice and hamsters are the only susceptible models. Vertical infection augmented by co-feeding transmission could play a role in maintaining the virus in nature. A more complete assessment of the natural transmission cycle of HRTV coupled with serosurveys and enhanced HRTV disease surveillance are needed to better understand transmission dynamics and human health risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biology and Treatment of Tick-Borne Viral Pathogens)
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Open AccessReview Zoonotic Potential of Influenza A Viruses: A Comprehensive Overview
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090497
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) possess a great zoonotic potential as they are able to infect different avian and mammalian animal hosts, from which they can be transmitted to humans. This is based on the ability of IAV to gradually change their genome by
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Influenza A viruses (IAVs) possess a great zoonotic potential as they are able to infect different avian and mammalian animal hosts, from which they can be transmitted to humans. This is based on the ability of IAV to gradually change their genome by mutation or even reassemble their genome segments during co-infection of the host cell with different IAV strains, resulting in a high genetic diversity. Variants of circulating or newly emerging IAVs continue to trigger global health threats annually for both humans and animals. Here, we provide an introduction on IAVs, highlighting the mechanisms of viral evolution, the host spectrum, and the animal/human interface. Pathogenicity determinants of IAVs in mammals, with special emphasis on newly emerging IAVs with pandemic potential, are discussed. Finally, an overview is provided on various approaches for the prevention of human IAV infections. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Degenerate PCR Primers to Reveal the Diversity of Giant Viruses in Coastal Waters
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090496
Received: 11 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
“Megaviridae” is a proposed family of giant viruses infecting unicellular eukaryotes. These viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and have impact on marine microbial community structure and dynamics through their lytic infection cycle. However, their diversity and biogeography have been poorly characterized due
[...] Read more.
“Megaviridae” is a proposed family of giant viruses infecting unicellular eukaryotes. These viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and have impact on marine microbial community structure and dynamics through their lytic infection cycle. However, their diversity and biogeography have been poorly characterized due to the scarce detection of Megaviridae sequences in metagenomes, as well as the limitation of reference sequences used to design specific primers for this viral group. Here, we propose a set of 82 degenerated primers (referred to as MEGAPRIMER), targeting DNA polymerase genes (polBs) of Megaviridae. MEGAPRIMER was designed based on 921 Megaviridae polBs from sequenced genomes and metagenomes. By applying this primer set to environmental DNA meta-barcoding of a coastal seawater sample, we report 5595 non-singleton operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Megaviridae at 97% nucleotide sequence identity. The majority of the OTUs were found to form diverse clades, which were phylogenetically distantly related to known viruses such as Mimivirus. The Megaviridae OTUs detected in this study outnumber the giant virus OTUs identified in previous individual studies by more than an order of magnitude. Hence, MEGAPRIMER represents a useful tool to study the diversity of Megaviridae at the population level in natural environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses of Microbes V: Biodiversity and Future Applications)
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Open AccessArticle Strategies to Encapsulate the Staphylococcus aureus Bacteriophage phiIPLA-RODI
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090495
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
The antimicrobial properties of bacteriophages make them suitable food biopreservatives. However, such applications require the development of strategies that ensure stability of the phage particles during food processing. In this study, we assess the protective effect of encapsulation of the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage
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The antimicrobial properties of bacteriophages make them suitable food biopreservatives. However, such applications require the development of strategies that ensure stability of the phage particles during food processing. In this study, we assess the protective effect of encapsulation of the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage phiIPLA-RODI in three kinds of nanovesicles (niosomes, liposomes, and transfersomes). All these systems allowed the successful encapsulation of phage phiIPLA-RODI with an efficiency ranged between 62% and 98%, regardless of the concentration of components (like phospholipids and surfactants) used for vesicle formation. Only niosomes containing 30 mg/mL of surfactants exhibited a slightly lower percentage of encapsulation. Regarding particle size distribution, the values determined for niosomes, liposomes, and transfersomes were 0.82 ± 0.09 µm, 1.66 ± 0.21 µm, and 0.55 ± 0.06 µm, respectively. Importantly, bacteriophage infectivity was maintained during storage for 6 months at 4 °C for all three types of nanovesicles, with the exception of liposomes containing a low concentration of components. In addition, we observed that niosomes partially protected the phage particles from low pH. Thus, while free phiIPLA-RODI was not detectable after 60 min of incubation at pH 4.5, titer of phage encapsulated in niosomes decreased only 2 log units. Overall, our results show that encapsulation represents an appropriate procedure to improve stability and, consequently, antimicrobial efficacy of phages for application in the food processing industry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnological Applications of Phage and Phage-Derived Proteins)
