Special Issue "Zoonotic and Vectorborne Viral Infections: Applying the One Health Vision—from Challenges to Solutions"

A special issue of Viruses (ISSN 1999-4915). This special issue belongs to the section "Animal Viruses".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2018).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Ilaria Capua
Website
Guest Editor
One Health Center of Excellence, Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
Interests: zoonotic viruses; One Health vision
Dr. Giovanni Cattoli
Website
Guest Editor
Animal Production and Health Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division for Nuclear Applications in Food and Agriculture, Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications - International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna, Austria
Interests: animal health; zoonoses; transboundary animal diseases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue of Viruses on “Zoonotic and Vectorborne Viral Infections: Applying the One Health Vision—from Challenges to Solutions” will include review articles or papers that have, as an ultimate goal, the providing of:

  • General background on viral infections
  • An update on the epidemiological perspective in a given country or continent or in the global context
  • An overview of environmental and socio-economic drivers that influence the emergence/spread/impact of the disease/infection
  • A critical definition of the challenges in preventing/controlling/ eradicating the infection from a One Health perspective that can be applied from an international organization/national government/funding agency perspective
  • What needs to be done in wild/domestic reservoir, in people affected to control and then eradicate the infection

In addition, editorials or position papers on controversial issues around certain viral infections or papers with a completely transversal approach (e.g., the effect of urbanization on certain zoonotic diseases, climate change and zoonotic diseases).

Prof. Dr. Ilaria Capua
Dr. Giovanni Cattoli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Viruses is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • zoonoses
  • viruses
  • vectorborne
  • emerging diseases
  • One Health
  • globalization

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
One Health (r)Evolution: Learning from the Past to Build a New Future
Viruses 2018, 10(12), 725; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10120725 - 18 Dec 2018
Abstract
The One Health concept recognizes that the health of human beings, animals, plants and the environment is interconnected and interdependent. This idea has been shaped over the centuries and has gained momentum and traction as anatomy, physiology, microbiology and other disciplines have substantiated [...] Read more.
The One Health concept recognizes that the health of human beings, animals, plants and the environment is interconnected and interdependent. This idea has been shaped over the centuries and has gained momentum and traction as anatomy, physiology, microbiology and other disciplines have substantiated earlier theories. Here we recall major historical milestones which have contributed to shaping the One Health concept as it is today, and discuss the past and future drivers in view of future challenges in an evolving scenario. Full article

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Rift Valley Fever Virus Exposure amongst Farmers, Farm Workers, and Veterinary Professionals in Central South Africa
Viruses 2019, 11(2), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020140 - 07 Feb 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a re-emerging arboviral disease of public health and veterinary importance in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Major RVF epidemics were documented in South Africa in 1950–1951, 1974–1975, and 2010–2011. The number of individuals infected during these outbreaks has, [...] Read more.
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a re-emerging arboviral disease of public health and veterinary importance in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Major RVF epidemics were documented in South Africa in 1950–1951, 1974–1975, and 2010–2011. The number of individuals infected during these outbreaks has, however, not been accurately estimated. A total of 823 people in close occupational contact with livestock were interviewed and sampled over a six-month period in 2015–2016 within a 40,000 km2 study area encompassing parts of the Free State and Northern Cape provinces that were affected during the 2010–2011 outbreak. Seroprevalence of RVF virus (RVFV) was 9.1% (95% Confidence Interval (CI95%): 7.2–11.5%) in people working or residing on livestock or game farms and 8.0% in veterinary professionals. The highest seroprevalence (SP = 15.4%; CI95%: 11.4–20.3%) was detected in older age groups (≥40 years old) that had experienced more than one known large epidemic compared to the younger participants (SP = 4.3%; CI95%: 2.6–7.3%). The highest seroprevalence was in addition found in people who injected animals, collected blood samples (Odds ratio (OR) = 2.3; CI95%: 1.0–5.3), slaughtered animals (OR = 3.9; CI95%: 1.2–12.9) and consumed meat from an animal found dead (OR = 3.1; CI95%: 1.5–6.6), or worked on farms with dams for water storage (OR = 2.7; CI95%: 1.0–6.9). We estimated the number of historical RVFV infections of farm staff in the study area to be most likely 3849 and 95% credible interval between 2635 and 5374 based on seroprevalence of 9.1% and national census data. We conclude that human RVF cases were highly underdiagnosed and heterogeneously distributed. Improving precautions during injection, sample collection, slaughtering, and meat processing for consumption, and using personal protective equipment during outbreaks, could lower the risk of RVFV infection. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Evaluation of the Role of Ecologically-Relevant Hosts and Vectors in Japanese Encephalitis Virus Genotype Displacement
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010032 - 06 Jan 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus that is maintained via transmission between Culex spp. mosquitoes and water birds across a large swath of southern Asia and northern Australia. Currently JEV is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable encephalitis in humans in Asia. Five [...] Read more.
