Special Issue "Advanced Surface Treatment Technologies for Metallic Alloys"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Metals and Alloys".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 September 2021.

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Petricǎ Vizureanu
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Departamentul de Tehnologii şi Echipamente pentru Procesarea Materialelor, Universitatea Tehnica Gh. Asachi din IasI, Iasi, Romania
Interests: material processing engineering; heat treatment; corrosion; hard coating; biomedical and aeronautical applications
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We would like to invite you to submit your work to this Special Issue on “Advanced Surface Treatment Technologies for Metallic Alloys”. The scope of this Special Issue includes advanced surface treatment solutions applied to metallic alloys, which are cost-effective, energy-efficient, and safe for operators and the environment. The aim of this Special Issue is to present the latest experimental and theoretical achievements in the field, through a combination of original research papers and review articles from leading research groups around the world. Scientific and technological progress has been achieved on this topic by universities and research institutes worldwide. Furthermore, advanced surface treatment is very well known by scientists, and can improve the properties of any kind of metallic alloys.

In particular, the topics of interest include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Mechanical coating/alloying/treatment of the metallic alloys;
  • Heat/thermo/chemical treatment of the metallic alloys;
  • Nonconventional treatment applied to metallic alloys, such as: thermo/mechanical coating, including electrochemical machining, abrasive flow machining, shot blasting, shot peening, turbo-abrasive machining, centrifugal barreling finish, centrifugal isotropic finishing, and so on;
  • Metallic biomaterials coatings applied, but not limited to, Ti-based alloys, CoCr alloys, and stainless steels.

Prof. Dr. Petricǎ Vizureanu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Thermical surface treatment
  • Thermochemical surface treatment
  • Mechanical surface treatment
  • Machining
  • Blasting
  • Biometallic alloys
  • Coating
  • Thermical surface treatment.

