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Curr. Oncol., Volume 29, Issue 5 (May 2022) – 58 articles

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Article
Treatment Outcomes for Primary Hepatic Angiosarcoma: National Cancer Database Analysis 2004–2014
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3637-3646; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050292 (registering DOI) - 17 May 2022
Abstract
Background: To determine the risk of mortality and factors associated with survival amongst patients diagnosed with primary hepatic angiosarcoma (PHA). Methods: All patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or PHA from 2004 to 2014 were identified from the National Cancer Database (NCDB). Further [...] Read more.
Background: To determine the risk of mortality and factors associated with survival amongst patients diagnosed with primary hepatic angiosarcoma (PHA). Methods: All patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or PHA from 2004 to 2014 were identified from the National Cancer Database (NCDB). Further analysis was performed within the cohort of patients with PHA to assess the impact of surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and facility type on overall survival (OS). A multivariable analysis using the Cox proportional methods and a survival analysis using the Kaplan–Meier method were used. Results: A total of 117,633 patients with HCC were identified, out of whom 346 patients had PHA. Patients with PHA had a mean age of 62.9 years (SD 13.7), the majority were men (64.7%), white (85.8%), and had a Charlson comorbidity index (CCI) of zero (66.2%). A third of the patients with PHA (35.7%) received chemotherapy, and 14.6% underwent a surgical resection. The median survival was 1.9 months (1.8–2.4 months) compared to patients with HCC (10.4 months, 10.2–10.5) (aHR-2.41, 95% CI: 2.10–2.77, p < 0.0001). Surgical resection was associated with a higher median survival (7.7 versus 1.8 months, aHR-0.23, 95% CI: 0.15–0.37, p < 0.0001). A receipt of chemotherapy was associated with a higher median survival than no chemotherapy (5.1 versus 1.2 months, aHR-0.44, 95% CI: 0.32–0.60, p < 0.0001), although the survival benefit did not persist long term. Conclusion: PHA is associated with poor outcomes. A surgical resection and chemotherapy are associated with improved survival outcomes; however, the long-term benefits of chemotherapy are limited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Treatment and Management)
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Review
The Impact of Dense Breasts on the Stage of Breast Cancer at Diagnosis: A Review and Options for Supplemental Screening
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3595-3636; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050291 (registering DOI) - 17 May 2022
Abstract
The purpose of breast cancer screening is to find cancers early to reduce mortality and to allow successful treatment with less aggressive therapy. Mammography is the gold standard for breast cancer screening. Its efficacy in reducing mortality from breast cancer was proven in [...] Read more.
The purpose of breast cancer screening is to find cancers early to reduce mortality and to allow successful treatment with less aggressive therapy. Mammography is the gold standard for breast cancer screening. Its efficacy in reducing mortality from breast cancer was proven in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) conducted from the early 1960s to the mid 1990s. Panels that recommend breast cancer screening guidelines have traditionally relied on the old RCTs, which did not include considerations of breast density, race/ethnicity, current hormone therapy, and other risk factors. Women do not all benefit equally from mammography. Mortality reduction is significantly lower in women with dense breasts because normal dense tissue can mask cancers on mammograms. Moreover, women with dense breasts are known to be at increased risk. To provide equity, breast cancer screening guidelines should be created with the goal of maximizing mortality reduction and allowing less aggressive therapy, which may include decreasing the interval between screening mammograms and recommending consideration of supplemental screening for women with dense breasts. This review will address the issue of dense breasts and the impact on the stage of breast cancer at the time of diagnosis, and discuss options for supplemental screening. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer Imaging and Therapy)
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Case Report
Gemcitabine and Cisplatin as Neo-Adjuvant for Cholangiocarcinoma Patients Prior to Liver Transplantation: Case-Series
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3585-3594; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050290 (registering DOI) - 17 May 2022
Abstract
Background: The management of cholangiocarcinoma is continually reviewed on a current evidence basis to develop practice guidelines and consensus statements. However, the standardized treatment guidelines are still unclear for cholangiocarcinoma patients who are listed for liver transplantation. We aimed to validate and evaluate [...] Read more.
Background: The management of cholangiocarcinoma is continually reviewed on a current evidence basis to develop practice guidelines and consensus statements. However, the standardized treatment guidelines are still unclear for cholangiocarcinoma patients who are listed for liver transplantation. We aimed to validate and evaluate the potential efficacy of chemotherapy combination of Gemcitabine and Cisplatin as a neo-adjuvant treatment for cholangiocarcinoma patients before liver transplantation. Methods: In this prospective case series, patients with locally advanced, unresectable, hilar, or intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with no evidence of extrahepatic disease or vascular involvement were treated with a combination of neoadjuvant gemcitabine and cisplatin with no radiation. All patients included received chemotherapy prior to being listed for liver transplantation at a single cancer center according to an open-labeled, and center-approved clinical management protocol. The primary endpoints were the overall survival and recurrence-free survival after liver transplantation. Results: Between 1 March 2016, and 15 March 2022, 10 patients (8 males and 2 females) with a median age of 62.71(interquartile range: 60.02–71.87) had a confirmed diagnosis of intrahepatic or hilar cholangiocarcinoma and underwent liver transplantation. Median days of neoadjuvant therapy for a given combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin were 181 (IRQ: 120–250). Nine patients (90%) were reported with no recurrence or metastasis, and only 1 patient had confirmed metastasis (10%); days for metastasis after transplantation were 612 for this patient. All patients received a combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin as neo-adjuvant while awaiting liver transplantation. The median days of follow-up were 851 (813–967). Overall survival was 100% (95% CI 100–100%) at both years one and two; 75% (95% CI 13–96%) at years three to five. One patient died at eight hundred and eighty-five days. No adverse events were reported after liver transplantation including the patient who was confirmed with recurrence. Conclusions: Our finding demonstrated that neo-adjuvant gemcitabine and cisplatin with no radiation prior to liver transplantation resulted in excellent outcomes for patients with cholangiocarcinoma. Full article
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Review
The Role of Microorganisms in Appendiceal Pseudomyxoma Peritonei: A Review
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3576-3584; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050289 - 16 May 2022
Viewed by 230
Abstract
Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare clinical syndrome. It originates from neoplasms of the appendix and leads to the formation of peritoneal implants and the accumulation of mucinous ascites. PMP represents a spectrum of low to high-grade disease. Despite aggressive management, many PMP [...] Read more.
Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare clinical syndrome. It originates from neoplasms of the appendix and leads to the formation of peritoneal implants and the accumulation of mucinous ascites. PMP represents a spectrum of low to high-grade disease. Despite aggressive management, many PMP patients recur, leading to debilitating symptoms and few treatment options. Therefore, scientists have continued to look for ways to improve treatment and further understand disease pathogenesis. Microorganisms were previously hypothesized to play a role in PMP progression and development. Hence, antibacterial treatment was suggested by some authors, but the data were limited. In this paper, we review the current data on the role of bacteria in PMP, discuss the significance, and suggest possible solutions to the inherent challenges in these studies. Given the limitations of the discussed studies, we remain skeptical about introducing novel antibacterial treatment into clinical practice at this time; however, the available data are valuable and indicate that more research into the molecular mechanisms of PMP is needed. Full article
Article
Patient Experience with a Gynecologic Oncology-Initiated Genetic Testing Model for Women with Tubo-Ovarian Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3565-3575; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050288 - 15 May 2022
Viewed by 391
Abstract
Background: Up to 20% of women diagnosed with tubo-ovarian carcinoma carry a germline pathogenic variant in a cancer-predisposing gene (e.g., BRCA1/BRCA2). Identifying these variants can help to inform eligibility for therapies, guide surveillance and prevention of new primary cancers, and assess risk [...] Read more.
Background: Up to 20% of women diagnosed with tubo-ovarian carcinoma carry a germline pathogenic variant in a cancer-predisposing gene (e.g., BRCA1/BRCA2). Identifying these variants can help to inform eligibility for therapies, guide surveillance and prevention of new primary cancers, and assess risk to family members. The Gynecologic Oncology-Initiated Genetic Testing Model (GOIGT) was initiated at the McGill University Health Centre (MUHC) to streamline universal germline genetic testing for this population, while addressing the limited resources in the public healthcare system. This study aimed to evaluate the patient experience of participating in this model. Methods: Study participants were patients diagnosed with high-grade non-mucinous epithelial tubo-ovarian cancer who underwent genetic testing through the GOIGT model between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2020. Eligible participants completed the retrospective questionnaires at least one month after result disclosure. Results: A total of 126 patients were tested through the GOIGT model during the study period, of which 56 were invited to participate. Thirty-four participants returned the study questionnaire. Overall, participants did not report decision regret following the genetic testing and were satisfied with the GOIGT model. Participants reported low levels of uncertainty and distress related to the implications of their test results for themselves and their family members. Conclusions: The results of this study support the continued implementation of mainstreamed genetic testing models for women with high-grade non-mucinous tubo-ovarian cancer. Further studies are required to compare experiences for patients with different genetic test results. Full article
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Article
Cancer Premature Mortality Costs in Europe in 2020: A Comparison of the Human Capital Approach and the Friction Cost Approach
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3552-3564; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050287 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 236
Abstract
The inclusion of productivity costs can affect the outcome of cost-effectiveness analyses. We estimated the value of cancer premature mortality productivity costs for Europe in 2020 using the Human Capital Approach (HCA) and compared these to the Friction Cost Approach (FCA). Cancer mortality [...] Read more.
The inclusion of productivity costs can affect the outcome of cost-effectiveness analyses. We estimated the value of cancer premature mortality productivity costs for Europe in 2020 using the Human Capital Approach (HCA) and compared these to the Friction Cost Approach (FCA). Cancer mortality data were obtained from GLOBOCAN 2020 by sex and five-year age groups. Twenty-three cancer sites for 31 European countries were included. The HCA and the FCA were valued using average annual gross wages by sex and age group and applied to Years of Potential Productive Life Lost. 2020 friction periods were calculated and all costs were in 2020 euros. Estimated cancer premature mortality costs for Europe in 2020 were EUR 54.0 billion (HCA) and EUR 1.57 billion (FCA). The HCA/FCA cost ratio for Europe was 34.4, but considerable variation arose across countries (highest in Ireland: 64.5 v lowest in Czech Republic: 11.1). Both the HCA and the FCA ranked lung, breast and colorectal as the top three most costly cancers in Europe, but cost per death altered rankings substantially. Significant cost differences were observed following sensitivity analysis. Our study provides a unique perspective of the difference between HCA and FCA estimates of productivity costs by cancer site and country in Europe. Full article
Case Report
Marrying Story with Science: The Impact of Outdated and Inconsistent Breast Cancer Screening Practices in Canada
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3540-3551; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050286 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 307
Abstract
Behind the science of breast cancer in Canada, as well as globally, are the stories of thousands of women, their families, and their communities. These include stories from those who have died or those suffering from the realities of stage III and stage [...] Read more.
Behind the science of breast cancer in Canada, as well as globally, are the stories of thousands of women, their families, and their communities. These include stories from those who have died or those suffering from the realities of stage III and stage IV breast cancer due to late detection, misinformation, and dismissal. The reality for these women is that, whilst grateful for the latest developments in cancer research, much of this knowledge is not reflected in policy and practice. Canadian guidelines do not reflect the recommended screening by experts within the field and inequities in screening practices and practitioner knowledge exist in different areas within Canada. Told through the stories of women with lived experiences of late-stage breast cancer and supported by scientific evidence, this paper explores the impact of outdated breast cancer screening practices on the lives of women. Recent patient advocacy is driving changes, such as notifying women of their breast density in a few jurisdictions in Canada, but we call for the whole medical community to take responsibility and ensure breast screening is optimised to save more lives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Breast Cancer Imaging and Therapy)
Case Report
Efficacy of Osimertinib in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients with EGFR Gene Mutation–Case Report and a Literature Review
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3531-3539; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050285 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 370
Abstract
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. It is responsible for 80–85% of lung cancer cases. NSCLC can be divided into several groups, led by adenocarcinoma (ADC)–40–50% and squamous [...] Read more.
