E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Special Issue "Zoonotic and Vectorborne Viral Infections: Applying the One Health Vision—from Challenges to Solutions"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Ilaria Capua

One Health Center of Excellence, Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Website | E-Mail
Interests: zoonotic viruses; One Health vision
Guest Editor
Dr. Giovanni Cattoli

Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division for Nuclear Applications in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications - International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna, Austria
Website | E-Mail
Interests: animal health; zoonoses; transboundary animal diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Viruses on “Zoonotic and Vectorborne Viral Infections: Applying the One Health Vision—from Challenges to Solutions” will include review articles or papers that have, as an ultimate goal, the providing of:

  • General background on viral infections
  • An update on the epidemiological perspective in a given country or continent or in the global context
  • An overview of environmental and socio-economic drivers that influence the emergence/spread/impact of the disease/infection
  • A critical definition of the challenges in preventing/controlling/ eradicating the infection from a One Health perspective that can be applied from an international organization/national government/funding agency perspective
  • What needs to be done in wild/domestic reservoir, in people affected to control and then eradicate the infection

In addition, editorials or position papers on controversial issues around certain viral infections or papers with a completely transversal approach (e.g., the effect of urbanization on certain zoonotic diseases, climate change and zoonotic diseases).

Prof. Dr. Ilaria Capua
Dr. Giovanni Cattoli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • zoonoses
  • viruses
  • vectorborne
  • emerging diseases
  • One Health
  • globalization