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Open AccessArticle The Natural Large Genomic Deletion Is Unrelated to the Increased Virulence of the Novel Genotype Fowl Adenovirus 4 Recently Emerged in China
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 494; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090494
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
Since 2015, severe hydropericardium-hepatitis syndrome (HHS), caused by a highly pathogenic fowl adenovirus 4 (FAdV-4), emerged in China. In our previous study, the FAdV-4 has been identified as a novel genotype with a unique 1966-bp nucleotide deletion (1966Del) between open reading frame 42
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Since 2015, severe hydropericardium-hepatitis syndrome (HHS), caused by a highly pathogenic fowl adenovirus 4 (FAdV-4), emerged in China. In our previous study, the FAdV-4 has been identified as a novel genotype with a unique 1966-bp nucleotide deletion (1966Del) between open reading frame 42 and 43. In this study, the natural 1966Del was frequently identified among 17 clinical isolates and other reported Chinese clinical strains. To investigate the relationship between 1966Del and the increased virulence of the novel FAdV-4, a CRISPR/Cas9 operating platform for FAdV-4 was developed for the first time in this study. Based on this platform, a Re1966 strain was rescued, inserted the relative 1966Del sequence of a nonpathogenic strain KR5. In the pathogenicity study, the Re1966 strain retained high virulence for specific-pathogen-free chickens, similar to the parental wild-type HLJFAd15, although the survival time of chickens infected with Re1966 was much longer. Therefore, the natural 1966Del was identified as a non-essential site for the increased virulence of the emerged novel FAdV-4. Although further research on the virulence-determining region or point within the genome of the novel FAdV-4 is needed, the CRISPR/Cas9 operating platform for the novel FAdV-4 was developed and successfully applied to edit the genomic DNA for the first time, and it provides a novel powerful tool for both basic virology studies and vaccine vector development of FAdVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Identification of Novel Subcellular Localization and Trafficking of HIV-1 Nef Variants from Reference Strains G (F1.93.HH8793) and H (BE.93.VI997)
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090493
Received: 20 July 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Nef, plays an essential role in disease progression and pathogenesis via hijacking the host cellular membrane-trafficking machinery. Interestingly, HIV-1 group-M subtypes display differences in the rate of disease progression. However, few reports investigated how
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The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Nef, plays an essential role in disease progression and pathogenesis via hijacking the host cellular membrane-trafficking machinery. Interestingly, HIV-1 group-M subtypes display differences in the rate of disease progression. However, few reports investigated how the cellular behaviors and activities of Nef isolates from reference strains may differ between HIV-1 group-M subtypes. Here, we characterize how differing cellular distributions of Nef proteins across group-M subtypes may impact protein function using immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometric analysis. We demonstrate that Nef variants isolated from HIV-1 group-M subtypes display differences in expression, with low expressing Nef proteins from reference strains of subtypes G (F1.93.HH8793) and H (BE.93.VI997) also displaying decreased functionality. Additionally, we demonstrate variations in the subcellular distribution and localization of these Nef proteins. Nef from subtype G (F1.93.HH8793) and H (BE.93.VI997) reference strains also failed to colocalize with the trans-Golgi network, and were not differentially localized to cellular markers of multivesicular bodies or lysosomes. Strikingly, our results demonstrate that HIV-1 Nef proteins from reference strains G (F1.93.HH8793) and H (BE.93.VI997) highly colocalize with labeled mitochondrial compartments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue CSV2018: The 2nd symposium of the Canadian Society for Virology (CSV))
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Open AccessReview Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus: From Genome to Disease Management
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 492; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090492
Received: 24 July 2018 / Revised: 22 August 2018 / Accepted: 28 August 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) is a serious maize pathogen, epidemic worldwide, and one of the most common virus diseases for monocotyledonous plants, causing up to 70% loss in corn yield globally since 1960. MDMV belongs to the genus Potyvirus (Potyviridae)
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Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) is a serious maize pathogen, epidemic worldwide, and one of the most common virus diseases for monocotyledonous plants, causing up to 70% loss in corn yield globally since 1960. MDMV belongs to the genus Potyvirus (Potyviridae) and was first identified in 1964 in Illinois in corn and Johnsongrass. MDMV is a single stranded positive sense RNA virus and is transmitted in a non-persistent manner by several aphid species. MDMV is amongst the most important virus diseases in maize worldwide. This review will discuss its genome, transmission, symptomatology, diagnosis and management. Particular emphasis will be given to the current state of knowledge on the diagnosis and control of MDMV, due to its importance in reducing the impact of maize dwarf mosaic disease, to produce an enhanced quality and quantity of maize. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Viruses of Plants, Fungi and Protozoa)
