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Materials, Volume 13, Issue 13 (July-1 2020) – 159 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The following article introduces technologies that build 3D objects by adding layer-upon-layer of [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
Green and Durable Lightweight Aggregate Concrete: The Role of Waste and Recycled Materials
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3041; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133041 - 07 Jul 2020
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Abstract
Lightweight aggregate concrete manufactured by solid waste or recycled by-products is a burgeoning topic in construction and building materials. It has significant merits in mitigating the negative impact on the environment during the manufacturing of Portland cement and reduces the consumption of natural [...] Read more.
Lightweight aggregate concrete manufactured by solid waste or recycled by-products is a burgeoning topic in construction and building materials. It has significant merits in mitigating the negative impact on the environment during the manufacturing of Portland cement and reduces the consumption of natural resources. In this review article, the agricultural and industrial wastes and by-products, which were used as cementitious materials and artificial lightweight aggregate concrete, are summarized. Besides, the mechanical properties, durability, and a few advanced microstructure characterization methods were reviewed as well. This review also provides a look to the future research trends that may help address the challenges or further enhance the environmental benefits of lightweight aggregate concrete manufactured with solid waste and recycled by-products. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recycled Concrete with Waste and By-Products)
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Open AccessArticle
Quantification of the Morphological Signature of Roping Based on Multiscale Analysis and Autocorrelation Function Description
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3040; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133040 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 219
Abstract
Roping or ridging is a visual defect affecting the surface of ferritic stainless steels, assessed using visual inspection of the surfaces. The aim of this study was to quantify the morphological signature of roping to link roughness results with five levels of roping [...] Read more.
Roping or ridging is a visual defect affecting the surface of ferritic stainless steels, assessed using visual inspection of the surfaces. The aim of this study was to quantify the morphological signature of roping to link roughness results with five levels of roping identified with visual inspection. First, the multiscale analysis of roughness showed that the texture aspect ratio Str computed with a low-pass filter of 32 µm gave a clear separation between the acceptable levels of roping and the non-acceptable levels (rejected sheets). To obtain a gradation description of roping instead of a binary description, a methodology based on the use of the autocorrelation function was created. It consisted of several steps: a low-pass filtering of the autocorrelation function at 150 µm, the segmentation of the autocorrelation into four stabilized portions, and finally, the computation of isotropy and the root-mean-square roughness Sq on the obtained quarters of function. The use of the isotropy combined with the root-mean-square roughness Sq led to a clear separation of the five levels of roping: the acceptable levels of roping corresponded to strong isotropy (values larger than 10%) coupled with low root-mean-square roughness Sq. Both methodologies can be used to quantitatively describe surface morphology of roping in order to improve our understanding of the roping phenomenon. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Mg-Zn-Ca Alloys for Hemostasis Clips for Vessel Ligation: In Vitro and In Vivo Studies of Their Degradation and Response
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3039; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133039 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 223
Abstract
To control the degradation rate of magnesium (Mg) alloys, chitosan (CHI) and L-glutamic acid (LGA) were used as coatings on Mg-Zn-Ca alloys via dip coating. In this study, either two or seven CHI/LGA layers were applied as a coating on Mg-2.8Zn-0.8Ca alloy (ZX31) [...] Read more.
To control the degradation rate of magnesium (Mg) alloys, chitosan (CHI) and L-glutamic acid (LGA) were used as coatings on Mg-Zn-Ca alloys via dip coating. In this study, either two or seven CHI/LGA layers were applied as a coating on Mg-2.8Zn-0.8Ca alloy (ZX31) and Mg-2.8Zn-0.8Ca hemostasis clips (ZX31 clips). The morphologies, compositions, and surface roughness of the specimens were characterized via scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and surface measurement devices. The degradation rates and behavior of the specimens were evaluated by immersing them in simulated body fluids and by applying these ZX31 clips on rabbits’ uterine tubes for five weeks. The specimen with seven layers (ZX31(CHI/LGA)7) exhibited improved corrosion behavior when compared with ZX31 or ZX31(CHI/LGA)2, with a reduced degradation rate of the Mg alloy in a simulated body environment. In vivo experiments showed that ZX31 clips exhibited good biocompatibilities in each group but could not maintain the clamping function for five weeks. The weight loss of ZX31(CHI/LGA)7 was significantly lower than that of the other groups. Consequently, it was verified that CHI can be used as a protective layer on a magnesium alloy surface via in vitro and in vivo experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Corrosion Science in Biomedical Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Graphitic Carbon Nitride for Photocatalytic Air Treatment
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3038; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133038 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 183
Abstract
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is a conjugated polymer, which recently drew a lot of attention as a metal-free and UV and visible light responsive photocatalyst in the field of solar energy conversion and environmental remediation. This is due to [...] Read more.
Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) is a conjugated polymer, which recently drew a lot of attention as a metal-free and UV and visible light responsive photocatalyst in the field of solar energy conversion and environmental remediation. This is due to its appealing electronic band structure, high physicochemical stability and earth-abundant nature. In the present work, bulk g-C3N4 was synthesized by thermal decomposition of melamine. This material was further exfoliated by thermal treatment. S-doped samples were prepared from thiourea or further treatment of exfoliated g-C3N4 by mesylchloride. Synthesized materials were applied for photocatalytic removal of air pollutants (acetaldehyde and NOx) according to the ISO 22197 and ISO 22197-1 methodology. The efficiency of acetaldehyde removal under UV irradiation was negligible for all g-C3N4 samples. This can be explained by the fact that g-C3N4 under irradiation does not directly form hydroxyl radicals, which are the primary oxidation species in acetaldehyde oxidation. It was proved by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy that the dominant species formed on the irradiated surface of g-C3N4 was the superoxide radical. Its production was responsible for a very high NOx removal efficiency not only under UV irradiation (which was comparable with that of TiO2), but also under visible irradiation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Photocatalytic Properties and Kinetics of Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Antimicrobial Activity of Hybrid Nanomaterials Based on Star and Linear Polymers of N,N′-Dimethylaminoethyl Methacrylate with In Situ Produced Silver Nanoparticles
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3037; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133037 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 182
Abstract
Well-defined linear and multi-arm star polymer structures were used as the templates for in situ synthesis and stabilization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). This approach led to hybrid nanomaterials with high stability and antibacterial activity to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The ecologically [...] Read more.