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type of lung cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. It is responsible for 80–85% of lung cancer cases. NSCLC can be divided into several groups, led by adenocarcinoma (ADC)–40–50% and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)–20–30%. The development of new molecular therapies targeting particular abnormalities such as mutations in the EGFR (Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor) gene or ROS1 or ALK genes rearrangements resolved in novel strategies in advanced NSCLC management. EGFR mutation occurs mostly in patients with ADC and those patients are mostly females with no or light smoking history. The hereby presented patient fitted the ADC characteristics, while they were diagnosed with SCC. The unusual diagnosis implied further genetic testing, which established the occurrence of L858R substitution in exon 21 in the EGFR gene. A 63-year-old female was admitted to the unit due to a dry cough, pain in the right chest area and dyspnoea. When diagnosed, the patient had a peripheral mass in the right lung superior lobe (55 × 40 mm), satellite nodules in the apex of the same lung and packets of disintegrating lymph nodes. Positron Emission Tomography (PET-CT) confirmed a diffuse neoplastic process qualified as stage IV on the TNM scale. Due to EGFR gene mutation, the woman was administered osimertinib, however, the treatment did not succeed, and other therapeutic solutions were undertaken. The patient died 10 months after diagnosis. Patients with advanced ADC harboring EGFR mutation can receive osimertinib, a third-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), however, the use of TKIs in SCC remains controversial. In some published cases, osimertinib treatment led to success, in others, the therapy did not result in the expected final effect. Small sample groups and diverse molecular backgrounds indicate the need for further research in this field. Thus, the treatment decision-making process in those patients overall remains extremely demanding and ambiguous. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
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Article
Outcomes of Intercalary Endoprostheses as a Treatment for Metastases in the Femoral and Humeral Diaphysis
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3519-3530; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050284 - 13 May 2022
Viewed by 327
Abstract
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implant survival, functional score and complications of intercalary endoprostheses implanted for metastatic involvement of the femoral and humeral diaphysis. Methods: The selected group covered patients with bone metastasis who were surgically treated with [...] Read more.
Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the implant survival, functional score and complications of intercalary endoprostheses implanted for metastatic involvement of the femoral and humeral diaphysis. Methods: The selected group covered patients with bone metastasis who were surgically treated with an intercalary endoprosthesis between 2012 and 2021. The functional outcome was evaluated with the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) scoring system, and complications were evaluated by using the failure classification for prosthetics designed by Henderson. Results: The mean follow-up was 29.8 months. In our group of 25 patients with 27 intercalary endoprostheses (18 femurs, 9 humeri), there were 7 implant-related complications (25.9%), which were more common on the humerus (4 cases, 44.4%) than on the femur (3 cases, 16.7%). Only type II failure—aseptic loosening (5 cases, 18.5%)—and type III failure—structural failure (2 cases, 7.4%)—occurred. There was a significantly higher risk of aseptic loosening of the endoprosthesis in the humerus compared with that in the femur (odds ratio 13.79, 95% confidence interval 1.22–151.05, p = 0.0297). The overall cumulative implant survival was 92% 1 year after surgery and 72% 5 years after surgery. The average MSTS score was 82%. The MSTS score was significantly lower (p = 0.008) in the humerus (75.9%) than in the femur (84.8%). Conclusions: The resection of bone metastases and replacement with intercalary endoprosthesis has excellent immediate functional results with an acceptable level of complications in prognostically favourable patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment of Bone Metastasis)
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Review
Genomics and Immunomics in the Treatment of Urothelial Carcinoma
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3499-3518; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050283 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 259
Abstract
Urothelial carcinoma is a complex cancer with genomic immunomic drivers that have prognostic and predictive treatment implications. Identifying potential targetable alterations via next-generation sequencing and RNA sequencing may allow for elucidation of such targets and exploitation with targeted therapeutics. The role of immunotherapy [...] Read more.
Urothelial carcinoma is a complex cancer with genomic immunomic drivers that have prognostic and predictive treatment implications. Identifying potential targetable alterations via next-generation sequencing and RNA sequencing may allow for elucidation of such targets and exploitation with targeted therapeutics. The role of immunotherapy in treating urothelial carcinoma has shown benefit, but it is unclear in which patients immunotherapeutics have the highest yield. Continuing efforts into better identifying which patients may benefit most from targeted therapies, immunotherapies, and combination therapies may ultimately lead to improved outcomes for patients with this disease. Full article
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Case Report
Successful Treatment with Selpercatinib for Ectopic Cushing’s Syndrome Due to Medullary Thyroid Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3494-3498; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050282 - 12 May 2022
Viewed by 275
Abstract
Selpercatinib, a RET kinase inhibitor, is an effective treatment for patients with medullary thyroid cancer with RET mutations. In this paper, we present the case of a 62-year-old man with ectopic Cushing’s syndrome due to medullary thyroid cancer who received treatment with selpercatinib. [...] Read more.
Selpercatinib, a RET kinase inhibitor, is an effective treatment for patients with medullary thyroid cancer with RET mutations. In this paper, we present the case of a 62-year-old man with ectopic Cushing’s syndrome due to medullary thyroid cancer who received treatment with selpercatinib. Six months later, all the cushingoid features had resolved, and s-calcitonin had decreased from 580 pmol/L to 3.5 pmol/L (normal < 3). After further 6 months, s-calcitonin had normalized (1.5 pmol/L), and radiological evaluation showed a profound tumour volume reduction. We are aware of two other cases where treatment with selpercatinib has also been successful. Thus, selpercatinib may be a promising treatment alternative in patients with ectopic Cushing’s syndrome due to medullary thyroid cancer, especially when other treatment options are ineffective or not tolerated. Full article
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Case Report
Hamartochondroma Pleural Lesion Mimicking Liposarcoma: A Case Report
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3489-3493; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050281 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 354
Abstract
Heterogeneous masses developing in the pleural cavity are most often malignant and can pose diagnostic challenges. Fibrous tumors of the pleura, liposarcoma, thymoma or lipoma most frequently affect this anatomic area. Surgical exploration and resection are often mandatory to make the definitive diagnosis. [...] Read more.
