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Viruses 2018, 10(9), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/v10090490

Algal Viruses: The (Atomic) Shape of Things to Come

1
Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Plymouth PL1 3DH, UK
2
Interface Analysis Centre, Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL, UK
3
Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA 23284, USA
4
College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QD, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 July 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 12 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Algae Virus)
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Abstract

Visualization of algal viruses has been paramount to their study and understanding. The direct observation of the morphological dynamics of infection is a highly desired capability and the focus of instrument development across a variety of microscopy technologies. However, the high temporal (ms) and spatial resolution (nm) required, combined with the need to operate in physiologically relevant conditions presents a significant challenge. Here we present a short history of virus structure study and its relation to algal viruses and highlight current work, concentrating on electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, towards the direct observation of individual algae–virus interactions. Finally, we make predictions towards future algal virus study direction with particular focus on the exciting opportunities offered by modern high-speed atomic force microscopy methods and instrumentation. View Full-Text
Keywords: algal virus; imaging; atomic force microscopy; electron microscopy; virus structure; infection dynamics algal virus; imaging; atomic force microscopy; electron microscopy; virus structure; infection dynamics
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).
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Evans, C.T.; Payton, O.; Picco, L.; Allen, M.J. Algal Viruses: The (Atomic) Shape of Things to Come. Viruses 2018, 10, 490.

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