Well-defined linear and multi-arm star polymer structures were used as the templates for in situ synthesis and stabilization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). This approach led to hybrid nanomaterials with high stability and antibacterial activity to both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains. The ecologically friendly so called “green” synthesis of nanomaterials was performed through AgNPs preparation in the aqueous solutions of star and linear poly(N,N′-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate)s (PDMAEMAs); the process was followed with time. The size, shape, and zeta potential of the obtained hybrids were determined. To our knowledge, this is the first time that the antibacterial activity of PDMAEMA hybrid nanomaterial against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was investigated and assessed by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum biocidal concentration (MBC). Completely quaternized with ethyl bromide, star and linear PDMAEMAs were used in comparative biological tests. The modification of the polymers with in situ-formed AgNPs increased the antibacterial properties against all studied strains of bacteria by several times in comparison to non-modified polymers and quaternized polymers. These results yield novel nanohybrid materials that can be useful for applications in medicine and biology. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Synthesis of Ordered Mesoporous Zr-Al Composite Oxides with Excellent Structural and Textural Properties and Extremely High Stability
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3036; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133036 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 178
Abstract
Ordered mesoporous Zr-Al composite oxide materials (denoted as OMZA-x) with different Zr contents have been synthesized by a solvent evaporation-inducing self-assembly procedure associated with a thermal treatment at 100 °C. A cooperative co-assembly process of amphiphilic triblock copolymer F127 molecules and inorganic hydroxyl [...] Read more.
Ordered mesoporous Zr-Al composite oxide materials (denoted as OMZA-x) with different Zr contents have been synthesized by a solvent evaporation-inducing self-assembly procedure associated with a thermal treatment at 100 °C. A cooperative co-assembly process of amphiphilic triblock copolymer F127 molecules and inorganic hydroxyl species originated from the hydrolysis of Zr and Al precursors was proposed to explain the synthesis of OMZA-x. Compared to ordered mesoporous alumina prepared without introducing Zr species, the resultant OMZA-x exhibited a much more ordered mesostructure combined with a distinct increase in the pore volume and specific surface area. The highly homogenous doping of Zr into the mesopore walls together with the formation of Zr-O-Al bonds can effectively enhance the thermal and hydrothermal stability of OMZA-x. For instance, the ordered mesostructure and excellent textural properties of OMZA-6 prepared with the optimum atomic ratio of Al to Zr of 6 could be well maintained even after a high-temperature treatment at 1000 °C for 1 h or a hydrothermal treatment at 100 °C for 6 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Insight into Microporous and Mesoporous Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
A Facile Synthesis and Characterization of Highly Crystalline Submicro-Sized BiFeO3
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3035; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133035 - 07 Jul 2020
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Abstract
In this study, a highly crystalline bismuth ferrite (BFO) powder was synthesized using a novel, very simple, and cost-effective synthetic approach. It was demonstrated that the optimal annealing temperature for the preparation of highly-pure BFO is 650 °C. At lower or higher temperatures, [...] Read more.
In this study, a highly crystalline bismuth ferrite (BFO) powder was synthesized using a novel, very simple, and cost-effective synthetic approach. It was demonstrated that the optimal annealing temperature for the preparation of highly-pure BFO is 650 °C. At lower or higher temperatures, the formation of neighboring crystal phases was observed. The thermal behavior of BFO precursor gel was investigated by thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) measurements. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and Mössbauer spectroscopy were employed for the investigation of structural properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate morphological features of the synthesized materials. The obtained powders were also characterized by magnetization measurements, which showed antiferromagnetic behavior of BFO powders. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Nanostructured Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Post-Processing of Prosopis Chilensis/Polyethersulfone Composite (PCPC)
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3034; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133034 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 158
Abstract
The range of selective laser sintering (SLS) materials is currently limited, and the available materials are often of high cost. Moreover, the mechanical strength of wood–plastic SLS parts is low, which restricts the application of a SLS technology. A new composite material has [...] Read more.
The range of selective laser sintering (SLS) materials is currently limited, and the available materials are often of high cost. Moreover, the mechanical strength of wood–plastic SLS parts is low, which restricts the application of a SLS technology. A new composite material has been proposed to address these issues, while simultaneously valorizing agricultural and forestry waste. This composite presents several advantages, including reduced pollution associated with waste disposal and reduced CO2 emission with the SLS process in addition to good mechanical strength. In this article, a novel and low-cost Prosopis chilensis/polyethersulfone composite (PCPC) was used as a primary material for SLS. The formability of PCPC with various raw material ratios was investigated via single-layer experiments, while the mechanical properties and dimensional accuracy of the parts produced using the various PCPC ratios were evaluated. Further, the microstructure and particle distribution in the PCPC pieces were examined using scanning electron microscopy. The result showed that the SLS part produced via 10/90 (wt/wt) PCPC exhibited the best mechanical strength and forming quality compared to other ratios and pure polyethersulfone (PES), where bending and tensile strengths of 10.78 and 4.94 MPa were measured. To improve the mechanical strength, post-processing infiltration was used and the PCPC-waxed parts were enhanced to 12.38 MPa and 5.73 MPa for bending and tensile strength. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Additive Manufacturing of Polymer-Based Composites)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Effective 1D Time-Dependent Schrödinger Equations for 3D Geometrically Correlated Systems
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3033; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133033 - 07 Jul 2020
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Abstract
The so-called Born–Huang ansatz is a fundamental tool in the context of ab-initio molecular dynamics, viz., it allows effectively separating fast and slow degrees of freedom and thus treating electrons and nuclei with different mathematical footings. Here, we consider the use of a [...] Read more.