Heterogeneous masses developing in the pleural cavity are most often malignant and can pose diagnostic challenges. Fibrous tumors of the pleura, liposarcoma, thymoma or lipoma most frequently affect this anatomic area. Surgical exploration and resection are often mandatory to make the definitive diagnosis. We report the case of a 54-year-old women who presented with an epigastric and right sub costal pain. A complete preoperative workup revealed a large tissular and fatty mass in the right costo-diaphragmatic angle suggestive of liposarcoma. Surgical resection resulted in the surprising diagnosis of hamartochondroma. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Thoracic Oncology)
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Article
Newly Diagnosed Multifocal GBM: A Monocentric Experience and Literature Review
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3472-3488; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050280 - 11 May 2022
Viewed by 401
Abstract
Glioblastomas with multiple foci at presentation (mGBMs) account for 2–35% of all GBMs. mGBMs have limited existing data and no standardized treatment. This study aims to determine their incidence, demographic and clinical features, outcome, and prognostic factors in terms of overall survival. We [...] Read more.
Glioblastomas with multiple foci at presentation (mGBMs) account for 2–35% of all GBMs. mGBMs have limited existing data and no standardized treatment. This study aims to determine their incidence, demographic and clinical features, outcome, and prognostic factors in terms of overall survival. We performed a monocentric retrospective study, reviewing patients treated at the Istituto Oncologico Veneto. Inclusion criteria were: new diagnosis of GBM and presence of multiple lesions on pre-treatment MRI. ECOG PS was used to evaluate clinical condition, RANO criteria for radiological assessment, and CTCAE v5.0 for treatment-related adverse events. The incidence of newly diagnosed mGBM was 7.2% and the study population consisted of 98 patients. Median age was 63 years, M:F ratio of 1.8:1, and a surgical approach was undertaken in 73 patients (mostly partial resection). MGMT was methylated in 47.5%, and 82 patients received active oncological treatment (65.9% radiotherapy plus temozolomide (RT + TMZ)). The disease control rate with RT + TMZ was 63%. Median OS of the entire study population was 10.2 months (95% CI 6.6–13.8), and median PFS was 4.2 months (95% CI 3.2–5.2). The ECOG PS, the extent of resection, and the RT + TMZ were significant prognostic factors in the univariate analysis for OS, but only the RT + TMZ was a significant independent OS predictor in the multivariate analysis (HR = 3.1, 95% IC 1.3–7.7, p = 0.014). The incidence of mGBM is not rare. RT + TMZ is confirmed to be an independent prognostic factor for survival and a safe and effective treatment. When feasible, RT + TMZ should be considered as a possible first-line treatment. The role of the extent of resection is still unclear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Neuro-Oncology)
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Article
Megaprosthesis for Metastatic Bone Disease—A Comparative Analysis
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3460-3471; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050279 - 10 May 2022
Viewed by 367
Abstract
Background: Megaprosthetic reconstruction is sometimes indicated in advanced metastatic bone disease (MBD) of the appendicular skeleton with large degrees of bone loss or need for oncological segmental resection. Outcome after megaprosthetic reconstruction was studied in the setting of primary bone sarcoma with high [...] Read more.
Background: Megaprosthetic reconstruction is sometimes indicated in advanced metastatic bone disease (MBD) of the appendicular skeleton with large degrees of bone loss or need for oncological segmental resection. Outcome after megaprosthetic reconstruction was studied in the setting of primary bone sarcoma with high levels of complications, but it is not known if this applies to MBD. Method: We performed a comparative analysis of complications and revision surgery for MBD and bone sarcoma surgery in an institutional cohort from 2005–2019. Presented are the descriptive data of the cohort, with Kaplan–Meier (K–M) rates of revision at 1, 2 and 5 years together with a competing risk analysis by indication type. Results: Rates of revision surgery are significantly lower for MBD (8% at 1 year, 12% at 2 years), in the intermediate term, compared to that of sarcoma (18% at 1 year, 24% at 2 years) (p = 0.04). At 5 years this is not significant by K–M analysis (25% for MBD, and 33% for sarcoma), but remains significant in a competing risk model (8% for MBD, and 20% for sarcoma) (p = 0.03), accounting for death as a competing event. Conclusion: Rates of revision surgery after megaprosthetic reconstruction of MBD are significantly lower than that for primary bone sarcoma in this cohort. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Treatment of Bone Metastasis)
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Article
STR Profiling Reveals Tumor Genome Instability in Primary Mediastinal B-Cell Lymphoma
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3449-3459; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050278 - 10 May 2022
Viewed by 310
Abstract
Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is the only non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma variant responding to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy, approximately in half of the cases; however, no molecular markers predicting a response to ICI therapy in PMBCL have been described so far. In this [...] Read more.
Primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (PMBCL) is the only non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma variant responding to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy, approximately in half of the cases; however, no molecular markers predicting a response to ICI therapy in PMBCL have been described so far. In this study, we assessed the incidence of the loss of heterozygosity (LOH), elevated microsatellite alteration at selected tetranucleotides (EMAST), and microsatellite instability (MSI) in the tumor genomes of 72 patients with PMBCL undergoing high-dose chemotherapy treatment at the National Research Center for Hematology (Moscow, Russia). Tumor DNA was isolated from biopsy samples taken at diagnosis. Control DNA was isolated from the blood of patients in complete remission or from buccal epithelium. STR-profiles for LOH and EMAST were assessed by PCR with COrDIS Plus multiplex kit (Gordiz Ltd., Moscow, Russia). LOH was detected in 37 of 72 patients (51.4%). EMAST was found in 40 patients (55.5%); 24 had a combination of EMAST with LOH. MSI-high was not found, while MSI-low was detected only in one patient. The association of certain genetic lesions with the clinical outcome in patients receiving treatment according to the standard clinical protocol R-Da-EPOCH-21 has been estimated (58 patients out of 72) and no associations with the worst overall or event-free survival were found. Full article
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Article
Comprehensive Genomic Profiling of Circulating Tumor DNA in Patients with Previously Treated Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Analysis of a Real-World Healthcare Claims Database
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3433-3448; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050277 - 09 May 2022
Viewed by 520
Abstract
We used a real-world database (GuardantINFORMTM) to analyze the treatment choices for patients with mCRC who underwent next-generation sequencing of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) using a commercially available test (Guardant360®) after first- or second-line therapy. From 18,875 patients with [...] Read more.
We used a real-world database (GuardantINFORMTM) to analyze the treatment choices for patients with mCRC who underwent next-generation sequencing of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) using a commercially available test (Guardant360®) after first- or second-line therapy. From 18,875 patients with claims for CRC, 1064 had confirmed metastatic disease and sufficient histories for analysis (median age 59 years, 44.8% female, 44.5% left-sided). ctDNA was detectable for 997/1064 (93.7%) patients. Clinically actionable molecular profiles were present for 507/1064 (47.7%) patients, including those who had not received targeted therapy in the previous line (410/926, 44.3%). Second- or third-line targeted therapies were administered to 338/1064 patients (31.8%) and were considered matched for 193/338 (57.1%) patients. Therapies administered after testing were informed by the ctDNA results in 56.7% of patients overall (603/1064). Time to treatment discontinuation was most favorable for patients with a clinically actionable ctDNA profile who received matched therapy. This analysis demonstrates the real-world clinical value of plasma-based comprehensive genomic profiling for selecting appropriate molecular-targeted therapies in mCRC patients with disease progression after first- or second-line therapy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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Article
Inflammatory Indexes as Predictive Biomarkers of Postoperative Complications in Oncological Thoracic Surgery
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3425-3432; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050276 - 08 May 2022
Viewed by 449
Abstract
The role of inflammatory responses in predicting outcomes in oncological thoracic surgery is still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate a series of blood count inflammation indexes as predicting factors for postoperative complications. We retrospectively studied 249 patients undergoing elective [...] Read more.
The role of inflammatory responses in predicting outcomes in oncological thoracic surgery is still unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate a series of blood count inflammation indexes as predicting factors for postoperative complications. We retrospectively studied 249 patients undergoing elective thoracic surgery in our institution between 2008 and 2020. A total of 184 patients underwent open surgery, and 65 underwent VATS. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte (NLR), monocyte-to-lymphocyte (MLR), and platelet-to-lymphocyte (PLR) ratios, Systemic Inflammation Response Index (SIRI) were calculated preoperatively and on the first and fourth postoperative days, as well as a new derivative index, the Aggregate Inflammation Systemic Index (AISI). Univariate correlations evidenced a statistically significant association between the NLR at the fourth postoperative day and the occurrence of surgical complications in the global cohort (rho = 0.15, p = 0.03). A similar significant association with MLR on the fourth postoperative day is found in the open group (rho = −0.15, p = 0.048). NLR and LMR on the fourth postoperative day are associated with postoperative complications in the whole and open groups, respectively. Simple, easy-to-perform and inexpensive, blood cell count indexes may be useful in predicting complications in oncological thoracic surgery. A greater number of broader, prospective, randomized studies are necessary to confirm these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advancements in Thoracic Surgical Oncology)
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Systematic Review
The Health Economics of Metastatic Hormone-Sensitive and Non-Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer—A Systematic Literature Review with Application to the Canadian Context
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3393-3424; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050275 - 07 May 2022
Viewed by 363
Abstract
Background: Health economic evaluations are needed to assess the impact on the healthcare system of emerging treatment patterns for advanced prostate cancer. The objective of this study is to review the scientific literature identifying cost-effectiveness and cost analyses that are assessing treatments for [...] Read more.
Background: Health economic evaluations are needed to assess the impact on the healthcare system of emerging treatment patterns for advanced prostate cancer. The objective of this study is to review the scientific literature identifying cost-effectiveness and cost analyses that are assessing treatments for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) and nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC). Methods: On 29 June 2021, we searched the scientific (MEDLINE, Embase, and EBSCO) and grey literature for health economic studies targeting mHSPC and nmCRPC. We used the CHEC-extended checklist and the Welte checklist for risk-of-bias assessment and transferability analysis, respectively. Results: We retained 20 cost-effectiveness and 4 cost analyses in the mHSPC setting, and 14 cost-effectiveness and 6 cost analyses in the nmCRPC setting. Docetaxel in combination with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) was the most cost-effective treatment in the mHSPC setting. Apalutamide, darolutamide, and enzalutamide presented similar results vs. ADT alone and were identified as cost-effective treatments for nmCRPC. An increase in costs as patients transitioned from nmCRPC to mCRPC was noted. Conclusions: We concluded that there is an important unmet need for health economic evaluations in the mHSPC and nmCRPC setting incorporating real-world data to support healthcare decision making. Full article
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Article
Osseous Union after Mandible Reconstruction with Fibula Free Flap Using Manually Bent Plates vs. Patient-Specific Implants: A Retrospective Analysis of 89 Patients
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3375-3392; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050274 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 456
Abstract
The aim of this monocentric, retrospective clinical study was to evaluate the status of osseous union in uni- and poly-segmental mandible reconstructions regarding conventional angle-stable manually bent osteosynthesis plates (Unilock 2.0 mm) versus titan laser-melted PSI patient-specific implant’s (PSI). The clinical impact of [...] Read more.