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Article
The Effect of Sandblasting on Properties and Structures of the DC03/1.0347, DC04/1.0338, DC05/1.0312, and DD14/1.0389 Steels for Deep Drawing
Materials 2021, 14(13), 3540; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14133540 - 25 Jun 2021
Viewed by 327
Abstract
The erosion phenomenon has a significant influence on many metallic materials used in numerous industrial sectors. In this paper, we present the results of an analysis of the influence of abrasive impact erosion on surface and properties of DC03/1.0347, DC04/1.0338, DC05/1.0312, and DD14/1.0389 [...] Read more.
The erosion phenomenon has a significant influence on many metallic materials used in numerous industrial sectors. In this paper, we present the results of an analysis of the influence of abrasive impact erosion on surface and properties of DC03/1.0347, DC04/1.0338, DC05/1.0312, and DD14/1.0389 deep drawing steels. The chemical composition, static tensile tests, hardness tests, drawability tests, erosion tests, microstructure analysis, surface roughness, and hardness of the plates were investigated. The wear mechanisms and wear behavior of the investigated steels were also discussed. The results obtained in this study allowed the assessment of the microstructural changes in deep drawing steels under the influence of intense erosive impact. The obtained results indicate that the erosive impact may cause a significant grain refinement of the microstructure of the surfaces of the investigated materials. Moreover, large amounts of heat released during erosive impact may cause the material phase changes. This research expands the knowledge on specific mechanisms taking place during sandblasting and their influence on the properties of deep drawing steels and their wear behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Treatment Technologies for Metallic Alloys)
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Article
Influence of Silver as a Catalyst on the Growth of β-Ga2O3 Nanowires on GaAs
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5377; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13235377 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 574
Abstract
A simple and inexpensive thermal oxidation process was performed to synthesize gallium oxide (Ga2O3) nanowires using Ag thin film as a catalyst at 800 °C and 1000 °C to understand the effect of the silver catalyst on the nanowire [...] Read more.
A simple and inexpensive thermal oxidation process was performed to synthesize gallium oxide (Ga2O3) nanowires using Ag thin film as a catalyst at 800 °C and 1000 °C to understand the effect of the silver catalyst on the nanowire growth. The effect of doping and orientation of the substrates on the growth of Ga2O3 nanowires on single-crystal gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafers in atmosphere were investigated. A comprehensive study of the oxide film and nanowire growth was performed using various characterization techniques including XRD, SEM, EDS, focused ion beam (FIB), XPS and STEM. Based on the characterization results, we believe that Ag thin film produces Ag nanoparticles at high temperatures and enhances the reaction between oxygen and gallium, contributing to denser and longer Ga2O3 nanowires compared to those grown without silver catalyst. This process can be optimized for large-scale production of high-quality, dense, and long nanowires. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Treatment Technologies for Metallic Alloys)
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Article
Phosphate Surface Treatment for Improving the Corrosion Resistance of the C45 Carbon Steel Used in Carabiners Manufacturing
Materials 2020, 13(15), 3410; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13153410 - 02 Aug 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 851
Abstract
This study approaches the issues which appear during carabiner use and analyses the possibility to eliminate them. Therefore, to improve the corrosion resistance of carbon steel, used in carabiners manufacturing, three different insoluble phosphate layers were deposited on the samples’ surface. The layers [...] Read more.
This study approaches the issues which appear during carabiner use and analyses the possibility to eliminate them. Therefore, to improve the corrosion resistance of carbon steel, used in carabiners manufacturing, three different insoluble phosphate layers were deposited on the samples’ surface. The layers were obtained by immersion in zinc-based phosphate solution, zinc/iron-based phosphate solution and manganese-based phosphate solution, Afterwards, to protect against mechanical shocks, a layer of elastomer-based paint was deposited. Furthermore, to reduce rope wear by decreasing the value of the coefficient of friction, the samples were impregnated in molybdenum disulfide-based lubricant. This study aims to analyse the corrosion behaviour of the layers deposited on the carbon steel surface in three of the most common corrosive environments (rainwater, seawater and fire extinguishing solution) by linear and cyclic polarisation. The overall results show that all types of deposited layers increase the corrosion resistance of C45 steel. The experimental results revealed that the samples coated with a phosphate layer obtained by immersion in the zinc-based phosphate solution possess the highest corrosion resistance among the phosphate samples. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Treatment Technologies for Metallic Alloys)
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Article
Revealing the Influence of Microparticles on Geopolymers’ Synthesis and Porosity
Materials 2020, 13(14), 3211; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13143211 - 18 Jul 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 840
Abstract
Geopolymers are zeolites like structures based on hydrated aluminosilicates units of SiO4 and AlO4. These units, known as poly(sialate), poly(sialate)-siloxo or poly(sialate)-disiloxo are chemically balanced by the group I cations of K+, Li+, or Na+ [...] Read more.
Geopolymers are zeolites like structures based on hydrated aluminosilicates units of SiO4 and AlO4. These units, known as poly(sialate), poly(sialate)-siloxo or poly(sialate)-disiloxo are chemically balanced by the group I cations of K+, Li+, or Na+. Simultaneously, the chemical reaction of formation, known as geopolymerization, governs the orientation of the unit, generating mesoporous structures. Multiple methods can be used for pore structure and porosity characterization. Among them, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxometry allows the detection of the porous structure in a completely nonperturbative manner. NMR relaxometry may be used to monitor the relaxation of protons belonging to the liquid molecules confined inside the porous structure and, thus, to get access to the pore size distribution. This monitoring can take place even during the polymerization process. The present study implements transverse relaxation measurements to monitor the influence introduced by the curing time on the residual liquid phase of geopolymers prepared with two different types of reinforcing particles. According to our results, the obtained geopolymers contain three types of pores formed by the arrangement of the OH and Si groups (Si-OH), Si-O-Si groups, Si-O-Al groups, and Si-O rings. After 48 days, the samples cured for 8 h show a high percentage of all three types of pores, however, by increasing the curing time and the percentage of reinforcing particle, the percent of pores decrease, especially, the gel pores. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Treatment Technologies for Metallic Alloys)