The so-called Born–Huang ansatz is a fundamental tool in the context of ab-initio molecular dynamics, viz., it allows effectively separating fast and slow degrees of freedom and thus treating electrons and nuclei with different mathematical footings. Here, we consider the use of a Born–Huang-like expansion of the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation to separate transport and confinement degrees of freedom in electron transport problems that involve geometrical constrictions. The resulting scheme consists of an eigenstate problem for the confinement degrees of freedom (in the transverse direction) whose solution constitutes the input for the propagation of a set of coupled one-dimensional equations of motion for the transport degree of freedom (in the longitudinal direction). This technique achieves quantitative accuracy using an order less computational resources than the full dimensional simulation for a typical two-dimensional geometrical constriction and upto three orders for three-dimensional constriction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanowire Field-Effect Transistor (FET))
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Open AccessArticle
Double-Recycled Reclaimed Asphalt Pavement: A Laboratory Investigation at Low Temperatures Based on Different Mathematical Approaches
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3032; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133032 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 147
Abstract
Using recyclable materials in asphalt pavement is a fundamental design approach not only for limiting the environmental impact of the construction industry, but also for reducing the overall costs of the road infrastructures. Over the past years, road agencies have developed different policies [...] Read more.
Using recyclable materials in asphalt pavement is a fundamental design approach not only for limiting the environmental impact of the construction industry, but also for reducing the overall costs of the road infrastructures. Over the past years, road agencies have developed different policies to incorporate various types of recyclable material into conventional asphalt mixtures. reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) is one of the most highly recycled construction materials. However, the aged RAP binder and its stiffer and brittle characteristics compared to the fresh binder may negatively affect the performance of the recycled mixture, especially when operating in cold climates. In this study, the low-temperature response of asphalt mixture prepared with single-recycled RAP (SRRAP) and double-recycled RAP (DRRAP), prepared in the laboratory, is experimentally investigated based on creep testing performed with the bending beam rheometer (BBR). Then, the data were analyzed based on three simple mathematical models to extract information on material behavior. Finally, a new indicator named thermal stress factor (TFS) on low-temperature response is proposed. Relatively poorer performance was observed from SRRAP mixture compared to the asphalt mixture prepared with virgin material. However, the low-temperature response between SRRAP and DRRAP did not present significant differences. The values of TFS support the experimental results and suggest the possibility of considering re-recycling technology for further research with the objective of a possible application in the asphalt pavement industry. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dynamic Mechanical Response and Damage Mechanism of HTPB Propellant under Impact Loading
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3031; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133031 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 158
Abstract
The dynamic mechanical behaviors of Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant was studied by a split Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus (SHPB) at strain rates ranging from 103 to 104 s−1. The obtained stress–strain curves indicated that the mechanical features, such as [...] Read more.
The dynamic mechanical behaviors of Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant was studied by a split Hopkinson pressure bar apparatus (SHPB) at strain rates ranging from 103 to 104 s−1. The obtained stress–strain curves indicated that the mechanical features, such as ultimate stress and strain energy, were strongly dependent on the strain rate. The real time deformation and fracture evolution of HTPB propellant were captured by a high-speed digital camera accompanied with an SHPB setup. Furthermore, microscopic observation for the post-test specimen was conducted to explore the different damage mechanisms under various conditions of impact loading. The dominated damage characteristics of HTPB propellant were changed from debonding and matrix tearing to multiple cracking modes of ammonium perchlorate (AP) particles, along with the increase of the strain rate. For the first time, the influence of AP particle density on the dynamic response of HTPB propellant was studied by analyzing the strain-rate sensitivity (SRS) index of HTPB propellant with two different filler content (80 wt.% and 85 wt.%), which deduced from a power function of ultimate stress and strain energy density. The result of this study is of significance for evaluating the structural integrity and security of HTPB propellant. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Materials Investigations in Mechanical Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Stiffness Prediction of Connections between CHS Tubes and Externally Welded I-Beams: FE Analyses and Analytical Study
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3030; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133030 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 193
Abstract
Double-tee profiles are the most popular members in Europe and the USA for steel structures. However, more efficient cross-sections, such as circular hollow sections (CHSs), could be adopted, since they can provide higher aesthetic, economic and mechanical benefits, with the only drawback of [...] Read more.