The aim of this monocentric, retrospective clinical study was to evaluate the status of osseous union in uni- and poly-segmental mandible reconstructions regarding conventional angle-stable manually bent osteosynthesis plates (Unilock 2.0 mm) versus titan laser-melted PSI patient-specific implant’s (PSI). The clinical impact of PSI’s high stiffness fixation methods on bone healing and regeneration is still not well addressed. The special interest was in evaluating the ossification of junctions between mandible and fibula and between osteotomized fibula free flap (FFF) segments. Panoramic radiograph (OPT), computed tomography (CT) scans, or cone-beam CTs (CBCT) of patients who underwent successful FFF for mandible reconstruction from January 2005 to December 2020 were analyzed. A total number of 89 cases (28 females (31.5%), 61 males (68.5%), mean age 58.2 ± 11.3 years, range: 22.8–82.7 years) fulfilled the chosen inclusion criteria for analysis (conventional: n = 44 vs. PSI: n = 45). The present study found an overall incomplete ossification (IOU) rate of 24.7% (conventional: 13.6% vs. PSI: 35.6%; p = 0.017) for mandible to fibula and intersegmental junctions. Between osteotomized FFF segments, an IOU rate of 16% was found in the PSI-group, while no IOU was recorded in the conventional group (p = 0.015). Significant differences were registered for IOU rates in poly-segmental (p = 0.041), and lateral (p = 0.016) mandibular reconstructions when PSI was used. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified plate exposure and type of plate used as independent risk factors for IOU. Previous or adjuvant radiotherapy did not impact incomplete osseous union in the evaluated study sample. PSI is more rigid than bent mini-plates and shields functional mechanical stimuli, and is the main reason for increasing the rate of incomplete ossification. To enhance the functional stimulus for ossification it has to be discussed if patient-specific implants can be designed to be thinner, and should be divided into segmental plates. This directs chewing forces through the bone and improves physiological bone remodeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Head and Neck Oncology)
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Article
Antibody Response to COVID-19 mRNA Vaccines in Oncologic and Hematologic Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3364-3374; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050273 - 06 May 2022
Viewed by 525
Abstract
Background: Information on immune responses in cancer patients following mRNA COVID-19 vaccines is still insufficient, but generally, patients had impaired serological responses, especially those with hematological malignancies. We evaluated serological response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy compared with healthy [...] Read more.
Background: Information on immune responses in cancer patients following mRNA COVID-19 vaccines is still insufficient, but generally, patients had impaired serological responses, especially those with hematological malignancies. We evaluated serological response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccine in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy compared with healthy controls. Methods: In total, 195 cancer patients and 400 randomly selected controls who had been administered a Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna COVID-19 vaccines in two doses were compared. The threshold of positivity was 4.33 BAU/mL. Patients were receiving anticancer treatment after the first and second dose of the vaccines. Results: a TOTAL OF 169 patients (87%) had solid tumors and 26 hemolymphopoietic diseases. Seropositivity rate was lower in patients than controls (91% vs. 96%), with an age/gender-adjusted rate ratio (RR) of 0.95 (95% CL = 0.89–1.02). Positivity was found in 97% of solid cancers and in 50% of hemolymphopoietic tumors. Both advanced and adjuvant therapy seemed to slightly reduce seropositivity rates in patients when compared to controls (RR = 0.97, 95% CL = 0.89–1.06; RR = 0.94, 95% CL = 0.87–1.01). Conclusions: the response to vaccination is similar in patients affected by solid tumors to controls. On the contrary, hemolymphopietic patients show a much lower response than controls. Full article
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Article
Framing Concerns about Body Image during Pre- and Post-Surgical Consultations for Head and Neck Cancer: A Qualitative Study of Patient–Physician Interactions
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3341-3363; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050272 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 369
Abstract
Patients with head and neck cancer report high unmet psychosocial needs as they undergo lifesaving treatments that can significantly alter their appearance and cause functional impairments. This qualitative analysis of recordings of 88 pre- and post-surgical consultations involving 20 patients respond to the [...] Read more.
Patients with head and neck cancer report high unmet psychosocial needs as they undergo lifesaving treatments that can significantly alter their appearance and cause functional impairments. This qualitative analysis of recordings of 88 pre- and post-surgical consultations involving 20 patients respond to the need for empirical studies of patient–provider conversations about body image concerns. It indicates that the emphasis on concerns about survival, cure, and physical recovery during clinical consultations may leave concerns about the impacts of surgery on appearance and function unexplored and even silenced. The interviews with patients and medical team members that complement the analysis of the recordings suggest that an emphasis on survival, cure, and physical recovery can respond to the need for reassurance in the context of serious illness. However, it can also be problematic as it contributes to the silencing of patients’ concerns and to a potential lack of preparedness for the consequences of surgery. The results of this study can contribute to raising surgeons’ awareness of the interactional dynamics during clinical consultations. Moreover, the results highlight the unique role that surgeons can play in validating patients’ psychosocial concerns to support patients’ rehabilitation in both physical and psychosocial domains. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychosocial Effects of Head and Neck Cancer)
Article
Understanding the Experience of Canadian Women Living with Ovarian Cancer through the Every Woman StudyTM
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3318-3340; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050271 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 460
Abstract
The Every Woman StudyTM: Canadian Edition is the most comprehensive study to date exploring patient-reported experiences of ovarian cancer (OC) on a national scale. An online survey conducted in Fall 2020 included individuals diagnosed with OC in Canada, reporting responses from [...] Read more.
