Special Issue "“3D” Parametric and Nonparametric Description of Surface Topography in Manufacturing Processes"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Manufacturing Processes and Systems".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Wojciech Kacalak
E-Mail
Co-Guest Editor
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Koszalin University of Technology, 15 Racławicka St., 75-900 Koszalin, Poland
Interests: grinding; surface topography; 3D modeling
Prof. Dr. Michal Wieczorowski
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Co-Guest Editor
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Management, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan, Poland
Interests: surface metrology; topography; coordinate measuring technique; computed tomography; scanning
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Surface topography has a profound influence on the function of a surface. In industrial practice, geometric product specification is an important issue. The measurement and characterization of the geometric features of machined parts are important when trying to determine the functional properties of surfaces, and also in the control of process parameters during manufacturing. However, there are many other areas of science or engineering where surface topography is critical to function.

The aim of this Special Issue is to provide an international forum for the dissemination of scientific information on surface metrology submission from all fields involving the measurement and characterization of surface topography, including biomedical engineering, civil engineering, material science, mechanical engineering, manufacturing, metrology, nanotechnology, tribology, and others.

With this in mind, a Special Issue entitled “3D” Parametric and Nonparametric Description of Surface Topography in Manufacturing Processes is being launched. This Special Issue includes high-quality original research papers, review papers, and case studies dealing with the investigation, modeling, simulation, and assessment of the surface metrology methods in the context of instrumentation and measurement to material synthesis, and manufacturing processes.

Prof. Grzegorz Królczyk
Prof. Wojciech Kacalak
Prof. Michal Wieczorowski
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Manufacturing processes
  • Creating surface topography in machining processes
  • Surface topography analysis
  • Measurement systems
  • Advanced manufacturing metrology
  • Surface metrology
  • Measurement science
  • Measurement data acquisition

Published Papers (18 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
3D Parametric and Nonparametric Description of Surface Topography in Manufacturing Processes
Materials 2021, 14(8), 1987; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14081987 - 15 Apr 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 368
Abstract
Surface topography has a profound influence on the function of a surface [...] Full article

Research

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Article
Determination of Selected Texture Features on a Single-Layer Grinding Wheel Active Surface for Tracking Their Changes as a Result of Wear
Materials 2021, 14(1), 6; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14010006 - 22 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 511
Abstract
Measurements of the active surface microgeometry of the grinding wheel by contact and optical methods are commonly used to obtain a cloud of points representing the surface of the examined tool. Parameters that can be determined on the basis of the above-mentioned measurements [...] Read more.
Measurements of the active surface microgeometry of the grinding wheel by contact and optical methods are commonly used to obtain a cloud of points representing the surface of the examined tool. Parameters that can be determined on the basis of the above-mentioned measurements can be universal parameters, which are commonly used to assess the geometric structure of a surface or parameters taking into account specific properties of the grinding wheel active surface (GWAS) structure. This article proposes a methodology for determining the average level of binder, which allows the definition the cut-off level required to separate from the measurement data: (i) the areas representing grains, (ii) the areas of gumming up of the grinding wheel, and (iii) deep cavities in approximately the same places on the investigated grinding wheel, regardless of the degree of its wear. This, in turn, allows one to track changes in characteristic parameters computed from measurements of texture in the above-mentioned areas due to different GWAS wear processes. The research was based on the analysis of data obtained from measurements of single-layer grinding wheels using the replica technique. The adopted measurement methodology enables measurement of approximately the same (94% coverage) areas of the GWAS at four stages of grinding wheel operation. Errors that were computed related to the determination of the volume of abrasive on the GWAS at various stages of wear using the developed methodology were lower, on average, by 48% compared to the automatic recognition of islands made with a commercial software. Full article
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Article
A Multiscale Topographical Analysis Based on Morphological Information: The HEVC Multiscale Decomposition
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5582; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13235582 - 07 Dec 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 515
Abstract
In this paper, we evaluate the effect of scale analysis as well as the filtering process on the performances of an original compressed-domain classifier in the field of material surface topographies classification. Each surface profile is multiscale analyzed by using a Gaussian Filter [...] Read more.