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Open AccessReview External Quality Assessment (EQA) for Molecular Diagnostics of Zika Virus: Experiences from an International EQA Programme, 2016–2018
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 491; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090491
Received: 27 July 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
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Abstract
Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics (QCMD), an international provider for External Quality Assessment (EQA) programmes, has introduced a programme for molecular diagnostics of Zika virus (ZIKV) in 2016, which has been continuously offered to interested laboratories since that time. The EQA schemes provided
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Quality Control for Molecular Diagnostics (QCMD), an international provider for External Quality Assessment (EQA) programmes, has introduced a programme for molecular diagnostics of Zika virus (ZIKV) in 2016, which has been continuously offered to interested laboratories since that time. The EQA schemes provided from 2016 to 2018 revealed that 86.7% (92/106), 82.4% (89/108), and 88.2% (90/102) of the participating laboratories reported correct results for all samples, respectively in 2016, 2017, and 2018. The review of results indicated a need for improvement concerning analytical sensitivity and specificity of the test methods. Comparison with the outcomes of other EQA initiatives briefly summarized here show that continuous quality assurance is important to improve laboratory performance and to increase preparedness with reliable diagnostic assays for effective patient management, infection and outbreak control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances on Zika Virus Research)
Open AccessReview Algal Viruses: The (Atomic) Shape of Things to Come
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090490
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
Visualization of algal viruses has been paramount to their study and understanding. The direct observation of the morphological dynamics of infection is a highly desired capability and the focus of instrument development across a variety of microscopy technologies. However, the high temporal (ms)
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Visualization of algal viruses has been paramount to their study and understanding. The direct observation of the morphological dynamics of infection is a highly desired capability and the focus of instrument development across a variety of microscopy technologies. However, the high temporal (ms) and spatial resolution (nm) required, combined with the need to operate in physiologically relevant conditions presents a significant challenge. Here we present a short history of virus structure study and its relation to algal viruses and highlight current work, concentrating on electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, towards the direct observation of individual algae–virus interactions. Finally, we make predictions towards future algal virus study direction with particular focus on the exciting opportunities offered by modern high-speed atomic force microscopy methods and instrumentation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Virus)
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Open AccessArticle Newcastle Disease Virus V Protein Promotes Viral Replication in HeLa Cells through the Activation of MEK/ERK Signaling
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 489; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090489
Received: 2 August 2018 / Revised: 25 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
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Abstract
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can infect a wide range of domestic and wild bird species. The non-structural V protein of NDV plays an important role in antagonizing innate host defenses to facilitate viral replication. However, there is a lack of knowledge related to
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Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can infect a wide range of domestic and wild bird species. The non-structural V protein of NDV plays an important role in antagonizing innate host defenses to facilitate viral replication. However, there is a lack of knowledge related to the mechanisms through which the V protein regulates viral replication. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway in the host is involved in a variety of functions and is activated by several stimuli, including viral replication. In this study, we show that both the lentogenic strain, La Sota, and the velogenic strain, F48E9, of NDV activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/ERK signaling pathway. The pharmacological inhibition of ERK1/2 phosphorylation using the highly selective inhibitors U0126 and SCH772984 resulted in the reduced levels of NDV RNA in cells and virus titers in the cell supernatant, which established an important role for the MEK/ERK signaling pathway in NDV replication. Moreover, the overexpression of the V protein in HeLa cells increased the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and induced the transcriptional changes in the genes downstream of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the V protein is involved in the ERK signaling pathway-mediated promotion of NDV replication and thus, can be investigated as a potential antiviral target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Open AccessArticle Functional Scanning of Apple Geminivirus Proteins as Symptom Determinants and Suppressors of Posttranscriptional Gene Silencing
