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Viruses 2018, 10(9), 502; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090502

Acute Phase Protein Levels as An Auxiliary Tool in Diagnosing Viral Diseases in Ruminants—A Review

1
Institute of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Polish Academy of Sciences, Postepu 36A str., 05-552 Jastrzębiec, Poland
2
Laboratory of Veterinary Epidemiology and Economics, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Nowoursynowska str. 159c., 02-776 Warsaw, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 23 July 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 9 September 2018 / Published: 15 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Viruses)
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Abstract

We examined acute phase protein (APP) concentrations in viral infections of dairy ruminants and assessed the potential role of characteristic patterns of APP changes in auxiliary diagnosing viral diseases. All viruses reviewed are common causes of farm animal diseases. APPs are among the first agents of immunity, and their concentrations could be diagnostically relevant. In the most common ruminant viral diseases, elevated serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) levels in blood serum have been observed. However, since these proteins are the main APPs in many viral infections, it is impossible to use their levels for diagnosing particular infections. Decreased Cp and albumin expression could help differentiate the bluetongue virus infection from other diseases. Lastly, analysis of SAA levels in blood serum and milk could be helpful in diagnosing small ruminant lentivirus infection. While promising, APP levels can only be considered as an auxiliary tool in diagnosing viral diseases in ruminants. View Full-Text
Keywords: dairy ruminant; acute phase protein; viral infection dairy ruminant; acute phase protein; viral infection
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Reczyńska, D.; Zalewska, M.; Czopowicz, M.; Kaba, J.; Zwierzchowski, L.; Bagnicka, E. Acute Phase Protein Levels as An Auxiliary Tool in Diagnosing Viral Diseases in Ruminants—A Review. Viruses 2018, 10, 502.

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