In this paper, we evaluate the effect of scale analysis as well as the filtering process on the performances of an original compressed-domain classifier in the field of material surface topographies classification. Each surface profile is multiscale analyzed by using a Gaussian Filter analyzing method to be decomposed into three multiscale filtered image types: Low-pass (LP), Band-pass (BP), and High-pass (HP) filtered versions, respectively. The complete set of filtered image data constitutes the collected database. First, the images are lossless compressed using the state-of-the art High-efficiency video coding (HEVC) video coding standard. Then, the Intra-Prediction Modes Histogram (IPHM) feature descriptor is computed directly in the compressed domain from each HEVC compressed image. Finally, we apply the IPHM feature descriptors as an input of a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifier. SVM is introduced here to strengthen the performances of the proposed classification system thanks to the powerful properties of machine learning tools. We evaluate the proposed solution we called “HEVC Multiscale Decomposition” (HEVC-MD) on a huge database of nearly 42,000 multiscale topographic images. A simple preliminary version of the algorithm reaches an accuracy of 52%. We increase this accuracy to 70% by using the multiscale analysis of the high-frequency range HP filtered image data sets. Finally, we verify that considering only the highest-scale analysis of low-frequency range LP was more appropriate for classifying our six surface topographies with an accuracy of up to 81%. To compare these new topographical descriptors to those conventionally used, SVM is applied on a set of 34 roughness parameters defined on the International Standard GPS ISO 25178 (Geometrical Product Specification), and one obtains accuracies of 38%, 52%, 65%, and 57% respectively for Sa, multiscale Sa, 34 roughness parameters, and multiscale ones. Compared to conventional roughness descriptors, the HEVC-MD descriptors increase surfaces discrimination from 65% to 81%. Full article
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Article
High-Accuracy 3D Optical Profilometry for Analysis of Surface Condition of Modern Circulated Coins
Materials 2020, 13(23), 5371; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13235371 - 26 Nov 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 536
Abstract
The article shows that noncontact measurement techniques can be an important support to X-ray-based methods when examining the surface condition of modern circulated coins. The forms and degrees of wear of such coins, affecting their utility values, qualifying them as a legal tender [...] Read more.
The article shows that noncontact measurement techniques can be an important support to X-ray-based methods when examining the surface condition of modern circulated coins. The forms and degrees of wear of such coins, affecting their utility values, qualifying them as a legal tender in a given country, can be measured and analyzed, among other things, using advanced high-accuracy optical profilometry methods. The authors presented four analyses carried out for reverses and obverses of round coins (1 zloty, 1 franc, 50 bani, 5 pens) characterized by different degrees of surface wear. All of the coins were measured using 3D optical profilometers (Talysurf CLI 2000 and S neox) representing two generations of these types of systems. The obtained results confirm the validity of the applied high-accuracy measurement systems in conjunction with dedicated software in the presented applications. Examples of the analyses carried out can be a significant source of information on the condition of coins in the context of maintaining their functional properties (selection of appropriate wear–resistant alloys and correctness of the production process). Full article
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Article
Magneto-Rheological Fluid Assisted Abrasive Nanofinishing of β-Phase Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr Alloy: Parametric Appraisal and Corrosion Analysis
Materials 2020, 13(22), 5156; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13225156 - 16 Nov 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 522
Abstract
The present work explores the potential of magneto-rheological fluid assisted abrasive finishing (MRF-AF) for obtaining precise surface topography of an in-house developed β-phase Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr (TNTZ) alloy for orthopedic applications. Investigations have been made to study the influence of the concentration of carbonyl iron [...] Read more.
