Next Article in Journal
Potato Spindle Tuber Viroid RNA-Templated Transcription: Factors and Regulation
Previous Article in Journal
The Surveillance of Chikungunya Virus in a Temperate Climate: Challenges and Possible Solutions from the Experience of Lazio Region, Italy
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 502;

Acute Phase Protein Levels as An Auxiliary Tool in Diagnosing Viral Diseases in Ruminants—A Review

Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Polish Academy of Sciences, Postepu 36A str., 05-552 Jastrzębiec, Poland
Laboratory of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska str. 159c., 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 9 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
Full-Text   |   PDF [252 KB, uploaded 15 September 2018]


We examined acute phase protein (APP) concentrations in viral infections of dairy ruminants and assessed the potential role of characteristic patterns of APP changes in auxiliary diagnosing viral diseases. All viruses reviewed are common causes of farm animal diseases. APPs are among the first agents of immunity, and their concentrations could be diagnostically relevant. In the most common ruminant viral diseases, elevated serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) levels in blood serum have been observed. However, since these proteins are the main APPs in many viral infections, it is impossible to use their levels for diagnosing particular infections. Decreased Cp and albumin expression could help differentiate the bluetongue virus infection from other diseases. Lastly, analysis of SAA levels in blood serum and milk could be helpful in diagnosing small ruminant lentivirus infection. While promising, APP levels can only be considered as an auxiliary tool in diagnosing viral diseases in ruminants. View Full-Text
Keywords: dairy ruminant; acute phase protein; viral infection dairy ruminant; acute phase protein; viral infection
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Reczyńska, D.; Zalewska, M.; Czopowicz, M.; Kaba, J.; Zwierzchowski, L.; Bagnicka, E. Acute Phase Protein Levels as An Auxiliary Tool in Diagnosing Viral Diseases in Ruminants—A Review. Viruses 2018, 10, 502.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Viruses EISSN 1999-4915 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top