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Open AccessArticle

Multiscale Characterizations of Surface Anisotropies

Institute of Mechanical Technology, Poznan University of Technology, 60-965 Poznań, Poland
Department of Manufacturing, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, SE-43153 Mölndal, Sweden
Department of Industrial and Materials Science, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden
Surface Metrology Lab, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA 01609, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3028;
Received: 22 May 2020 / Revised: 30 June 2020 / Accepted: 2 July 2020 / Published: 7 July 2020
Anisotropy can influence surface function and can be an indication of processing. These influences and indications include friction, wetting, and microwear. This article studies two methods for multiscale quantification and visualization of anisotropy. One uses multiscale curvature tensor analysis and shows anisotropy in horizontal coordinates i.e., topocentric. The other uses multiple bandpass filters (also known as sliding bandpass filters) applied prior to calculating anisotropy parameters, texture aspect ratios (Str) and texture directions (Std), showing anisotropy in horizontal directions only. Topographies were studied on two milled steel surfaces, one convex with an evident large scale, cylindrical form anisotropy, the other nominally flat with smaller scale anisotropies; a µEDMed surface, an example of an isotropic surface; and an additively manufactured surface with pillar-like features. Curvature tensors contain the two principal curvatures, i.e., maximum and minimum curvatures, which are orthogonal, and their directions, at each location. Principal directions are plotted for each calculated location on each surface, at each scale considered. Histograms in horizontal coordinates show altitude and azimuth angles of principal curvatures, elucidating dominant texture directions at each scale. Str and Std do not show vertical components, i.e., altitudes, of anisotropy. Changes of anisotropy with scale categorically failed to be detected by traditional characterization methods used conventionally. These multiscale methods show clearly in several representations that anisotropy changes with scale on actual surface measurements with markedly different anisotropies. View Full-Text
Keywords: surface texture; anisotropy; multiscale surface texture; anisotropy; multiscale
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bartkowiak, T.; Berglund, J.; Brown, C.A. Multiscale Characterizations of Surface Anisotropies. Materials 2020, 13, 3028.

AMA Style

Bartkowiak T, Berglund J, Brown CA. Multiscale Characterizations of Surface Anisotropies. Materials. 2020; 13(13):3028.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bartkowiak, Tomasz; Berglund, Johan; Brown, Christopher A. 2020. "Multiscale Characterizations of Surface Anisotropies" Materials 13, no. 13: 3028.

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