The present work explores the potential of magneto-rheological fluid assisted abrasive finishing (MRF-AF) for obtaining precise surface topography of an in-house developed β-phase Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr (TNTZ) alloy for orthopedic applications. Investigations have been made to study the influence of the concentration of carbonyl iron particles (CIP), rotational speed (Nt), and working gap (Gp) in response to material removal (MR) and surface roughness (Ra) of the finished sample using a design of experimental technique. Further, the corrosion performance of the finished samples has also been analyzed through simulated body fluid (SBF) testing. It has been found that the selected input process parameters significantly influenced the observed MR and Ra values at 95% confidence level. Apart from this, it has been found that Gp and Nt exhibited the maximum contribution in the optimized values of the MR and Ra, respectively. Further, the corrosion analysis of the finished samples specified that the resistance against corrosion is a direct function of the surface finish. The morphological analysis of the corroded morphologies indicated that the rough sites of the implant surface have provided the nuclei for corrosion mechanics that ultimately resulted in the shredding of the appetite layer. Overall results highlighted that the MRF-AF is a potential technique for obtaining nano-scale finishing of the high-strength β-phase Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr alloy. Full article
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Article
Prediction of Parameters of Equivalent Sum Rough Surfaces
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4898; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214898 - 31 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 512
Abstract
In statistical models, the contact of two surfaces is typically replaced by the contact of a smooth, flat, and an equivalent rough sum surface. For the sum surface, the zeroth, second, and fourth moments of the power spectral density m0, m [...] Read more.
In statistical models, the contact of two surfaces is typically replaced by the contact of a smooth, flat, and an equivalent rough sum surface. For the sum surface, the zeroth, second, and fourth moments of the power spectral density m0, m2, and m4 respectively, are the sum of spectral moments of two contacted surfaces. In this work, the selected parameters of the sum surfaces were predicted when the parameters of individual surfaces are known. During parameters selection, it was found that the pair of parameters: Sp/Sz (the emptiness coefficient) and Sq/Sa, better described the shape of the probability ordinate distribution of the analyzed textures than the frequently applied pair: the skewness Ssk and the kurtosis Sku. It was found that the RMS height Sq and the RMS slope Sdq were predicted with very high accuracy. The accuracy of prediction of the average summit curvature Ssc, the areal density of summits Sds, and parameters characterizing the shape of the ordinate distribution Sp/Sz and Sq/Sa was also good (the maximum relative errors were typically smaller than 10%). Full article
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Article
Influence of Variable Radius of Cutting Head Trajectory on Quality of Cutting Kerf in the Abrasive Water Jet Process for Soda–Lime Glass
Materials 2020, 13(19), 4277; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13194277 - 25 Sep 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 600
Abstract
The main innovation of this article is the determination of the impact of curvature of a shape cut out in a brittle material using an abrasive water jet (AWJ) process as an important factor of the machined surfaces. The curvature of a shape, [...] Read more.