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a flavivirus that is maintained via transmission between Culex spp. mosquitoes and water birds across a large swath of southern Asia and northern Australia. Currently JEV is the leading cause of vaccine-preventable encephalitis in humans in Asia. Five genotypes of JEV (G-I–G-V) have been responsible for historical and current outbreaks in endemic regions, and G-I and G-III co-circulate throughout Southern Asia. While G-III has historically been the dominant genotype worldwide, G-I has gradually but steadily displaced G-III. The objective of this study was to better understand the phenomenon of genotype displacement for JEV by evaluating both avian host and mosquito vector susceptibilities to infection with representatives from both G-I and G-III. Since ducks and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes are prevalent avian hosts and vectors perpetuating JEV transmission in JE endemic areas, experimental evaluation of virus replication in these species was considered to approximate the natural conditions necessary for studying the role of host, vectors and viral fitness in the JEV genotype displacement context. We evaluated viremia in ducklings infected with G-I and G-III, and did not detect differences in magnitude or duration of viremia. Testing the same viruses in mosquitoes revealed that the rates of infection, dissemination and transmission were higher in virus strains belonging to G-I than G-III, and that the extrinsic incubation period was shorter for the G-I strains. These data suggest that the characteristics of JEV infection of mosquitoes but not of ducklings, may have play a role in genotype displacement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Wildlife Management Practices Associated with Pathogen Exposure in Non-Native Wild Pigs in Florida, U.S.
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010014 - 26 Dec 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
Land use influences disease emergence by changing the ecological dynamics of humans, wildlife, domestic animals, and pathogens. This is a central tenet of One Health, and one that is gaining momentum in wildlife management decision-making in the United States. Using almost 2000 serological [...] Read more.
Land use influences disease emergence by changing the ecological dynamics of humans, wildlife, domestic animals, and pathogens. This is a central tenet of One Health, and one that is gaining momentum in wildlife management decision-making in the United States. Using almost 2000 serological samples collected from non-native wild pigs (Sus scrofa) throughout Florida (U.S.), we compared the prevalence and exposure risk of two directly transmitted pathogens, pseudorabies virus (PrV) and Brucella spp., to test the hypothesis that disease emergence would be positively correlated with one of the most basic wildlife management operations: Hunting. The seroprevalence of PrV-Brucella spp. coinfection or PrV alone was higher for wild pigs in land management areas that allowed hunting with dogs than in areas that culled animals using other harvest methods. This pattern did not hold for Brucella alone. The likelihood of exposure to PrV, but not Brucella spp., was also significantly higher among wild pigs at hunted sites than at sites where animals were culled. By failing to consider the impact of dog hunting on the emergence of non-native pathogens, current animal management practices have the potential to affect public health, the commercial livestock industry, and wildlife conservation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Reported Direct and Indirect Contact with Dromedary Camels among Laboratory-Confirmed MERS-CoV Cases
Viruses 2018, 10(8), 425; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10080425 - 13 Aug 2018
Cited by 18
Abstract
Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are now known to be the vertebrate animal reservoir that intermittently transmits the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to humans. Yet, details as to the specific mechanism(s) of zoonotic transmission from dromedaries to humans remain unclear. [...] Read more.
Dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) are now known to be the vertebrate animal reservoir that intermittently transmits the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) to humans. Yet, details as to the specific mechanism(s) of zoonotic transmission from dromedaries to humans remain unclear. The aim of this study was to describe direct and indirect contact with dromedaries among all cases, and then separately for primary, non-primary, and unclassified cases of laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV reported to the World Health Organization (WHO) between 1 January 2015 and 13 April 2018. We present any reported dromedary contact: direct, indirect, and type of indirect contact. Of all 1125 laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV cases reported to WHO during the time period, there were 348 (30.9%) primary cases, 455 (40.4%) non-primary cases, and 322 (28.6%) unclassified cases. Among primary cases, 191 (54.9%) reported contact with dromedaries: 164 (47.1%) reported direct contact, 155 (44.5%) reported indirect contact. Five (1.1%) non-primary cases also reported contact with dromedaries. Overall, unpasteurized milk was the most frequent type of dromedary product consumed. Among cases for whom exposure was systematically collected and reported to WHO, contact with dromedaries or dromedary products has played an important role in zoonotic transmission. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Phylogenetic Analysis and Characterization of the Complete Hepatitis E Virus Genome (Zoonotic Genotype 3) in Swine Samples from Mexico
Viruses 2018, 10(8), 391; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10080391 - 26 Jul 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging public health problem with an estimated 20 million infections each year. In Mexico, Orthohepevirus A, genotype 2, has been reported in humans, but genotype 3 has only been reported in swine (zoonotic). No diagnostic tests are [...] Read more.
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an emerging public health problem with an estimated 20 million infections each year. In Mexico, Orthohepevirus A, genotype 2, has been reported in humans, but genotype 3 has only been reported in swine (zoonotic). No diagnostic tests are publicly available in Mexico, and only partial sequences have been reported from swine samples. Hence, research is necessary to determine circulating strains, understand the features and dynamics of infection on pig farms, determine how to implement surveillance programs, and to assess public health risks. In this study, a next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach was applied to obtain a complete genome of swine HEV. Liver, feces, and bile samples were taken at slaughterhouses and a farm in Mexico. RT-PCR was used to determine positive samples and confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Of the 64 slaughterhouse samples, one bile sample was positive (B1r) (1.56%). Of 21 sample pools from farm animals, 14 were positive (66.66%), representing all stages of production. A complete sequence strain MXCDg3_B1c|_2016 was obtained from the bile of a domestic swine in the fattening stage. In addition, two partial sequences—MXCDg3_H2cons|_2016 (1473 nt) and MXCDg3_C3Acons|_2016 (4777 nt)—were obtained from sampled farm animals. Comparison with all reported genome HEV sequences showed similarity to genotype 3 subgenotype a (G3a), which has been previously reported in acute cases of human hepatitis in the US, Colombia, China, and Japan. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Detection of Usutu, Sindbis, and Batai Viruses in Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) Collected in Germany, 2011–2016
Viruses 2018, 10(7), 389; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10070389 - 23 Jul 2018
Cited by 16
Abstract
Due to the emergence of non-endemic mosquito vectors and the recent outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases, mosquito-borne pathogens are considered an increasing risk to public and animal health in Europe. To obtain a status quo regarding mosquito-borne viruses and their vectors in Germany, 97,648 [...] Read more.