Double-tee profiles are the most popular members in Europe and the USA for steel structures. However, more efficient cross-sections, such as circular hollow sections (CHSs), could be adopted, since they can provide higher aesthetic, economic and mechanical benefits, with the only drawback of more complex connections such as in the case of I-beams welded to the external surface of circular hollow profiles. Based on the ring model theory, developed by Togo, a rule to design the flexural resistance of such a connection has been included in the Eurocode 3 part 1.8, while no formulations are provided to predict the corresponding initial stiffness. The present work aims at filling this knowledge gap, adopting an approach based on experimental, numerical and analytical work. A monotonic and a cyclic test have been performed on two beam-to-column sub-assemblies; the experimental outcomes have been exploited to validate a finite element (FE) model developed in Abaqus and used to numerically perform the monotonic loading simulations of 30 joints. Afterwards, starting from the extracted information about stiffness, a regression analysis was carried out to define the coefficient of a design equation analytically derived applying the component method approach. The regression analysis is characterized by a coefficient of variation equal to 0.19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Conventional vs. Innovative Materials, Tradition and Innovation)
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Open AccessArticle
Magnetic, Structural and Spectroscopic Properties of Iron(II)-Octacyanoniobate(IV) Crystalline Film Obtained by Ion-Exchange Synthesis
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3029; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133029 - 07 Jul 2020
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Abstract
Over recent years, investigations of coordination polymer thin films have been initiated due to their unique properties, which are expected to be strongly enhanced in the thin film form. In this work, a crystalline [FeII(H2O)2]2[Nb [...] Read more.
Over recent years, investigations of coordination polymer thin films have been initiated due to their unique properties, which are expected to be strongly enhanced in the thin film form. In this work, a crystalline [FeII(H2O)2]2[NbIV(CN)8]∙4H2O (1) film on a transparent Nafion membrane was obtained, for the first time, via ion-exchange synthesis. The proper film formation and its composition was confirmed with the use of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy, as well as in situ Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The obtained film were also characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and magnetic measurements. The [FeII(H2O)2]2[NbIV(CN)8]∙4H2O film shows a sharp phase transition to a long-range magnetically ordered state at Tc = 40 K. The 1 film is a soft ferromagnet with the coercive field Hc = 1.2 kOe. Compared to the bulk counterpart, a decrease in critical temperature and a significant increase in the coercive field were observed in the films indicating a distinct size effect. The decrease in Tc could also have been related to the possible partial oxidation of FeII ions to FeIII, which could be efficient, due to the large surface of the thin film sample. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Molecular Magnetic Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Multiscale Characterizations of Surface Anisotropies
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133028 - 07 Jul 2020
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Abstract
Anisotropy can influence surface function and can be an indication of processing. These influences and indications include friction, wetting, and microwear. This article studies two methods for multiscale quantification and visualization of anisotropy. One uses multiscale curvature tensor analysis and shows anisotropy in [...] Read more.
Anisotropy can influence surface function and can be an indication of processing. These influences and indications include friction, wetting, and microwear. This article studies two methods for multiscale quantification and visualization of anisotropy. One uses multiscale curvature tensor analysis and shows anisotropy in horizontal coordinates i.e., topocentric. The other uses multiple bandpass filters (also known as sliding bandpass filters) applied prior to calculating anisotropy parameters, texture aspect ratios (Str) and texture directions (Std), showing anisotropy in horizontal directions only. Topographies were studied on two milled steel surfaces, one convex with an evident large scale, cylindrical form anisotropy, the other nominally flat with smaller scale anisotropies; a µEDMed surface, an example of an isotropic surface; and an additively manufactured surface with pillar-like features. Curvature tensors contain the two principal curvatures, i.e., maximum and minimum curvatures, which are orthogonal, and their directions, at each location. Principal directions are plotted for each calculated location on each surface, at each scale considered. Histograms in horizontal coordinates show altitude and azimuth angles of principal curvatures, elucidating dominant texture directions at each scale. Str and Std do not show vertical components, i.e., altitudes, of anisotropy. Changes of anisotropy with scale categorically failed to be detected by traditional characterization methods used conventionally. These multiscale methods show clearly in several representations that anisotropy changes with scale on actual surface measurements with markedly different anisotropies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Removal of Composite Restoration from the Root Surface in the Cervical Region Using Er: YAG Laser and Drill—In Vitro Study
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3027; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133027 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 199
Abstract
Background: Recently, the defects of the tooth surface in the cervical region are often restored using composite filling materials. It should meet the needs of the patients regarding esthetics and material stability. The aim of the study was to analyze the tooth root [...] Read more.
Background: Recently, the defects of the tooth surface in the cervical region are often restored using composite filling materials. It should meet the needs of the patients regarding esthetics and material stability. The aim of the study was to analyze the tooth root surface at the cervical region after the removal of the composite filling material by means of the Erbium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Er: YAG) laser or drill using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy. Materials and Methods: For the purposes of this study, 14 premolar teeth (n = 14) were removed due to orthodontic reasons. The rectangular shape cavities with 3 mm in width and 1.5 mm in height were prepared with a 0.8 mm bur on high-speed contra-angle in the tooth surface just below cemento-enamel junction (CEJ) and filled with the composite material. The composite material was removed with the Er: YAG laser at a power of 3.4 W, energy 170 mJ, frequency 20 Hz, pulse duration 300 μs, tip diameter 0.8 mm, air/fluid cooling 3 mL/s, and time of irradiation: 6 sec, at a distance from teeth of 2 mm (G1 group, n = 7) or a high-speed contra-angle bur (G2 group, n = 7). After the removal of composite material, the surfaces of teeth were examined using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence microscopy. Results: The Er: YAG irradiation allowed to remove completely the composite material from the tooth cavity. The study confirmed, that the ends of collagen fibers were only partially denatured after the Er: YAG laser application. Conclusion: It has been proved that using the Er: YAG laser is an effective and safe method of composite removal for the dentin surface. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser Processing for Bioengineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Influence of Dentine Pre-Treatment by Sandblasting with Aluminum Oxide in Adhesive Restorations. An In Vitro Study
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3026; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133026 - 07 Jul 2020
Viewed by 278
Abstract
Dentine pretreatment through sandblasting procedures has been widely studied but no curve test results are currently available. Thus, the aim herein was to in vitro compare the adhesive strength in sandblasted or not samples using a universal testing machine. Thirty -two bovine teeth [...] Read more.