The main innovation of this article is the determination of the impact of curvature of a shape cut out in a brittle material using an abrasive water jet (AWJ) process as an important factor of the machined surfaces. The curvature of a shape, resulting from the size of the radius of the cutting head trajectory, is one of the key requirements necessary for ensuring the required surface quality of materials shaped by the abrasive water jet process, but very few studies have been carried out in this regard. An important goal of the experimental studies carried out here and presented in this work was to determine its influence on the quality of the inner and outer surfaces of the cutting kerf. This goal was accomplished by cutting the shape of a spiral in soda–lime glass. For such a shape, the effect of radius of the trajectory of the cutting head on selected parameters of the surface texture of the inner surface of the cutting kerf (IS) and the outer surface of the cutting kerf (OS) was studied. The obtained results of the experimental studies confirmed that the effect of the curvature of the cut shape is important from the point of view of the efficiency of the glass-based brittle material-cutting process using AWJ. Analyses of the surface textures of the areas located in the upper part of the inner and outer surfaces separated by the use of AWJ machining showed that the OS surfaces are characterized by worse technological quality compared with IS surfaces. Differences in the total height of surface irregularities (given by St amplitude parameter), determined on the basis of the obtained results of the measurements of both surfaces of the cutting kerf, were as follows: ΔStr = 50 = 0.6 μm; ΔStr = 35 = 1 μm; ΔStr = 15 = 1.3 μm. The analysis of values measured in areas located in the more sensitive zone of influence of the AWJ outflow proved that the total height of irregularities (St) of the OS was higher. Differences in the total heights of irregularities for inner and outer surfaces of the cutting kerf were as follows: ΔStr = 50 = 2.1 μm; ΔStr = 35 = 3 μm; ΔStr = 15 = 14.1 μm, respectively. The maximum difference in the total heights of irregularities (St), existing between the surfaces considered in a special case (radius 15 mm), was almost 20%, which should be a sufficient condition for planning cutting operations, so as to ensure the workpiece is shaped mainly by internal surfaces. Full article
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Article
An Efficient and Adaptable Path Planning Algorithm for Automated Fiber Placement Based on Meshing and Multi Guidelines
Materials 2020, 13(18), 4209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13184209 - 22 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 619
Abstract
Path planning algorithms for automated fiber placement are used to determine the directions of the fiber paths and the start and end positions on the mold surfaces. The quality of the fiber paths determines largely the efficiency and quality of the automated fiber [...] Read more.
Path planning algorithms for automated fiber placement are used to determine the directions of the fiber paths and the start and end positions on the mold surfaces. The quality of the fiber paths determines largely the efficiency and quality of the automated fiber placement process. The presented work investigated an efficient path planning algorithm based on surface meshing. In addition, an update method of the datum direction vector via a guide-line update strategy was proposed to make the path planning algorithm applicable for complex surfaces. Finally, accuracy analysis was performed on the proposed algorithm and it can be adopted as the reference for the triangulation parameter selection for the path planning algorithm. Full article
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Article
Conditions of the Presence of Bimodal Amplitude Distribution of Two-Process Surfaces
Materials 2020, 13(18), 4037; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13184037 - 11 Sep 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 531
Abstract
Two-process surfaces are functionally important. They contain plateau and valley parts. They are created by superimpositions of two one-process textures of Gaussian probability height distributions. It is expected that the resulting two-process surface would have bimodal height probability distribution. However, typically two-process textures [...] Read more.
Two-process surfaces are functionally important. They contain plateau and valley parts. They are created by superimpositions of two one-process textures of Gaussian probability height distributions. It is expected that the resulting two-process surface would have bimodal height probability distribution. However, typically two-process textures have unimodal ordinate distribution. The present authors developed limiting conditions of presence of bimodal ordinate distribution. These conditions depend on the material ratio at the plateau-to-valley transition (the Smq parameter), and on the ratio of heights of the plateau and valley surface parts (Spq/Svq). Generated stratified textures and measured two-process surfaces of cylinder liners were taken into consideration. Full article
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Article
Analysis of Surface Microgeometry Created by Electric Discharge Machining
Materials 2020, 13(17), 3830; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13173830 - 30 Aug 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 631
Abstract
The objective of this work is to study the geometric properties of surface topographies of hot-work tool steel created by electric discharge machining (EDM) using motif and multiscale analysis. The richness of these analyses is tested through calculating the strengths of the correlations [...] Read more.