The Every Woman StudyTM: Canadian Edition is the most comprehensive study to date exploring patient-reported experiences of ovarian cancer (OC) on a national scale. An online survey conducted in Fall 2020 included individuals diagnosed with OC in Canada, reporting responses from 557 women from 11 Canadian provinces/territories. Median age at diagnosis was 54 (11–80), 61% were diagnosed between 2016–2020, 59% were stage III/IV and all subtypes of OC were represented. Overall, 23% had a family history of OC, 75% had genetic testing and 19% reported having a BRCA1/2 mutation. Most (87%) had symptoms prior to diagnosis. A timely diagnosis of OC (≤3 months from first presentation with symptoms) was predicted by age (>50) or abdominal pain/persistent bloating as the primary symptom. Predictors of an acute diagnosis (<1 month) included region, ER/urgent care doctor as first healthcare provider or stage III/IV disease. Regional differences in genetic testing, treatments and clinical trial participation were also noted. Respondents cited substantial physical, emotional, practical and financial impacts of an OC diagnosis. Our national survey has revealed differences in the pathway to diagnosis and post-diagnostic care among Canadian women with OC, with region, initial healthcare provider, specific symptoms and age playing key roles. We have identified many opportunities to improve both clinical and supportive care of OC patients across the country. Full article
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Article
Using a Weekly Patient-Reported Outcome Questionnaire to Track Acute Toxicity in Patients Undergoing Pelvic Radiotherapy for Gynecologic Cancers
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3306-3317; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050270 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 372
Abstract
There are limited patient-reported outcome (PRO) data tracking changes in toxicity in patients actively undergoing radiotherapy. Between 2015–2019, acute toxicity was prospectively measured in 698 patients undergoing a 5-week course of pelvic radiotherapy for gynecologic cancers using a weekly PRO questionnaire. Our questionnaire [...] Read more.
There are limited patient-reported outcome (PRO) data tracking changes in toxicity in patients actively undergoing radiotherapy. Between 2015–2019, acute toxicity was prospectively measured in 698 patients undergoing a 5-week course of pelvic radiotherapy for gynecologic cancers using a weekly PRO questionnaire. Our questionnaire was able detect a pattern of onset and resolution of acute gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity in 27 out of 32 questions. Logistic regression analysis showed that increasing GI and GU toxicity at week 2 could predict for severe toxicity at week 5. However, due to a low number of severe events, univariate results could not be productively added to a multivariate model. We observed a >70% response rate for all sections of the questionnaire, except for questions on sexual and vaginal health, which had a 13% average response rate. By demonstrating that PRO data can be used to track acute toxicity during radiotherapy, there is a need to further examine how this tool may be implemented in the clinic to provide complex, adaptive care, such as early side effect management, and modifying radiation delivery in real-time. Full article
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Article
Sexual Functioning in Female Patients Undergoing Surgical Treatment for Colorectal Cancer—A Single-Center, Prospective Triple Timepoint Yearly Follow-Up
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3291-3305; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050269 - 05 May 2022
Viewed by 528
Abstract
The study was aimed at assessing the quality of sexual functioning in female patients having undergone surgical treatment for cancer depending on the type of surgery. The prospective cohort consisted of 48 female patients (23 patients with stoma [A2] and 25 patients with [...] Read more.
The study was aimed at assessing the quality of sexual functioning in female patients having undergone surgical treatment for cancer depending on the type of surgery. The prospective cohort consisted of 48 female patients (23 patients with stoma [A2] and 25 patients with maintained continuity of the GI tract [A1]). Study methods included a diagnostic survey and the analysis of medical records of patients. Research tools consisted of a standardized FSFI questionnaire and a proprietary form for evaluation of sociodemographic data. Measurements were performed at threetimepoints: On the day before the surgery (Measurement I) as well as six and 12 months after the surgery (Measurements II and III, respectively). Statistically significant differences in results were observed in Measurements II and III in the subscales of arousal (II:p = 0.0068, III:p = 0.0018), lubrication (II:p = 0.0221, III:p = 0.0134), orgasm (II:p = 0.0044, III:p = 0.0021), satisfaction (II:p = 0.0021, III:p = 0.0433), and pain/discomfort (II:p = 0.0343, III:p = 0.0473). In all cases, lower scores corresponding to lower quality of sexual functioning were observed in patients in whom stoma had been performed. Statistically significant differences in sexual functioning were observed at Measurements II and III in each group, with the results being significantly (p > 0.05) worse in patients having undergone Hartmann’s procedure or abdominoperineal resection). Variables significantly affecting self-assessed sexual satisfaction included marital status, age, and modality of neoadjuvant treatment. Restoration of the continuity of the gastrointestinal tract is a chance for better self-assessment of the patient’s quality of life as regards sexual functioning. Full article
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Article
COVID-19 Impact on Diagnosis and Staging of Colorectal Cancer: A Single Tertiary Canadian Oncology Center Experience
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3282-3290; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050268 - 04 May 2022
Viewed by 561
Abstract
Background: Public health measures have imposed drastic reductions in cancer screening programs at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, with an unknown impact on the diagnosis and staging of colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Newly diagnosed CRC cases at the Centre Hospitalier de l’Université [...] Read more.
Background: Public health measures have imposed drastic reductions in cancer screening programs at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, with an unknown impact on the diagnosis and staging of colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods: Newly diagnosed CRC cases at the Centre Hospitalier de l’Université de Montréal (CHUM) were divided into two groups according to the timeline: pre-pandemic (1 January 2018–12 March 2020), and pandemic (13 March 2020–30 June 2021) periods. Colonoscopy, surgery, and staging at diagnosis during the pandemic period were compared to the pre-pandemic period. Results: 254 CRC diagnoses were made during the pre-pandemic period in comparison to 125 during the pandemic period. Mean diagnosis rates were lower in the pandemic period (7.8 vs. 9.8 diagnoses/month, p = 0.048). Colonoscopy deadlines were less respected in the pandemic period (51.7% vs. 38.3%, p = 0.049). The rate of elective surgery did not differ (2.9 vs. 3.5 surgeries/month, p = 0.39) and mean delays were similar (58.6 vs. 60.4 days, p = 0.77). Stages at diagnosis did not differ (p = 0.17). Most of the delayed colonoscopies led to a stage 0 or I CRC (p = 0.2). Conclusion: In our center, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a decreased rate of CRC diagnosis and increased endoscopic delays without affecting the rate of advanced stage disease. Delays to surgery were quite similar once the CRC diagnosis was established. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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Article
Primary Angiosarcoma of the Breast: A Single-Center Retrospective Study in Korea
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3272-3281; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050267 - 04 May 2022
Viewed by 454
Abstract
Due to the rarity of primary angiosarcoma of the breast, optimal management is based on expert opinion. The aim of this study was to review all primary angiosarcomas of the breast obtained from a single center in terms of clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and [...] Read more.