Dentine pretreatment through sandblasting procedures has been widely studied but no curve test results are currently available. Thus, the aim herein was to in vitro compare the adhesive strength in sandblasted or not samples using a universal testing machine. Thirty -two bovine teeth were divided into two groups, namely test (n = 16 bars), sandblasting with aluminum oxide particles (50 µm) was performed before the adhesion procedures), and control (n = 16 bars), where no sandblasting procedure was performed. A bi-material curve test was used to evaluate the characteristics of the dentine pretreatment in terms of tensile stress and fracture strength. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to analyze the fracture topography in the composite, bonding, dentin, and at the relative interfaces. The results demonstrated a statistically significant difference between the two groups in terms of tensile stress at maximum load showing values of 84.300 ± 51.342 MPa and 35.071 ± 16.609 MPa, respectively for test and control groups (p = 0.033). Moreover, a fracture strength test showed values of 18.543 ± 8.145 MPa for test and 8.186 ± 2.833 MPa for control group (p = 0.008). In conclusion, the sandblasting treatment of the dentine significantly influenced the mechanical resistance of the adhesion in this in vitro study. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Study on the Self-Organization of an Fe-Mn-C-B Coating during Friction with Surface-Active Lubricant
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3025; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133025 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 257
Abstract
This paper investigates the friction process between an Fe-based coating and C45 steel with surface-active lubrication, as well as examines the coating surface before and after tribological testing. As a result, it is possible to determine whether the surface undergoes self-organization during friction. [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the friction process between an Fe-based coating and C45 steel with surface-active lubrication, as well as examines the coating surface before and after tribological testing. As a result, it is possible to determine whether the surface undergoes self-organization during friction. Coatings were produced by hardfacing a subeutectic alloy Fe-Mn-C-B modified by silicon, nickel, chromium and copper. Tribological tests were performed using a pin-on-disc tribometer. The pin (coating) and the disc made of steel C45 were subjected to heat treatment (hardening and tempering). The tests were carried out under loads of 3 MPa, 7 MPa and 10 MPa at a constant sliding velocity of 0.4 m/s and a sliding distance of 5700 m using a surface-active lubricant (glycerine oil). Obtained results were compared with the published results of previous tests carried out under the same conditions but under a load of 20 MPa. Obtained microscopic and spectroscopic results demonstrate that that the friction pair materials (the coating made of subeutectic alloy Fe-Mn-C-B modified by Si, Ni, Cr, Cu and C45 steel) and the surface-active lubricant cause self-organization during friction. The friction surface of the coatings has a flay-laminar structure and is covered with triboreaction products. The surface shows the presence of wear-resistant compounds such as oxides, carbides, borides and nitrides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Manufacturing Processes and Systems)
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Open AccessArticle
Enhancement of Gas Barrier Properties of Graphene Oxide/Poly (Lactic Acid) Films Using a Solvent-free Method
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3024; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133024 - 06 Jul 2020
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Abstract
Graphene oxide(GO)/polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite, prepared using a solvent-free melt mixing processing, is investigated as a potential oxygen barrier packaging film in this work. In order to disperse GO homogeneously in PLA matrix, hydrophobic silane coupling agent, i.e., γ-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)propyltrimethoxysilane (KH560), is used to [...] Read more.
Graphene oxide(GO)/polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposite, prepared using a solvent-free melt mixing processing, is investigated as a potential oxygen barrier packaging film in this work. In order to disperse GO homogeneously in PLA matrix, hydrophobic silane coupling agent, i.e., γ-(2,3-epoxypropoxy)propyltrimethoxysilane (KH560), is used to modify the graphene oxide sheets. The modified GO is able to be well bonded to the PLA due to the formation of covalent bonds between the epoxy groups of KH560 and the carboxyl and hydroxyl terminal groups of PLA. Furthermore, the thermal stability of GO is enhanced due to the long alkyl side chain of KH560, which could also increase the crystallinity of PLA. As a result, the crystallinity of PLA is significantly improved because of the linear KH560 chains, which can act as nucleating agents to improve the crystallization. The KH560-GO helps to reduce the O2 permeability of KH560-GO/PLA composite films via a dual-action mechanism: (1) providing physical barrier due to their native barrier properties, and (2) by resulting in higher degree of crystallinity. The as-prepared KH560-GO0.75/PLA is able to exhibit ca. 33% and ca. 13% decrease in the PO2 than the neat PLA and GO0.75/PLA film, respectively. Finally, the mechanical properties and impact fractured surfaces indicate that the increase in the tensile strength and elongation at break value of KH560-GO/PLA are due to the strong interfacial adhesion and the strong bonding between the epoxy group of KH560-GO and hydroxyl and carboxyl acid terminal groups of PLA matrix. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Potential of Mineral Fraction in Compost-Like-Output, Methods of Its Obtaining and the Possibility of Using It in the Context of Circular Economy
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3023; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133023 - 06 Jul 2020
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Abstract
Most of the systems for the mechanical and biological treatment of waste used in Poland send the 0–80 mm fraction separated from the municipal waste stream, after biostabilization, entirely to a landfill. Such action is not in line with the adopted EU strategy [...] Read more.