The objective of this work is to study the geometric properties of surface topographies of hot-work tool steel created by electric discharge machining (EDM) using motif and multiscale analysis. The richness of these analyses is tested through calculating the strengths of the correlations between discharge energies and resulting surface characterization parameters, focusing on the most representative surface features—craters, and how they change with scale. Surfaces were created by EDM using estimated energies from 150 to 9468 µJ and measured by focus variation microscope. The measured topographies consist of overlapping microcraters, of which the geometry was characterized using three different analysis: conventional with ISO parameters, and motif and multiscale curvature tensor analysis. Motif analysis uses watershed segmentation which allows extraction and geometrically characterization of each crater. Curvature tensor analysis focuses on the characterization of principal curvatures and their function and their evolution with scale. Strong correlations (R2 > 0.9) were observed between craters height, diameter, area and curvature using linear and logarithmic regressions. Conventional areal parameter related to heights dispersion were found to correlate stronger using logarithmic regression. Geometric characterization of process-specific topographic formations is considered to be a natural and intuitive way of analyzing the complexity of studied surfaces. The presented approach allows extraction of information directly relating to the shape and size of topographic features of interest. In the tested conditions, the surface finish is mostly affected and potentially controlled by discharge energy at larger scales which is associated with sizes of fabricated craters. Full article
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Article
Quantification of the Morphological Signature of Roping Based on Multiscale Analysis and Autocorrelation Function Description
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3040; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133040 - 07 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 630
Abstract
Roping or ridging is a visual defect affecting the surface of ferritic stainless steels, assessed using visual inspection of the surfaces. The aim of this study was to quantify the morphological signature of roping to link roughness results with five levels of roping [...] Read more.
Roping or ridging is a visual defect affecting the surface of ferritic stainless steels, assessed using visual inspection of the surfaces. The aim of this study was to quantify the morphological signature of roping to link roughness results with five levels of roping identified with visual inspection. First, the multiscale analysis of roughness showed that the texture aspect ratio Str computed with a low-pass filter of 32 µm gave a clear separation between the acceptable levels of roping and the non-acceptable levels (rejected sheets). To obtain a gradation description of roping instead of a binary description, a methodology based on the use of the autocorrelation function was created. It consisted of several steps: a low-pass filtering of the autocorrelation function at 150 µm, the segmentation of the autocorrelation into four stabilized portions, and finally, the computation of isotropy and the root-mean-square roughness Sq on the obtained quarters of function. The use of the isotropy combined with the root-mean-square roughness Sq led to a clear separation of the five levels of roping: the acceptable levels of roping corresponded to strong isotropy (values larger than 10%) coupled with low root-mean-square roughness Sq. Both methodologies can be used to quantitatively describe surface morphology of roping in order to improve our understanding of the roping phenomenon. Full article
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Article
Multiscale Characterizations of Surface Anisotropies
Materials 2020, 13(13), 3028; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13133028 - 07 Jul 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 749
Abstract
Anisotropy can influence surface function and can be an indication of processing. These influences and indications include friction, wetting, and microwear. This article studies two methods for multiscale quantification and visualization of anisotropy. One uses multiscale curvature tensor analysis and shows anisotropy in [...] Read more.
Anisotropy can influence surface function and can be an indication of processing. These influences and indications include friction, wetting, and microwear. This article studies two methods for multiscale quantification and visualization of anisotropy. One uses multiscale curvature tensor analysis and shows anisotropy in horizontal coordinates i.e., topocentric. The other uses multiple bandpass filters (also known as sliding bandpass filters) applied prior to calculating anisotropy parameters, texture aspect ratios (Str) and texture directions (Std), showing anisotropy in horizontal directions only. Topographies were studied on two milled steel surfaces, one convex with an evident large scale, cylindrical form anisotropy, the other nominally flat with smaller scale anisotropies; a µEDMed surface, an example of an isotropic surface; and an additively manufactured surface with pillar-like features. Curvature tensors contain the two principal curvatures, i.e., maximum and minimum curvatures, which are orthogonal, and their directions, at each location. Principal directions are plotted for each calculated location on each surface, at each scale considered. Histograms in horizontal coordinates show altitude and azimuth angles of principal curvatures, elucidating dominant texture directions at each scale. Str and Std do not show vertical components, i.e., altitudes, of anisotropy. Changes of anisotropy with scale categorically failed to be detected by traditional characterization methods used conventionally. These multiscale methods show clearly in several representations that anisotropy changes with scale on actual surface measurements with markedly different anisotropies. Full article
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Article
Investigations on Surface Roughness and Tool Wear Characteristics in Micro-Turning of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
Materials 2020, 13(13), 2998; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13132998 - 06 Jul 2020
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 960
Abstract
Micro-turning is a micro-mechanical cutting method used to produce small diameter cylindrical parts. Since the diameter of the part is usually small, it may be a little difficult to improve the surface quality by a second operation, such as grinding. Therefore, it is [...] Read more.
