E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Viruses of Microbes V: Biodiversity and Future Applications"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Bacterial Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Heather E. Allison

Institute of Integrative Biology, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: the molecular mechanisms that control various aspects of microbial interactions with their environment including the interaction of lambdoid bacteriophages with their bacterial host; the use of metagenomic techniques to identify and characterise novel cellulolytic microbial taxa and the cellulases they produce from land fill and fresh water environments
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. David Prangishvili

Head of the research group "Viruses of Archaea", Department of Microbiology, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
Website | E-Mail
Interests: diversity of archaeal viruses: virion structures, genome organisation, structure and function of viral proteins; molecular aspects of virus host interactions in Archaea; biotechnological applications of archaeal viruses and their proteins
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ruth-Anne Sandaa

University of Bergen, Department of Biological Sciences, Bergen, Norway
Website | E-Mail
Interests: community dynamics and diversity of viruses infecting photosynthetic organisms like Cyanobacteria (cyanophages) and Phytoplankton (algal viruses); viral-host interactions of cyanophages and algal viruses in the marine environment
Guest Editor
Dr. Dann Turner

Department of Applied Sciences, University of the West of England, Bristol, UK
Website | E-Mail
Interests: bacteriophage research; bacteriophage taxonomy; comparative genomics; phage-host interactions; Acinetobacter species

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The central theme of this Special Issue will focus on 'Biodiversity and Future Applications' of viruses infecting microbes (algae, archaea, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses). Viruses have always been a key element of microbial diversity and evolution, as well as a tool for a molecular biologist to learn more about how the host-cell functions. This information has also been put to productive use in recent days to control infections and fouling in many areas in our society.

The issue gathers articles covering key areas of ecology, host-virus dynamics, biotechnological, medical aspects, and structural biology. A main objective is to introduce a new understanding of the role that viruses of microbes play in ecosystems and in the sustainable development of human technologies.

Dr. Heather E. Allison
Prof. Dr. David Prangishvili
Prof. Dr. Ruth-Anne Sandaa
Dr. Dann Turner
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bacteriophages
  • archaeal viruses
  • cyanophages
  • algal and fungi viruses
  • viral-host interactions
  • structure and function of viral proteins
  • biotechnological applications