Most of the systems for the mechanical and biological treatment of waste used in Poland send the 0–80 mm fraction separated from the municipal waste stream, after biostabilization, entirely to a landfill. Such action is not in line with the adopted EU strategy focused on waste management in the circular cycle. The purpose of this work was to assess the technical feasibility of recovering the mineral fractions contained in compost-like-output (CLO) on the proprietary technological line designed for glass recovery. The research was launched in January 2019, and lasted for a subsequent 12 months. In the article, the amounts of mineral fractions possible to be separated from CLO are presented, as well as their morphological composition and selected properties being determined. The processing of CLO on the line allowed to recover on average 69.4 ± 7.0% of the glass. This product was accepted by glass recycling plants. Mineral fractions constituting waste from the glass separation process were tested for their use in winter road maintenance. Tests were also carried out confirming the possibility of using selected mineral fractions (0–10 mm) from CLO to obtain a waste cement mix useful for constructing road foundations using a standard amount of cement. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
New Zirconium Diboride Polymorphs—First-Principles Calculations
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3022; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133022 - 06 Jul 2020
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Abstract
Two new hypothetical zirconium diboride (ZrB 2 ) polymorphs: (hP6-P6 3 /mmc-space group, no. 194) and (oP6-Pmmn-space group, no. 59), were thoroughly studied under the first-principles density functional theory calculations from the structural, mechanical and thermodynamic properties point of [...] Read more.
Two new hypothetical zirconium diboride (ZrB 2 ) polymorphs: (hP6-P6 3 /mmc-space group, no. 194) and (oP6-Pmmn-space group, no. 59), were thoroughly studied under the first-principles density functional theory calculations from the structural, mechanical and thermodynamic properties point of view. The proposed phases are thermodynamically stable (negative formation enthalpy). Studies of mechanical properties indicate that new polymorphs are less hard than the known phase (hP3-P6/mmm-space group, no. 191) and are not brittle. Analysis of phonon band structure and density of states (DOS) also show that the phonon modes have positive frequencies everywhere and the new ZrB 2 phases are not only mechanically but also dynamically stable. The estimated acoustic Debye temperature, Θ D , for the two new proposed ZrB 2 phases is about 760 K. The thermodynamic properties such as internal energy, free energy, entropy and constant-volume specific heat are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Simulation and Design)
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Open AccessArticle
Cross-Linked Polythiomethacrylate Esters Based on Naphthalene—Synthesis, Properties and Reprocessing
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3021; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133021 - 06 Jul 2020
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Abstract
Two structurally different aromatic dithioesters were synthesized from two dithiols and methacryloyl chloride. The polymer networks based on methyl methacrylate and/or styrene and the new dimethacrylates were subsequently prepared. The polymerization yields of copolymers were in the range of 95–99%. The thermal and [...] Read more.
Two structurally different aromatic dithioesters were synthesized from two dithiols and methacryloyl chloride. The polymer networks based on methyl methacrylate and/or styrene and the new dimethacrylates were subsequently prepared. The polymerization yields of copolymers were in the range of 95–99%. The thermal and mechanical properties of the copolymers were determined by means of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TG/DTG), and Shore D hardness. The addition of dithioesters—1,5-NAF-S-Met (or 1,4(1,5)-NAF-CH2S-Met) (from 0.5% to 5%) to MMA- or ST-based polymers results in lowering the glass transition temperature (Tg) by about 8 °C. The thioester-containing polymers based on MMA exhibit lower thermal stability than those with ST. The polythioesters are stable up to 250 °C. The UV/vis spectra and refractive indexes of prepared liquid compositions were also measured. The 1,5-NAF-S-Met (and 1,4(1,5)-NAF-CH2S-Met) improved the refractive index values of ST and MMA compositions. The double bond conversion was also determined for all synthesized materials. The swelling studies of polymers with 20% addition of thioester crosslinkers were investigated. For all polymeric materials with 20% addition of thioesters, depolymerization of the network was carried out by thiol-thioester exchange. The depolymerization products were re-reacted in a thiol-ene reaction with 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate by thermal initiation. The thiol-ene procedure enabled reprocessing of starting polymers and obtaining new materials characterized by distinctly different thermal, mechanical, and swelling properties. The thiol-ene materials exhibit a lower Shore hardness in the range of 20–50 °Sh, as well as decreased Tg values when compared to starting copolymers. Due to these possible exchange reactions, one can facilely manipulate the properties of the polymers which could lead to the manufacturing of the new products with the desired features. Degradation of the cross-linked structure and recycling of copolymers were also discussed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Carbonyl-Terminated Quinoidal Oligothiophenes as p-Type Organic Semiconductors
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3020; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133020 - 06 Jul 2020
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Abstract
A series of quinoidal oligothiophenes terminated with carbonyl groups (nTDs, n = 2–4) are studied as p-type organic semiconductors for the active materials in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) both by the theoretical and experimental approaches. The theoretical calculations clearly show their [...] Read more.
A series of quinoidal oligothiophenes terminated with carbonyl groups (nTDs, n = 2–4) are studied as p-type organic semiconductors for the active materials in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) both by the theoretical and experimental approaches. The theoretical calculations clearly show their high-lying highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy levels (EHOMOs), small reorganization energies for hole transport (λholes), and large contribution of sulfur atoms to HOMOs, all of which are desirable for p-type organic semiconductors. Thus, we synthesized nTDs from the corresponding aromatic oligothiophene precursors and then evaluated their physicochemical properties and structural properties. These experimental evaluations of nTDs nicely proved the theoretical predictions, and the largest 4TDs in the series (4,4′′′-dihexyl- and 3′,4,4″,4′′′-tetrahexyl-5H,5′′′H-[2,2′:5′,2″:5″,2′′′-quaterthiophene]-5,5′′′-dione) can afford solution-processed OFETs showing unipolar p-type behaviors and hole mobility as high as 0.026 cm2 V−1 s−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Transistors: Current Status and Opportunities)
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Open AccessArticle
The Stress Concentration Mechanism of Pores Affecting the Tensile Properties in Vacuum Die Casting Metals
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3019; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133019 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 201
Abstract
The absolute pressure strongly affects the porosity and mechanical properties of castings produced by vacuum high-pressure die casting (V-HPDC) technology. The pore size, quantity and distribution of AlSi9Cu3 samples under three absolute pressures were evaluated by X-ray tomography and optical [...] Read more.