Micro-turning is a micro-mechanical cutting method used to produce small diameter cylindrical parts. Since the diameter of the part is usually small, it may be a little difficult to improve the surface quality by a second operation, such as grinding. Therefore, it is important to obtain the good surface finish in micro turning process using the ideal cutting parameters. Here, the multi-objective optimization of micro-turning process parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were performed by response surface method (RSM). Two important machining indices, such as surface roughness and material removal rate, were simultaneously optimized in the micro-turning of a Ti6Al4V alloy. Further, the scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis was done on the cutting tools. The overall results depict that the feed rate is the prominent factor that significantly affects the responses in micro-turning operation. Moreover, the SEM results confirmed that abrasion and crater wear mechanism were observed during the micro-turning of a Ti6Al4V alloy. Full article
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Article
Thermal Sources of Errors in Surface Texture Imaging
Materials 2020, 13(10), 2337; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13102337 - 19 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 662
Abstract
This paper presents the influence of thermal phenomena on areal measurements of surface topography using contact profilometers. The research concerned measurements under controlled and variable environmental conditions. The influence of internal heat sources from profilometer drives and their electronic components was analyzed. For [...] Read more.
This paper presents the influence of thermal phenomena on areal measurements of surface topography using contact profilometers. The research concerned measurements under controlled and variable environmental conditions. The influence of internal heat sources from profilometer drives and their electronic components was analyzed. For this purpose, a thermal chamber was designed and built. Its task was to maintain and control environmental conditions and, at the same time, separate the profilometer from external disturbances. Heat sources and temperature values for elements and systems were determined. It further enabled for the calculation of the displacements in axes as a function of temperature. The largest displacement in the probe due to internal heat sources for the considered cases occurred in the X-axis direction. Its value reached 16.2 μm. However, the displacement in the probe in the Z-axis direction had the greatest impact on the measured surface topography. These displacements for a thermally unstable profilometer reached 7.9 μm in Z, causing results even 90% greater than in the case of a device without such problems. The time after which a proper topography measurement can be started was also determined basing on obtained data. This time for tested profilometers was between 6 and 12 h. It was found that performing thermal stabilization of the profilometer significantly reduced surface irregularity errors. The stabilization time should be determined individually for a specific type of device. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of Surface Roughness and Defect Formation after The Machining of Sintered Aluminum Alloy AlSi10Mg
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1662; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071662 - 03 Apr 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 780
Abstract
This article presents selected issues related to the workpiece surface quality after machining by the laser sintering of AlSi10MG alloy powder. The surfaces of the workpiece were prepared and machined by longitudinal turning with tools made of sintered carbides. The occurrence of breaches [...] Read more.