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Article
Properties of Cu-xFe3O4 Nanocomposites for Electrical Application
Materials 2020, 13(14), 3086; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13143086 - 10 Jul 2020
Viewed by 560
Abstract
Copper matrix nanocomposites reinforced with magnetite nanoparticles were developed using powder metallurgy. Various processing parameters were taken into consideration, such as magnetite content, compaction pressure, sintering time and temperature. The nanopowder blends were compacted using various uniaxial pressures and sintered at 650 and [...] Read more.
Copper matrix nanocomposites reinforced with magnetite nanoparticles were developed using powder metallurgy. Various processing parameters were taken into consideration, such as magnetite content, compaction pressure, sintering time and temperature. The nanopowder blends were compacted using various uniaxial pressures and sintered at 650 and 800 °C in order to study the influence of processing parameters on morphology, structure, thermal, magnetic and mechanical properties. The structure and morphology of the nanocomposites analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), bright field transmission electron microscopy (TEMBF) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that sintered composites retained the nanoscale characteristics of the initial Fe3O4 and Cu nanopowders. These nanocomposites have good cold-rolling deformability and Vickers micro-hardness. The Cu-xFe3O4 nanocomposites have thermal and magnetic properties that make them suitable for electronical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Treatment Technologies for Metallic Alloys)
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Article
The Effects of Micro-Segregation on Isothermal Transformed Nano Bainitic Microstructure and Mechanical Properties in Laser Cladded Coatings
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3017; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133017 - 06 Jul 2020
Viewed by 670
Abstract
The design of metastable retained austenite is the key issue to obtain nano bainitic steel with high strength and toughness. In this study, nanostructured Fe-based bainitic coatings were fabricated using laser cladding and following isothermal heat treatment. The microstructures and mechanical properties of [...] Read more.
The design of metastable retained austenite is the key issue to obtain nano bainitic steel with high strength and toughness. In this study, nanostructured Fe-based bainitic coatings were fabricated using laser cladding and following isothermal heat treatment. The microstructures and mechanical properties of the laser cladded coating were investigated. The results show that the Mn, Cr, Co, and Al segregated at the solidified prior grain boundaries. The micro-segregation of the solutes strongly influenced the stability of the austenite. As the isothermal temperature decreases, the interface of the bainite and blocky retained austenite approach to the prior interdendritic regions with the decreasing isothermal temperature, and the final volume fraction also decreases. The volume fractions of each phase and microstructure morphology of the coatings were determined by the interdendritic micro-segregation and isothermal temperatures. The stability of the blocky retained austenite distributed at the interdendritic area was lower than that of film and island-like morphology. This phenomenon contributed to the ductile and tough nano bainitic coatings with tunable mechanical properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Treatment Technologies for Metallic Alloys)
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Article
Effect of Al Content in Magnesium Alloy on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Laser-Welded Mg/Ti Dissimilar Joints
Materials 2020, 13(12), 2743; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13122743 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 608
Abstract
Laser penetration welding of magnesium alloys and pure titanium TA2 with unequal thickness was performed. Mg base metal with different Al content (AZ31B, AZ61A, AZ91D) was used to investigate the influence of Al element in microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg/Ti dissimilar joints. [...] Read more.
Laser penetration welding of magnesium alloys and pure titanium TA2 with unequal thickness was performed. Mg base metal with different Al content (AZ31B, AZ61A, AZ91D) was used to investigate the influence of Al element in microstructure and mechanical properties of Mg/Ti dissimilar joints. The results revealed that the change of Mg base metal did not influence the weld appearance of the joints. Three kinds of joint all presented the best mechanical property when the laser power was 3500 W. With the increase content of Al elements in Mg base metal, a reaction layer was observed which was identified as Ti3Al. The highest enrichment of Al element was obtained and its fraction reached 19.31 at% at the AZ91/TA2 interface. The chemical potential gradient of Al from AZ91 to Ti alloy was higher than that from the other two base metals based on thermodynamic calculation. The maximum fracture load reached 3597 N when AZ61 was employed as the base metal and the fracture position was the Ti base metal. AZ31/TA2 joints failed at the weld seam without necking due to the rapid propagation of cracks at the Mg/Ti interface. The AZ91/TA2 joint failed inside the Mg fusion zone with necking at the middle area of the weld, which resulted from the precipitation of brittle phases such as Mg–Al, Ti–Al phases in the fusion zone of Mg alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Treatment Technologies for Metallic Alloys)
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Article
Effects of Mn, Zn Additions and Cooling Rate on Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of Al-4.6Mg Casting Alloys
Materials 2020, 13(8), 1983; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13081983 - 24 Apr 2020
Viewed by 759
Abstract
The mechanical properties of the Al-Mg alloy can be enhanced by adding metallic elements, but a continuous distribution of precipitates at grain boundaries leads to intergranular corrosion during sensitization treatment. In the present work, Mn, Zn additions, water cooling and furnace cooling were [...] Read more.
The mechanical properties of the Al-Mg alloy can be enhanced by adding metallic elements, but a continuous distribution of precipitates at grain boundaries leads to intergranular corrosion during sensitization treatment. In the present work, Mn, Zn additions, water cooling and furnace cooling were executed to investigate their effects on the mechanical and corrosion properties of the Al-4.6Mg alloy. Our results show that adding Mn to Al-4.6Mg alloys may produce grain refinement and dispersion strengthening, increasing tensile strength and hardness. The presence of Mn did not affect the corrosion resistance of Al-Mg alloys. Adding Zn to the Al-4.6Mg alloy increased tensile strength and hardness, but decreased corrosion resistance. Combined, the addition of Mn and Zn to the Al-4.6Mg alloy exhibited the highest tensile strength and hardness, but seriously reduced corrosion resistance. Furnace cooling substituted for water quenching could avoid intergranular corrosion, but slightly decreased the tensile strength and hardness by 7.0% and 6.8%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Treatment Technologies for Metallic Alloys)