The absolute pressure strongly affects the porosity and mechanical properties of castings produced by vacuum high-pressure die casting (V-HPDC) technology. The pore size, quantity and distribution of AlSi9Cu3 samples under three absolute pressures were evaluated by X-ray tomography and optical and electron microscopy. The paper presents an elaboration the stress concentration mechanism of pores affecting the tensile properties. According to a mathematical analysis of a sample under uniaxial stress, the greater the radius of the pore, the higher the stress value is at the pore perimeter. When the absolute pressure drops from 1013 mbar to 100 mbar, the porosity decreases from 6.8% to 2.8%, and the pore number and mean size decreases. In tensile tests, the pore sizes of the fracture surface decrease with decreasing absolute pressure, and the pore distribution becomes uniform. The tensile properties and extensibility of the sample are improved, and the microscopic fracture surface of the sample changes from cleavage fracture to quasi-cleavage fracture. The number, size and distribution of pores in die casting collectively affect the properties of the sample. Large-size or complex pores or pores with concentrated distributions produce large stress concentrations, decreasing the strength of the metal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Materials Physics)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of a New Type of Shrinkage-Reducing Agent on Concrete Properties
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3018; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133018 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 196
Abstract
Shrinkage-reducing agents have been developed to mitigate shrinkage and to control cracks in concrete. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a newly developed shrinkage-reducing agent (N-SRA) on concrete properties and to compare its properties with a conventional shrinkage-reducing agent (C-SRA). The [...] Read more.
Shrinkage-reducing agents have been developed to mitigate shrinkage and to control cracks in concrete. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a newly developed shrinkage-reducing agent (N-SRA) on concrete properties and to compare its properties with a conventional shrinkage-reducing agent (C-SRA). The hydration rate, compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, shrinkage, occurrence of cracking, and freezing and thawing were investigated. N-SRA showed higher surface tension than C-SRA and reduced shrinkage to the same degree as C-SRA with half the dosage of C-SRA. The addition of N-SRA or C-SRA did not influence the early compressive strength but slightly reduced splitting tensile strength at seven days. Concrete with N-SRA showed higher compressive strength at 28 days than those of concrete with C-SRA or without SRA. Furthermore, concrete with N-SRA extended the period for the occurrence of shrinkage cracking under restrained conditions. It was found that N-SRA provided excellent freezing and thawing resistance because of the formation of good air voids, while C-SRA demonstrated inefficient behaviour in such an environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovative Materials for Construction)
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Open AccessArticle
The Effects of Micro-Segregation on Isothermal Transformed Nano Bainitic Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Laser Cladded Coatings
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3017; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133017 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 219
Abstract
The design of metastable retained austenite is the key issue to obtain nano bainitic steel with high strength and toughness. In this study, nanostructured Fe-based bainitic coatings were fabricated using laser cladding and following isothermal heat treatment. The microstructures and mechanical properties of [...] Read more.
The design of metastable retained austenite is the key issue to obtain nano bainitic steel with high strength and toughness. In this study, nanostructured Fe-based bainitic coatings were fabricated using laser cladding and following isothermal heat treatment. The microstructures and mechanical properties of the laser cladded coating were investigated. The results show that the Mn, Cr, Co, and Al segregated at the solidified prior grain boundaries. The micro-segregation of the solutes strongly influenced the stability of the austenite. As the isothermal temperature decreases, the interface of the bainite and blocky retained austenite approach to the prior interdendritic regions with the decreasing isothermal temperature, and the final volume fraction also decreases. The volume fractions of each phase and microstructure morphology of the coatings were determined by the interdendritic micro-segregation and isothermal temperatures. The stability of the blocky retained austenite distributed at the interdendritic area was lower than that of film and island-like morphology. This phenomenon contributed to the ductile and tough nano bainitic coatings with tunable mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Treatment Technologies for Metallic Alloys)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Energy Localization through Locally Resonant Materials
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3016; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133016 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 193
Abstract
Among the attractive properties of metamaterials, the capability of focusing and localizing waves has recently attracted research interest to establish novel energy harvester configurations. In the same frame, in this work, we develop and optimize a system for concentrating mechanical energy carried by [...] Read more.
Among the attractive properties of metamaterials, the capability of focusing and localizing waves has recently attracted research interest to establish novel energy harvester configurations. In the same frame, in this work, we develop and optimize a system for concentrating mechanical energy carried by elastic anti-plane waves. The system, resembling a Fabry-Pérot interferometer, has two barriers composed of Locally Resonant Materials (LRMs) and separated by a homogeneous internal cavity. The attenuation properties of the LRMs allow for the localization of waves propagating at particular frequencies. With proper assumptions on the specific ternary LRMs, the separation of scales (between the considered wave lengths and the characteristic dimension of the employed unit cells) enables the use of a two-scale asymptotic technique for computing the effective behavior of the employed LRMs. This leads to a complete analytic description of the motion of the system. Here we report the results achieved by optimizing the geometry of the system for obtaining a maximum focusing of the incoming mechanical energy. The analytic results are then validated through numerical simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Locally Resonant Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study on Mechanical and Functional Properties of Reduced Graphene Oxide/Cement Composites
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3015; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133015 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 202
Abstract
This study develops a novel self-sensing cement composite by simply mixing reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in cementitious material. The experimental results indicate that, owing to the excellent dispersion method, the nucleation and two-dimensional morphological effect of rGO optimizes the microstructure inside cement-based material. [...] Read more.