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 488; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090488
Received: 30 July 2018 / Revised: 26 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
Apple geminivirus (AGV) is a recently identified geminivirus which is isolated from the apple tree in China. We carried out functional scanning of apple geminivirus proteins as symptom determinants and suppressors of posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Our results indicated that AGV V2 is
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Apple geminivirus (AGV) is a recently identified geminivirus which is isolated from the apple tree in China. We carried out functional scanning of apple geminivirus proteins as symptom determinants and suppressors of posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Our results indicated that AGV V2 is an important virulence factor localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm that suppresses PTGS and induces severe symptoms of crinkling and necrosis. AGV C1 is also a virulence determinant which elicits systemic necrosis when expressed from a PVX-based vector. The AGV C4 is targeted to cytoplasm, plasma membrane, nucleus, and chloroplasts. The inoculation of PVX-C4 on N. benthamiana induced severe upward leaf curling, which implied that AGV C4 also functions as a symptom determinant, and mutation analyses suggested that the acylated residues on Gly2 and Cys8 play important roles in its subcellular localization and symptom development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Virus Interactions)
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Open AccessReview Viruses of Eukaryotic Algae: Diversity, Methods for Detection, and Future Directions
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 487; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090487
Received: 7 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
The scope for ecological studies of eukaryotic algal viruses has greatly improved with the development of molecular and bioinformatic approaches that do not require algal cultures. Here, we review the history and perceived future opportunities for research on eukaryotic algal viruses. We begin
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The scope for ecological studies of eukaryotic algal viruses has greatly improved with the development of molecular and bioinformatic approaches that do not require algal cultures. Here, we review the history and perceived future opportunities for research on eukaryotic algal viruses. We begin with a summary of the 65 eukaryotic algal viruses that are presently in culture collections, with emphasis on shared evolutionary traits (e.g., conserved core genes) of each known viral type. We then describe how core genes have been used to enable molecular detection of viruses in the environment, ranging from PCR-based amplification to community scale “-omics” approaches. Special attention is given to recent studies that have employed network-analyses of -omics data to predict virus-host relationships, from which a general bioinformatics pipeline is described for this type of approach. Finally, we conclude with acknowledgement of how the field of aquatic virology is adapting to these advances, and highlight the need to properly characterize new virus-host systems that may be isolated using preliminary molecular surveys. Researchers can approach this work using lessons learned from the Chlorella virus system, which is not only the best characterized algal-virus system, but is also responsible for much of the foundation in the field of aquatic virology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Virus)
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Open AccessArticle Detection and Characterization of Distinct Alphacoronaviruses in Five Different Bat Species in Denmark
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 486; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090486
Received: 3 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 10 September 2018 / Published: 11 September 2018
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Abstract
Bat populations harbour a multitude of viruses; some of these are pathogenic or potentially pathogenic in other animals or humans. Therefore, it is important to monitor the populations and characterize these viruses. In this study, the presence of coronaviruses (CoVs) in different species
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Bat populations harbour a multitude of viruses; some of these are pathogenic or potentially pathogenic in other animals or humans. Therefore, it is important to monitor the populations and characterize these viruses. In this study, the presence of coronaviruses (CoVs) in different species of Danish bats was investigated using active surveillance at different geographical locations in Denmark. Faecal samples were screened for the presence of CoVs using pan-CoV real-time RT-PCR assays. The amplicons, obtained from five different species of bats, were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a species-specific clustering with the samples from Myotis daubentonii, showing a close resemblance to coronavirus sequences obtained from the same species of bat in Germany and the United Kingdom. Our results show, for the first time, that multiple, distinct alphacoronaviruses are present in the Danish bat populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses and Bats 2019)
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Open AccessArticle Evolution of Tembusu Virus in Ducks, Chickens, Geese, Sparrows, and Mosquitoes in Northern China
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 485; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090485