Published Papers (6 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-6
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Reported Direct and Indirect Contact with Dromedary Camels among Laboratory-Confirmed MERS-CoV Cases
Viruses 2018, 10(8), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10080425
Received: 18 July 2018 / Revised: 30 July 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 13 August 2018
PDF Full-text (247 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are now known to be the vertebrate animal reservoir that intermittently transmits the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to humans. Yet, details as to the specific mechanism(s) of zoonotic transmission from dromedaries to humans remain unclear.
[...] Read more.
Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are now known to be the vertebrate animal reservoir that intermittently transmits the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to humans. Yet, details as to the specific mechanism(s) of zoonotic transmission from dromedaries to humans remain unclear. The aim of this study was to describe direct and indirect contact with dromedaries among all cases, and then separately for primary, non-primary, and unclassified cases of laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) between 1 January 2015 and 13 April 2018. We present any reported dromedary contact: direct, indirect, and type of indirect contact. Of all 1125 laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV cases reported to WHO during the time period, there were 348 (30.9%) primary cases, 455 (40.4%) non-primary cases, and 322 (28.6%) unclassified cases. Among primary cases, 191 (54.9%) reported contact with dromedaries: 164 (47.1%) reported direct contact, 155 (44.5%) reported indirect contact. Five (1.1%) non-primary cases also reported contact with dromedaries. Overall, unpasteurized milk was the most frequent type of dromedary product consumed. Among cases for whom exposure was systematically collected and reported to WHO, contact with dromedaries or dromedary products has played an important role in zoonotic transmission. Full article
Open AccessArticle Phylogenetic Analysis and Characterization of the Complete Hepatitis E Virus Genome (Zoonotic Genotype 3) in Swine Samples from Mexico
Viruses 2018, 10(8), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10080391
Received: 15 June 2018 / Revised: 21 July 2018 / Accepted: 23 July 2018 / Published: 26 July 2018
PDF Full-text (1110 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging public health problem with an estimated 20 million infections each year. In Mexico, Orthohepevirus A, genotype 2, has been reported in humans, but genotype 3 has only been reported in swine (zoonotic). No diagnostic tests are
[...] Read more.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging public health problem with an estimated 20 million infections each year. In Mexico, Orthohepevirus A, genotype 2, has been reported in humans, but genotype 3 has only been reported in swine (zoonotic). No diagnostic tests are publicly available in Mexico, and only partial sequences have been reported from swine samples. Hence, research is necessary to determine circulating strains, understand the features and dynamics of infection on pig farms, determine how to implement surveillance programs, and to assess public health risks. In this study, a next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach was applied to obtain a complete genome of swine HEV. Liver, feces, and bile samples were taken at slaughterhouses and a farm in Mexico. RT-PCR was used to determine positive samples and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Of the 64 slaughterhouse samples, one bile sample was positive (B1r) (1.56%). Of 21 sample pools from farm animals, 14 were positive (66.66%), representing all stages of production. A complete sequence strain MXCDg3_B1c|_2016 was obtained from the bile of a domestic swine in the fattening stage. In addition, two partial sequences—MXCDg3_H2cons|_2016 (1473 nt) and MXCDg3_C3Acons|_2016 (4777 nt)—were obtained from sampled farm animals. Comparison with all reported genome HEV sequences showed similarity to genotype 3 subgenotype a (G3a), which has been previously reported in acute cases of human hepatitis in the US, Colombia, China, and Japan. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Detection of Usutu, Sindbis, and Batai Viruses in Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Collected in Germany, 2011–2016
Viruses 2018, 10(7), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070389
Received: 12 June 2018 / Revised: 17 July 2018 / Accepted: 19 July 2018 / Published: 23 July 2018
PDF Full-text (1945 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the emergence of non-endemic mosquito vectors and the recent outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases, mosquito-borne pathogens are considered an increasing risk to public and animal health in Europe. To obtain a status quo regarding mosquito-borne viruses and their vectors in Germany, 97,648
[...] Read more.
Due to the emergence of non-endemic mosquito vectors and the recent outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases, mosquito-borne pathogens are considered an increasing risk to public and animal health in Europe. To obtain a status quo regarding mosquito-borne viruses and their vectors in Germany, 97,648 mosquitoes collected from 2011 to 2016 throughout the country were screened for arboviruses. Mosquitoes were identified to species, pooled in groups of up to 50 individuals according to sampling location and date, and screened with different PCR assays for Flavi-, Alpha- and Orthobunyavirus RNA. Two pools tested positive for Usutu virus-RNA, two for Sindbis virus-RNA, and 24 for Batai virus-RNA. The pools consisted of Culex pipiens s.l., Culex modestus, Culex torrentium, Culiseta sp., Aedes vexans, Anopheles daciae, and Anopheles messeae mosquitoes and could be assigned to nine different collection sites, with seven of them located in northeastern Germany. Phylogenetic analyses of the viral RNA sequences showed relationships with strains of the viruses previously demonstrated in Germany. These findings confirm continuing mosquito-borne zoonotic arbovirus circulation even though only a rather small percentage of the screened samples tested positive. With respect to sampling sites and periods, virus circulation seems to be particularly intense in floodplains and after flooding events when mosquitoes develop in excessive numbers and where they have numerous avian hosts available to feed on. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview The Surveillance of Chikungunya Virus in a Temperate Climate: Challenges and Possible Solutions from the Experience of Lazio Region, Italy
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090501
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 13 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 14 September 2018
PDF Full-text (819 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
CHIKV has become an emerging public health concern in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere as a consequenceof the expansion of the endemic areas of its vectors (mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus). In 2017, a new outbreak of CHIKV was
[...] Read more.
CHIKV has become an emerging public health concern in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere as a consequenceof the expansion of the endemic areas of its vectors (mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus). In 2017, a new outbreak of CHIKV was detected in Italy with three clusters of autochthonous transmission in the Lazio Region (central Italy), in the cities of Anzio, Rome, and Latina and a secondary cluster in the Calabria Region (south Italy). Given the climate characteristics of Italy, sporadic outbreaks mostly driven by imported cases followed by autochthonous transmission could occur during the summer season. This highlights the importance of a well-designed surveillance system, which should promptly identify autochthonous transmission. The use of a surveillance system integrating different surveillance tools, including entomological surveillance in a one health approach, together with education of the health care professionals should facilitate the detection, response, and control of arboviruses spreading. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Zoonotic Potential of Influenza A Viruses: A Comprehensive Overview
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090497
Received: 9 July 2018 / Revised: 24 August 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
PDF Full-text (2976 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) possess a great zoonotic potential as they are able to infect different avian and mammalian animal hosts, from which they can be transmitted to humans. This is based on the ability of IAV to gradually change their genome by
[...] Read more.
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) possess a great zoonotic potential as they are able to infect different avian and mammalian animal hosts, from which they can be transmitted to humans. This is based on the ability of IAV to gradually change their genome by mutation or even reassemble their genome segments during co-infection of the host cell with different IAV strains, resulting in a high genetic diversity. Variants of circulating or newly emerging IAVs continue to trigger global health threats annually for both humans and animals. Here, we provide an introduction on IAVs, highlighting the mechanisms of viral evolution, the host spectrum, and the animal/human interface. Pathogenicity determinants of IAVs in mammals, with special emphasis on newly emerging IAVs with pandemic potential, are discussed. Finally, an overview is provided on various approaches for the prevention of human IAV infections. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Challenge for One Health: Co-Circulation of Zoonotic H5N1 and H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses in Egypt
Viruses 2018, 10(3), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10030121
Received: 25 January 2018 / Revised: 23 February 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (250 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are currently endemic in poultry in Egypt. Eradication of the viruses has been unsuccessful due to improper application of vaccine-based control strategies among other preventive measures. The viruses have evolved rapidly with increased bird-to-human transmission efficacy,
[...] Read more.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are currently endemic in poultry in Egypt. Eradication of the viruses has been unsuccessful due to improper application of vaccine-based control strategies among other preventive measures. The viruses have evolved rapidly with increased bird-to-human transmission efficacy, thus affecting both animal and public health. Subsequent spread of potentially zoonotic low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 in poultry has also hindered efficient control of avian influenza. The H5N1 viruses acquired enhanced bird-to-human transmissibility by (1) altering amino acids in hemagglutinin (HA) that enable binding affinity to human-type receptors, (2) loss of the glycosylation site and 130 loop in the HA protein and (3) mutation of E627K in the PB2 protein to enhance viral replication in mammalian hosts. The receptor binding site of HA of Egyptian H9N2 viruses has been shown to contain the Q234L substitution along with a H191 mutation, which can increase human-like receptor specificity. Therefore, co-circulation of H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in poultry farming and live bird markets has increased the risk of human exposure, resulting in complication of the epidemiological situation and raising a concern for potential emergence of a new influenza A virus pandemic. For efficient control of infection and transmission, the efficacy of vaccine and vaccination needs to be improved with a comprehensive control strategy, including enhanced biosecurity, education, surveillance, rapid diagnosis and culling of infected poultry. Full article
Back to Top