This study develops a novel self-sensing cement composite by simply mixing reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in cementitious material. The experimental results indicate that, owing to the excellent dispersion method, the nucleation and two-dimensional morphological effect of rGO optimizes the microstructure inside cement-based material. This would increase the electric conductivity, thermal property and self-induction system of cement material, making it much easier for cementitious material to better warn about impending damage. The use of rGO can improve the electric conductivity and electric shielding property of rGO-paste by 23% and 45%. The remarkable enhancement was that the voltage change rate of 1.00 wt.%-rGO paste under six-cycle loads increased from 4% to 12.6%, with strain sensitivity up to 363.10, without compromising the mechanical properties. The maximum compressive strength of the rGO-mortar can be increased from 55 MPa to 71 MPa. In conclusion, the research findings provide an effective strategy to functionalize cement materials by mixing rGO and to achieve the stronger electric shielding property and higher-pressure sensitivity of rGO–cement composites, leading to the development of a novel high strength self-sensing cement material with a flexural strength up to 49%. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Concrete and Construction Materials)
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Open AccessArticle
The Luminescence of 1,8-Diazafluoren-9-One/Titanium Dioxide Composite Thin Films for Optical Application
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3014; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133014 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 216
Abstract
The investigation of innovative label-free α-amino acids detection methods represents a crucial step for the early diagnosis of several diseases. While 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one (DFO) is known in forensic application because of the fluorescent products by reacting with the amino acids present in the papillary [...] Read more.
The investigation of innovative label-free α-amino acids detection methods represents a crucial step for the early diagnosis of several diseases. While 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one (DFO) is known in forensic application because of the fluorescent products by reacting with the amino acids present in the papillary exudate, its application for diagnostic purposes has not been fully investigated. The stabilization of DFO over a transparent substrate allows its complexation with biomolecules for the detection of α-amino acids. In this study, DFO was immobilized into a titanium dioxide (TiO2) matrix for the fluorescence detection of glycine, as a target α-amino acid (a potential marker of the urogenital tract cancers). The DFO/TiO2 composite was characterized by atomic force microscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The performed fluorescent studies indicate spectacular formation of aggregates at higher concentration. The measurements performed using various fluorescence and microscopic techniques together with the suitable analysis show that the aggregates are able to emit short-lived fluorescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid and Composite Coatings and Thin Films)
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Open AccessArticle
Microstructure and Charpy Impact Toughness of a 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V Steel Weld Metal
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3013; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133013 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 193
Abstract
The demand for heat-resistant steel has increased owing to its utility in numerous devices that must withstand high steam pressures and high temperatures, such as turbine rotors and blades in ultra-supercritical power plants. It is inevitable to join heat-resistance steel part by welding [...] Read more.
The demand for heat-resistant steel has increased owing to its utility in numerous devices that must withstand high steam pressures and high temperatures, such as turbine rotors and blades in ultra-supercritical power plants. It is inevitable to join heat-resistance steel part by welding method, so it is important to maintain the toughness of the weld metals. In this study, the microstructure, low-temperature impact toughness, and fracture surface of as-welded and post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) of 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V weld metal were investigated. The microstructures of the as-welded and PWHT specimens are granular bainite and ferrite, respectively. This work revealed the relationship between effective microstructure nearby crack initiation origin and low temperature impact toughness for both the as-welded and PWHT specimens. The evolution of the microstructure and prior austenite was then investigated using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) to observe the formation of coarse ferrite grain structures. A suggestion for enhancing the low-temperature toughness was provided based on the effect of adjusting Mn content and forming acicular ferrite. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment and Characterization of Some New Photosensitizers for Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT)
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3012; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133012 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 192
Abstract
The novelty of this study consists on the formulation and evaluation of five complex experimental natural photosensitizers (PS): gel with oregano essential oil (O), gel with methylene blue (AM), gel with a mixture of essential oils (Thieves-H), gel with arnica oil and curcuma [...] Read more.
The novelty of this study consists on the formulation and evaluation of five complex experimental natural photosensitizers (PS): gel with oregano essential oil (O), gel with methylene blue (AM), gel with a mixture of essential oils (Thieves-H), gel with arnica oil and curcuma extract (CU) and gel with frankincense essential oil (T), used as photosensitizing agents (PS) in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) in the control of microbial biofilm in oral cavity. The experimental PS were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-Vis spectroscopy, cytotoxicity assay, antimicrobial effect and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The IR spectra of the experimental PS with essential oils exhibit absorption bands due to the presence of water and glycerol in high quantities. The studied compounds had a reduced cytotoxic effect on cell cultures. The lowest cytotoxic effect was observed in experimental PS with oregano essential oil and methylene blue PS. Essential oils with proven antibacterial capabilities used in experimental PS confer antibacterial activity to the gels in which they are incorporated, an activity that may be more efficient use of a PDT therapy. Single bacteria were detected mainly by SEM after 12 h, while aggregate bacteria and micro colonies dominated the samples at 48 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Dental Restorative Materials)
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