This article presents selected issues related to the workpiece surface quality after machining by the laser sintering of AlSi10MG alloy powder. The surfaces of the workpiece were prepared and machined by longitudinal turning with tools made of sintered carbides. The occurrence of breaches on the machined material surface was found, which negatively influence the values of 3D surface roughness parameters. The occurring phenomena were analyzed and proposals for their explanation were made. Guidelines for the machining of workpieces achieved by the laser sintering of powders were developed. The lowest value of the 3D roughness parameters was obtained for f = 0.06 mm/rev, ap = 0.5–1.0 mm, and for the nose radius of cutting insert rε = 0.8 mm. The results of research on the effect of cutting parameters on the values of parameters describing the surface quality are presented. Topography measurements and 3D surface roughness parameters are presented, as well as the results of a microscopic 3D surface analysis. Taguchi’s method was used in the research methodology. Full article
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Article
Evaluation of the Thermal Stability and Surface Characteristics of Thermoplastic Polyurethane V-Belt
Materials 2020, 13(7), 1502; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13071502 - 25 Mar 2020
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 1100
Abstract
This article proposes thermography as a non-contact diagnostic tool for assessing drive reliability. The application of this technique during the operation of the belt transmission with a heat-welded thermoplastic polyurethane V-belt was presented. The V-belt temperature changes depending on the braking torque load [...] Read more.
This article proposes thermography as a non-contact diagnostic tool for assessing drive reliability. The application of this technique during the operation of the belt transmission with a heat-welded thermoplastic polyurethane V-belt was presented. The V-belt temperature changes depending on the braking torque load at different values of the rotational speed of the active pulley, which were adopted as diagnostic characteristics. In this paper, the surface morphology of the polyurethane (PU) belts was assessed on the basis of microscopic and hardness tests. A surface roughness tester was used to evaluate the surface wear. The surface morphology and topography of the materials was determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. It was found that the most favorable operating conditions occurred when the temperature values of active and passive connectors were similar and the temperature difference between them was small. The mechanical and structure results indicate that the wear of the PU belt was slight, which provided stability and operational reliability for V-belt transmission. The microscopic images lacked clear traces of cracks and scratches on the surface, which was confirmed by the SEM observations. Full article
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Article
Abrasive Wear Behavior of Cryogenically Treated Boron Steel (30MnCrB4) Used for Rotavator Blades
Materials 2020, 13(2), 436; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13020436 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1010
Abstract
Rotavator blades are prone to significant wear because of the abrasive nature of sand particles. The aim of this research work is to investigate the effect of cryogenic treatment and post tempering on abrasive wear behavior, in the presence of angular quartz sand [...] Read more.
Rotavator blades are prone to significant wear because of the abrasive nature of sand particles. The aim of this research work is to investigate the effect of cryogenic treatment and post tempering on abrasive wear behavior, in the presence of angular quartz sand (grain size of 212–425 μm), of rotavator blade material of boron steel (30MnCrB4). Cryogenic treatment has caused an improvement in the abrasive wear resistance and microhardness of 30MnCrB4 by 60% and 260.73%, respectively, compared to untreated material due to enhancement in hardness, the conversion of retained austenite into martensite, and the precipitation of secondary carbides in boron steel after exposure to cryogenic temperature. Economic analysis justifies the additional cost of cryogenic treatment. Full article
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Article
Reverse Problem in Surface Texture Analysis—One-Process Profile Modeling on the Basis of Measured Two-Process Profile after Machining or Wear
Materials 2019, 12(24), 4169; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12244169 - 12 Dec 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 756
Abstract
The method of the base (valley) one-process profile modeling on the basis of the measured two-process profile was developed. The base one-process random profile of the Gaussian ordinate distribution is characterized by the standard deviation of the profile height and the correlation length. [...] Read more.
The method of the base (valley) one-process profile modeling on the basis of the measured two-process profile was developed. The base one-process random profile of the Gaussian ordinate distribution is characterized by the standard deviation of the profile height and the correlation length. The problem of estimation of the correlation length of this one-process profile exists. In the procedure of the correlation length estimation, information about the averaged shape of the autocorrelation functions of many one-process profiles after the same type of machining is required. The correlation length of the base one-process profile can be obtained on the basis of the vertical truncation of the measured two-process profile. The average error of the correlation length estimation was not higher than 7%, while the maximum error was not larger than 14%. This method can be extended to simulate the one-process texture of 3D (areal) surface topography. Full article
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