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Article
Effect of Magnetic Head Shape on Processing of Titanium Alloy Wire by Magnetic Abrasive Finishing
Materials 2020, 13(6), 1401; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13061401 - 19 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 817
Abstract
Titanium alloy wire is characterized by high specific strength, good corrosion resistance, high-temperature resistance and other excellent comprehensive performance. It has been widely used not only in aerospace, shipbuilding and other high-tech fields, but also increasingly in medical equipment, food safety and other [...] Read more.
Titanium alloy wire is characterized by high specific strength, good corrosion resistance, high-temperature resistance and other excellent comprehensive performance. It has been widely used not only in aerospace, shipbuilding and other high-tech fields, but also increasingly in medical equipment, food safety and other fields. Because titanium alloy wire is relatively difficult to process, it has a large deformation resistance, good elasticity, high flexion ratio and more serious rebound. During the processing, adhesion problems may occur, thus reducing the surface quality. The magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) has good flexible machining characteristics. In this study, the rotating magnetic field was loaded on the titanium alloy wire, and the magnetic abrasive was absorbed by the magnetic field force to form a magnetic abrasive brush, so as to realize the precision processing of the titanium alloy wire. Under the same processing time, when the angle of the magnetic head was 37°, the surface roughness of titanium alloy wire was reduced to 0.28 μm by MAF, which improved the processing quality and efficiency of the titanium alloy wire. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Treatment Technologies for Metallic Alloys)
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Article
Investigation into the Effect of Thermal Treatment on the Obtaining of Magnetic Phases: Fe5Y, Fe23B6, Y2Fe14B and αFe within the Amorphous Matrix of Rapidly-Quenched Fe61+xCo10−xW1Y8B20 Alloys (Where x = 0, 1 or 2)
Materials 2020, 13(4), 835; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13040835 - 12 Feb 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 594
Abstract
The paper presents the results of research on the structure and magnetic properties of Fe61+xCo10−xW1Y8B20 alloys (where x = 0, 1 or 2). The alloys were produced using two production methods with [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of research on the structure and magnetic properties of Fe61+xCo10−xW1Y8B20 alloys (where x = 0, 1 or 2). The alloys were produced using two production methods with similar cooling rates: Injection casting and suction casting. The alloy samples produced were subjected to isothermal annealing at 940 K for 10 min. The structure of the materials was examined using X-ray diffraction. Isothermal annealing has led to the formation of various crystallization products depending on the chemical composition of the alloy and the structure of the alloy in a solidified state. In two cases, the product of crystallization was the hard magnetic phase Y2Fe14B. However, the mechanism of this phase formation was different in both cases. The magnetic properties of alloys were tested using a vibrating sample magnetometer and a Faraday magnetic balance. It is found that the grain crystallite size of the crystalline phases have a decisive influence on the value of the coercive field (especially in the case of hard magnetic phases). It has been shown that privileged areas can already be created during the production process. Their presence determines the crystallization process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Treatment Technologies for Metallic Alloys)
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Article
Effect of the Application of Different Surface Treatment Methods on the Strength of Titanium Alloy Sheet Adhesive Lap Joints
Materials 2019, 12(24), 4173; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12244173 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 743
Abstract
This study investigated the effect of the different surface treatment methods on the strength of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy sheet adhesive joints. The following surface treatment methods were used: alkaline degreasing, anodizing, vibratory shot peening, and anodizing with vibrational shot peening. The following tests/measurements [...] Read more.
This study investigated the effect of the different surface treatment methods on the strength of Ti6Al4V titanium alloy sheet adhesive joints. The following surface treatment methods were used: alkaline degreasing, anodizing, vibratory shot peening, and anodizing with vibrational shot peening. The following tests/measurements were carried out during the experiment: surface roughness measurements; microhardness measurements (conducted by the Vickers hardness test method); and strength tests of single-lap adhesive joints fabricated with the use of two epoxy adhesives, rigid and flexible, both based on epoxy resin Epidian 5. It has been found that the application of anodizing followed by vibratory shot peening leads to increased strength of adhesive joints, irrespective of the type of applied epoxy adhesive. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Treatment Technologies for Metallic Alloys)
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Article
Promoted Anodizing Reaction and Enhanced Coating Performance of Al–11Si Alloy: The Role of an Equal-Channel-Angular-Pressed Substrate
Materials 2019, 12(19), 3255; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12193255 - 05 Oct 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 883
Abstract
In this paper, the effect of the equal-channel-angular-pressed (ECAPed) substrate on the coating formation and anticorrosion performance of the anodized Al–11Si alloy was systematically investigated. The ECAP process dramatically refines both Al and Si phases of the alloy. The parallel anodizing circuit is [...] Read more.
In this paper, the effect of the equal-channel-angular-pressed (ECAPed) substrate on the coating formation and anticorrosion performance of the anodized Al–11Si alloy was systematically investigated. The ECAP process dramatically refines both Al and Si phases of the alloy. The parallel anodizing circuit is designed to enable a comparative study of anodizing process between the cast and the ECAPed alloys by tracking their respective anodizing current quota. The optimum coatings of both alloys were obtained after anodization for 30 min. The ECAPed alloy attained a thicker, more compact, and more uniform coating. Energetic crystal defects in the fine Al grains of the ECAPed substrate promote the anodizing reaction and lead to the thicker coating. Fragmented and uniformly distributed fine Si particles in the ECAPed alloy effectively suppress the coating cracks, enhancing the compactness of the coating. Overall, the ECAP-coated sample exhibits the best anticorrosion performance, which is evidenced by the concurrently enhanced prevention of coating and improved corrosion resistance of the substrate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Surface Treatment Technologies for Metallic Alloys)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