Due to the emergence of non-endemic mosquito vectors and the recent outbreaks of mosquito-borne diseases, mosquito-borne pathogens are considered an increasing risk to public and animal health in Europe. To obtain a status quo regarding mosquito-borne viruses and their vectors in Germany, 97,648 mosquitoes collected from 2011 to 2016 throughout the country were screened for arboviruses. Mosquitoes were identified to species, pooled in groups of up to 50 individuals according to sampling location and date, and screened with different PCR assays for Flavi-, Alpha- and Orthobunyavirus RNA. Two pools tested positive for Usutu virus-RNA, two for Sindbis virus-RNA, and 24 for Batai virus-RNA. The pools consisted of Culex pipiens s.l., Culex modestus, Culex torrentium, Culiseta sp., Aedes vexans, Anopheles daciae, and Anopheles messeae mosquitoes and could be assigned to nine different collection sites, with seven of them located in northeastern Germany. Phylogenetic analyses of the viral RNA sequences showed relationships with strains of the viruses previously demonstrated in Germany. These findings confirm continuing mosquito-borne zoonotic arbovirus circulation even though only a rather small percentage of the screened samples tested positive. With respect to sampling sites and periods, virus circulation seems to be particularly intense in floodplains and after flooding events when mosquitoes develop in excessive numbers and where they have numerous avian hosts available to feed on. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview
The One Health Approach is Necessary for the Control of Rift Valley Fever Infections in Egypt: A Comprehensive Review
Viruses 2019, 11(2), 139; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11020139 - 06 Feb 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging transboundary, mosquito-borne, zoonotic viral disease caused high morbidity and mortality in both human and ruminant populations. It is considered an important threat to both agriculture and public health in African and the Middle Eastern countries including [...] Read more.
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging transboundary, mosquito-borne, zoonotic viral disease caused high morbidity and mortality in both human and ruminant populations. It is considered an important threat to both agriculture and public health in African and the Middle Eastern countries including Egypt. Five major RVF epidemics have been reported in Egypt (1977, 1993, 1994, 1997, and 2003). The virus is transmitted in Egypt by different mosquito’s genera such as Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, and Mansonia, leading to abortions in susceptible animal hosts especially sheep, goat, cattle, and buffaloes. Recurrent RVF outbreaks in Egypt have been attributed in part to the lack of routine surveillance for the virus. These periodic epizootics have resulted in severe economic losses. We posit that there is a critical need for new approaches to RVF control that will prevent or at least reduce future morbidity and economic stress. One Health is an integrated approach for the understanding and management of animal, human, and environmental determinants of complex problems such as RVF. Employing the One Health approach, one might engage local communities in surveillance and control of RVF efforts, rather than continuing their current status as passive victims of the periodic RVF incursions. This review focuses upon endemic and epidemic status of RVF in Egypt, the virus vectors and their ecology, transmission dynamics, risk factors, and the ecology of the RVF at the animal/human interface, prevention, and control measures, and the use of environmental and climate data in surveillance systems to predict disease outbreaks. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Islands as Hotspots for Emerging Mosquito-Borne Viruses: A One-Health Perspective
Viruses 2019, 11(1), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/v11010011 - 25 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
During the past ten years, an increasing number of arbovirus outbreaks have affected tropical islands worldwide. We examined the available literature in peer-reviewed journals, from the second half of the 20th century until 2018, with the aim of gathering an overall picture of [...] Read more.
During the past ten years, an increasing number of arbovirus outbreaks have affected tropical islands worldwide. We examined the available literature in peer-reviewed journals, from the second half of the 20th century until 2018, with the aim of gathering an overall picture of the emergence of arboviruses in these islands. In addition, we included information on environmental and social drivers specific to island setting that can facilitate the emergence of outbreaks. Within the context of the One Health approach, our review highlights how the emergence of arboviruses in tropical islands is linked to the complex interplay between their unique ecological settings and to the recent changes in local and global sociodemographic patterns. We also advocate for greater coordination between stakeholders in developing novel prevention and mitigation approaches for an intractable problem. Full article
Open AccessReview
The Surveillance of Chikungunya Virus in a Temperate Climate: Challenges and Possible Solutions from the Experience of Lazio Region, Italy
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 501; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090501 - 14 Sep 2018
Cited by 3
Abstract
CHIKV has become an emerging public health concern in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere as a consequenceof the expansion of the endemic areas of its vectors (mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus). In 2017, a new outbreak of CHIKV was [...] Read more.
