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Viruses 2018, 10(9), 495; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090495

Strategies to Encapsulate the Staphylococcus aureus Bacteriophage phiIPLA-RODI

1
Instituto de Productos Lácteos de Asturias (IPLA-CSIC), Paseo Río Linares s/n, 33300 Villaviciosa, Spain
2
Nanovex Biotechnologies S.L., Parque Tecnológico de Asturias, CEEI, 33428 Llanera, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biotechnological Applications of Phage and Phage-Derived Proteins)
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Abstract

The antimicrobial properties of bacteriophages make them suitable food biopreservatives. However, such applications require the development of strategies that ensure stability of the phage particles during food processing. In this study, we assess the protective effect of encapsulation of the Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage phiIPLA-RODI in three kinds of nanovesicles (niosomes, liposomes, and transfersomes). All these systems allowed the successful encapsulation of phage phiIPLA-RODI with an efficiency ranged between 62% and 98%, regardless of the concentration of components (like phospholipids and surfactants) used for vesicle formation. Only niosomes containing 30 mg/mL of surfactants exhibited a slightly lower percentage of encapsulation. Regarding particle size distribution, the values determined for niosomes, liposomes, and transfersomes were 0.82 ± 0.09 µm, 1.66 ± 0.21 µm, and 0.55 ± 0.06 µm, respectively. Importantly, bacteriophage infectivity was maintained during storage for 6 months at 4 °C for all three types of nanovesicles, with the exception of liposomes containing a low concentration of components. In addition, we observed that niosomes partially protected the phage particles from low pH. Thus, while free phiIPLA-RODI was not detectable after 60 min of incubation at pH 4.5, titer of phage encapsulated in niosomes decreased only 2 log units. Overall, our results show that encapsulation represents an appropriate procedure to improve stability and, consequently, antimicrobial efficacy of phages for application in the food processing industry. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacteriophages; encapsulation; niosomes; transfersomes; liposomes; Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophages; encapsulation; niosomes; transfersomes; liposomes; Staphylococcus aureus
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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González-Menéndez, E.; Fernández, L.; Gutiérrez, D.; Pando, D.; Martínez, B.; Rodríguez, A.; García, P. Strategies to Encapsulate the Staphylococcus aureus Bacteriophage phiIPLA-RODI. Viruses 2018, 10, 495.

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