The enhancement of osseointegration of new TMZT systems by electrochemical deposition of HA

Petrică Vizureanu1*, Andrei Victor Sandu1,2, Madalina Simona Baltatu1, , Gabriela Ciobanu3

1   “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, 41 “D. Mangeron” Street, 700050, Iasi, Romania;  [email protected](P.V.); [email protected] (S.A.V); [email protected] (M.S.B.); [email protected] (G.C.).

2   Romanian Inventors Forum, Str. Sf.P.Movila 3, Iasi, 700089, Romania

3    Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Protection,  “D. Mangeron” Street, 700050, Iasi, Romania

 

*   Correspondence: [email protected] (P.V.) or [email protected] (S.A.V.)

Abstract: Biometallic alloys must be tolerated by the body for a long time (decades) and therefore must meet the functional requirements according to the medical applications in which they are to be used. Titanium based alloys are used because of their acceptance by the human tissues they interact with and the ability to perform the functional role for which they were implanted. One of the most important properties is the osseointegration which can be enhanced with various kind of treatments or deposition. The present article is a preliminary study focused on the enhancement of osseointegration of new TiMoZrTa system (TMZT) by electrochemical deposition of HA. According to previous studies the osseointegration can be enhanced by deposing HA on the biometallic alloys, being facilitated the human bone growth on the calcium phosphate structure.

Keywords: titanium alloy; osseointegration; TiMoZrTa system; electrochemical deposition.

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