CHIKV has become an emerging public health concern in the temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere as a consequenceof the expansion of the endemic areas of its vectors (mainly Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus). In 2017, a new outbreak of CHIKV was detected in Italy with three clusters of autochthonous transmission in the Lazio Region (central Italy), in the cities of Anzio, Rome, and Latina and a secondary cluster in the Calabria Region (south Italy). Given the climate characteristics of Italy, sporadic outbreaks mostly driven by imported cases followed by autochthonous transmission could occur during the summer season. This highlights the importance of a well-designed surveillance system, which should promptly identify autochthonous transmission. The use of a surveillance system integrating different surveillance tools, including entomological surveillance in a one health approach, together with education of the health care professionals should facilitate the detection, response, and control of arboviruses spreading. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Zoonotic Potential of Influenza A Viruses: A Comprehensive Overview
Viruses 2018, 10(9), 497; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090497 - 13 Sep 2018
Cited by 24
Abstract
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) possess a great zoonotic potential as they are able to infect different avian and mammalian animal hosts, from which they can be transmitted to humans. This is based on the ability of IAV to gradually change their genome by [...] Read more.
Influenza A viruses (IAVs) possess a great zoonotic potential as they are able to infect different avian and mammalian animal hosts, from which they can be transmitted to humans. This is based on the ability of IAV to gradually change their genome by mutation or even reassemble their genome segments during co-infection of the host cell with different IAV strains, resulting in a high genetic diversity. Variants of circulating or newly emerging IAVs continue to trigger global health threats annually for both humans and animals. Here, we provide an introduction on IAVs, highlighting the mechanisms of viral evolution, the host spectrum, and the animal/human interface. Pathogenicity determinants of IAVs in mammals, with special emphasis on newly emerging IAVs with pandemic potential, are discussed. Finally, an overview is provided on various approaches for the prevention of human IAV infections. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Challenge for One Health: Co-Circulation of Zoonotic H5N1 and H9N2 Avian Influenza Viruses in Egypt
Viruses 2018, 10(3), 121; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10030121 - 09 Mar 2018
Cited by 12
Abstract
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are currently endemic in poultry in Egypt. Eradication of the viruses has been unsuccessful due to improper application of vaccine-based control strategies among other preventive measures. The viruses have evolved rapidly with increased bird-to-human transmission efficacy, [...] Read more.
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 viruses are currently endemic in poultry in Egypt. Eradication of the viruses has been unsuccessful due to improper application of vaccine-based control strategies among other preventive measures. The viruses have evolved rapidly with increased bird-to-human transmission efficacy, thus affecting both animal and public health. Subsequent spread of potentially zoonotic low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H9N2 in poultry has also hindered efficient control of avian influenza. The H5N1 viruses acquired enhanced bird-to-human transmissibility by (1) altering amino acids in hemagglutinin (HA) that enable binding affinity to human-type receptors, (2) loss of the glycosylation site and 130 loop in the HA protein and (3) mutation of E627K in the PB2 protein to enhance viral replication in mammalian hosts. The receptor binding site of HA of Egyptian H9N2 viruses has been shown to contain the Q234L substitution along with a H191 mutation, which can increase human-like receptor specificity. Therefore, co-circulation of H5N1 and H9N2 viruses in poultry farming and live bird markets has increased the risk of human exposure, resulting in complication of the epidemiological situation and raising a concern for potential emergence of a new influenza A virus pandemic. For efficient control of infection and transmission, the efficacy of vaccine and vaccination needs to be improved with a comprehensive control strategy, including enhanced biosecurity, education, surveillance, rapid diagnosis and culling of infected poultry. Full article
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