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a contagious pathogen from fowl that mainly infects ducks and geese, causing symptoms of high fever, loss of appetite, retarded growth, neurological symptoms, severe duck-drop syndrome, and even death. During an epidemiological investigation of TMUV in Northern China, we
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Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a contagious pathogen from fowl that mainly infects ducks and geese, causing symptoms of high fever, loss of appetite, retarded growth, neurological symptoms, severe duck-drop syndrome, and even death. During an epidemiological investigation of TMUV in Northern China, we isolated 11 TMUV strains from ducks, chickens, geese, sparrows, and mosquitoes (2011–2017). Phylogenetic analysis of the open-reading frames of genes revealed that these strains clustered into Chinese strains II. The nucleotide and amino acid homologies of NS1 of the strains ranged between 85.8–99.8% and 92.5–99.68%, respectively, which were lower than those of E (86.7–99.9% and 96.5–99.9%, respectively), NS3 (87.6–99.9% and 98.2–99.8%, respectively), and NS5 (86.5–99.9% and 97.8–99.9%, respectively). Predictions of the tertiary structure of the viral proteins indicated that NS1 in 4 of 11 strains had a protein structure mutation at 180TAV182 that changed a random crimp into an alpha helix. The protein of 6 of 11 strains had a glycosylation site mutation from NTTD to NITD. Furthermore, epidemiological data suggested that TMUV has been circulating in half of China’s provinces (17 of 34). Our findings, for the first time, have identified the NS1 protein as a potential hypervariable region for genetic evolution. Additionally, the territorial scope of the virus has expanded, requiring strict bio-security measures or a multivalent vaccine to control its spread. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Viruses)
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Open AccessReview Susceptibility Genes to Plant Viruses
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090484
Received: 5 July 2018 / Revised: 28 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 10 September 2018
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Abstract
Plant viruses use cellular factors and resources to replicate and move. Plants respond to viral infection by several mechanisms, including innate immunity, autophagy, and gene silencing, that viruses must evade or suppress. Thus, the establishment of infection is genetically determined by the availability
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Plant viruses use cellular factors and resources to replicate and move. Plants respond to viral infection by several mechanisms, including innate immunity, autophagy, and gene silencing, that viruses must evade or suppress. Thus, the establishment of infection is genetically determined by the availability of host factors necessary for virus replication and movement and by the balance between plant defense and viral suppression of defense responses. Host factors may have antiviral or proviral activities. Proviral factors condition susceptibility to viruses by participating in processes essential to the virus. Here, we review current advances in the identification and characterization of host factors that condition susceptibility to plant viruses. Host factors with proviral activity have been identified for all parts of the virus infection cycle: viral RNA translation, viral replication complex formation, accumulation or activity of virus replication proteins, virus movement, and virion assembly. These factors could be targets of gene editing to engineer resistance to plant viruses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Virus Interactions)
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Open AccessArticle The RNA Capping Enzyme Domain in Protein A is Essential for Flock House Virus Replication
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 483; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090483
Received: 23 May 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 9 September 2018
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Abstract
The nodavirus flock house virus (FHV) and the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) show evolutionarily intriguing similarities in their replication complexes and RNA capping enzymes. In this study, we first established an efficient FHV trans-replication system in mammalian cells, which disjoins protein expression
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The nodavirus flock house virus (FHV) and the alphavirus Semliki Forest virus (SFV) show evolutionarily intriguing similarities in their replication complexes and RNA capping enzymes. In this study, we first established an efficient FHV trans-replication system in mammalian cells, which disjoins protein expression from viral RNA synthesis. Following transfection, FHV replicase protein A was associated with mitochondria, whose outer surface displayed pouch-like invaginations with a ‘neck’ structure opening towards the cytoplasm. In mitochondrial pellets from transfected cells, high-level synthesis of both genomic and subgenomic RNA was detected in vitro and the newly synthesized RNA was of positive polarity. Secondly, we initiated the study of the putative RNA capping enzyme domain in protein A by mutating the conserved amino acids H93, R100, D141, and W215. RNA replication was abolished for all mutants inside cells and in vitro except for W215A, which showed reduced replication. Transfection of capped RNA template did not rescue the replication activity of the mutants. Comparing the efficiency of SFV and FHV trans-replication systems, the FHV system appeared to produce more RNA. Using fluorescent marker proteins, we demonstrated that both systems could replicate in the same cell. This work may facilitate the comparative analysis of FHV and SFV replication. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Insect Viruses)
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