Published Papers (4 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-4
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Roles of orf60a and orf61 in Development of Bacteriophages λ and Φ24B
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100553
Received: 22 August 2018 / Revised: 6 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
PDF Full-text (1587 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The exo-xis region of lambdoid bacteriophage genomes contains several established and potential genes that are evolutionarily conserved, but not essential for phage propagation under laboratory conditions. Nevertheless, deletion or overexpression of either the whole exo-xis region and important regulatory elements can significantly influence
[...] Read more.
The exo-xis region of lambdoid bacteriophage genomes contains several established and potential genes that are evolutionarily conserved, but not essential for phage propagation under laboratory conditions. Nevertheless, deletion or overexpression of either the whole exo-xis region and important regulatory elements can significantly influence the regulation of phage development. This report defines specific roles for orf60a and orf61 in bacteriophage λ and Φ24B, a specific Shiga toxin-converting phage with clinical relevance. We observed that mutant phages bearing deletions of orf60a and orf61 impaired two central aspects of phage development: the lysis-versus-lysogenization decision and prophage induction. These effects were more pronounced for phage Φ24B than for λ. Surprisingly, adsorption of phage Φ24B on Escherichia coli host cells was less efficient in the absence of either orf60a or orf61. We conclude that these open reading frames (ORFs) play important, but not essential, roles in the regulation of lambdoid phage development. Although phages can propagate without these ORFs in nutrient media, we suggest that they may be involved in the regulatory network, ensuring optimization of phage development under various environmental conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses of Microbes V: Biodiversity and Future Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle High Throughput Manufacturing of Bacteriophages Using Continuous Stirred Tank Bioreactors Connected in Series to Ensure Optimum Host Bacteria Physiology for Phage Production
Viruses 2018, 10(10), 537; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10100537
Received: 29 July 2018 / Revised: 21 September 2018 / Accepted: 29 September 2018 / Published: 1 October 2018
PDF Full-text (3553 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Future industrial demand for large quantities of bacteriophages e.g., for phage therapy, necessitates the development of scalable Good Manufacturing Practice compliant (cGMP) production platforms. The continuous production of high titres of E coli T3 phages (1011 PFU mL−1) was achieved
[...] Read more.
Future industrial demand for large quantities of bacteriophages e.g., for phage therapy, necessitates the development of scalable Good Manufacturing Practice compliant (cGMP) production platforms. The continuous production of high titres of E coli T3 phages (1011 PFU mL−1) was achieved using two continuous stirred tank bioreactors connected in series, and a third bioreactor was used as a final holding tank operated in semi-batch mode to finish the infection process. The first bioreactor allowed the steady-state propagation of host bacteria using a fully synthetic medium with glucose as the limiting substrate. Host bacterial growth was decoupled from the phage production reactor downstream of it to suppress the production of phage-resistant mutants, thereby allowing stable operation over a period of several days. The novelty of this process is that the manipulation of the host reactor dilution rates (range 0.1–0.6 hr−1) allows control over the physiological state of the bacterial population. This results in bacteria with considerably higher intracellular phage production capability whilst operating at high dilution rates yielding significantly higher overall phage process productivity. Using a pilot-scale chemostat system allowed optimisation of the upstream phage amplification conditions conducive for high intracellular phage production in the host bacteria. The effect of the host reactor dilution rates on the phage burst size, lag time, and adsorption rate were evaluated. The host bacterium physiology was found to influence phage burst size, thereby affecting the productivity of the overall process. Mathematical modelling of the dynamics of the process allowed parameter sensitivity evaluation and provided valuable insights into the factors affecting the phage production process. The approach presented here may be used at an industrial scale to significantly improve process control, increase productivity via process intensification, and reduce process manufacturing costs through process footprint reduction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses of Microbes V: Biodiversity and Future Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Degenerate PCR Primers to Reveal the Diversity of Giant Viruses in Coastal Waters
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090496
Received: 11 August 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 12 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
PDF Full-text (7694 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
“Megaviridae” is a proposed family of giant viruses infecting unicellular eukaryotes. These viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and have impact on marine microbial community structure and dynamics through their lytic infection cycle. However, their diversity and biogeography have been poorly characterized due
[...] Read more.
“Megaviridae” is a proposed family of giant viruses infecting unicellular eukaryotes. These viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and have impact on marine microbial community structure and dynamics through their lytic infection cycle. However, their diversity and biogeography have been poorly characterized due to the scarce detection of Megaviridae sequences in metagenomes, as well as the limitation of reference sequences used to design specific primers for this viral group. Here, we propose a set of 82 degenerated primers (referred to as MEGAPRIMER), targeting DNA polymerase genes (polBs) of Megaviridae. MEGAPRIMER was designed based on 921 Megaviridae polBs from sequenced genomes and metagenomes. By applying this primer set to environmental DNA meta-barcoding of a coastal seawater sample, we report 5595 non-singleton operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of Megaviridae at 97% nucleotide sequence identity. The majority of the OTUs were found to form diverse clades, which were phylogenetically distantly related to known viruses such as Mimivirus. The Megaviridae OTUs detected in this study outnumber the giant virus OTUs identified in previous individual studies by more than an order of magnitude. Hence, MEGAPRIMER represents a useful tool to study the diversity of Megaviridae at the population level in natural environments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses of Microbes V: Biodiversity and Future Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview RNA Phage Biology in a Metagenomic Era
Viruses 2018, 10(7), 386; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070386
Received: 11 June 2018 / Revised: 19 July 2018 / Accepted: 20 July 2018 / Published: 21 July 2018
PDF Full-text (1237 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The number of novel bacteriophage sequences has expanded significantly as a result of many metagenomic studies of phage populations in diverse environments. Most of these novel sequences bear little or no homology to existing databases (referred to as the “viral dark matter”). Also,
[...] Read more.
The number of novel bacteriophage sequences has expanded significantly as a result of many metagenomic studies of phage populations in diverse environments. Most of these novel sequences bear little or no homology to existing databases (referred to as the “viral dark matter”). Also, these sequences are primarily derived from DNA-encoded bacteriophages (phages) with few RNA phages included. Despite the rapid advancements in high-throughput sequencing, few studies enrich for RNA viruses, i.e., target viral rather than cellular fraction and/or RNA rather than DNA via a reverse transcriptase step, in an attempt to capture the RNA viruses present in a microbial communities. It is timely to compile existing and relevant information about RNA phages to provide an insight into many of their important biological features, which should aid in sequence-based discovery and in their subsequent annotation. Without comprehensive studies, the biological significance of RNA phages has been largely ignored. Future bacteriophage studies should be adapted to ensure they are properly represented in phageomic studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Viruses of Microbes V: Biodiversity and Future Applications)
Figures

Figure 1

Back to Top