Due to the rarity of primary angiosarcoma of the breast, optimal management is based on expert opinion. The aim of this study was to review all primary angiosarcomas of the breast obtained from a single center in terms of clinicopathologic characteristics, treatment, and survival outcomes. From 1997 to 2020, 15 patients with primary angiosarcoma of the breast underwent either mastectomy or wide excision. We analyzed the clinicopathologic data to assess disease-free survival and overall survival. Fifteen women with primary angiosarcoma of the breast were identified. The mean age at diagnosis was 33 years (range: 14–63 years). The overall mean tumor size was 7.7 cm (range 3.5–20 cm). Upon histological grading, there were three cases of low grade, five intermediate grade, six high grade, and one unidentified grade. The five-year disease-free survival rate was 24.4%, and the five-year survival rate was 37.2%. The survival rate of the low-grade patient group was statistically higher than that of the intermediate- or high-grade patient groups (p = 0.024). Primary angiosarcoma of the breast is a rare aggressive tumor characterized by high grade and poor outcome. Histologic grade appears to be a reliable predictor of survival. There are no standard treatment guidelines; thus, optimal R0 surgical resection remains the best approach. The roles of neoadjuvant, adjuvant chemotherapy, and radiotherapy remain unclear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Soft Tissue Sarcomas: Treatment and Management)
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Article
Identification of CT Values That Could Be Predictive of Necrosis (N-CTav) in Hepatocellular Carcinoma after Lenvatinib Treatment
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3259-3271; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050266 - 04 May 2022
Viewed by 484
Abstract
Purpose: To assess the utility of measurement of the computed tomography (CT) attenuation value (CTav) in predicting tumor necrosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who achieve a complete response (CR), defined using modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST), after lenvatinib treatment. [...] Read more.
Purpose: To assess the utility of measurement of the computed tomography (CT) attenuation value (CTav) in predicting tumor necrosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients who achieve a complete response (CR), defined using modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST), after lenvatinib treatment. Method: We compared CTav in arterial phase CT images with postoperative histopathology in four patients who underwent HCC resection after lenvatinib treatment, to determine CTav thresholds indicative of histological necrosis (N-CTav). Next, we confirmed the accuracy of the determined N-CTav in 15 cases with histopathologically proven necrosis in surgical specimens. Furthermore, the percentage of the tumor with N-CTav, i.e., the N-CTav occupancy rate, assessed using Image J software in 30 tumors in 12 patients with CR out of 571 HCC patients treated with lenvatinib, and its correlation with local recurrence following CR were examined. Results: Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed an optimal cut-off value of CTav of 30.2 HU, with 90.0% specificity and 65.0% sensitivity in discriminating between pathologically identified necrosis and degeneration, with a CTav of less than 30.2 HU indicating necrosis after lenvatinib treatment (N30-CTav). Furthermore, the optimal cut-off value of 30.6% for the N30-CTav occupancy rate by ROC analysis was a significant indicator of local recurrence following CR with 76.9% specificity and sensitivity (area under the ROC curve; 0.939), with the CR group with high N30-CTav occupancy (≥30.6%) after lenvatinib treatment showing significantly lower local recurrence (8.3% at 1 year) compared with the low (<30.6%) N30-CTav group (p < 0.001, 61.5% at 1 year). Conclusion: The cut-off value of 30.2 HU for CTav (N30-CTav) might be appropriate for identifying post-lenvatinib necrosis in HCC, and an N30-CTav occupancy rate of >30.6% might be a predictor of maintenance of CR. Use of these indicators have the potential to impact systemic chemotherapy for HCC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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Communication
Method for the Intraoperative Detection of IDH Mutation in Gliomas with Differential Mobility Spectrometry
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3252-3258; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050265 - 04 May 2022
Viewed by 450
Abstract
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status is an important factor for surgical decision-making: patients with IDH-mutated tumors are more likely to have a good long-term prognosis, and thus favor aggressive resection with more survival benefit to gain. Patients with IDH wild-type tumors have generally [...] Read more.
Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation status is an important factor for surgical decision-making: patients with IDH-mutated tumors are more likely to have a good long-term prognosis, and thus favor aggressive resection with more survival benefit to gain. Patients with IDH wild-type tumors have generally poorer prognosis and, therefore, conservative resection to avoid neurological deficit is favored. Current histopathological analysis with frozen sections is unable to identify IDH mutation status intraoperatively, and more advanced methods are therefore needed. We examined a novel method suitable for intraoperative IDH mutation identification that is based on the differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) analysis of the tumor. We prospectively obtained tumor samples from 22 patients, including 11 IDH-mutated and 11 IDH wild-type tumors. The tumors were cut in 88 smaller specimens that were analyzed with DMS. With a linear discriminant analysis (LDA) algorithm, the DMS was able to classify tumor samples with 86% classification accuracy, 86% sensitivity, and 85% specificity. Our results show that DMS is able to differentiate IDH-mutated and IDH wild-type tumors with good accuracy in a setting suitable for intraoperative use, which makes it a promising novel solution for neurosurgical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Diagnosis and Therapy)
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Article
Invasive Fungal Disease in Patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia in Japan: A Retrospective Database Study
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3242-3251; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050264 - 04 May 2022
Viewed by 422
Abstract
Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies. As chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a rare hematological malignancy in Japan, IFD incidence in Japanese patients with CLL is unclear. This study aimed to investigate [...] Read more.
Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with hematological malignancies. As chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a rare hematological malignancy in Japan, IFD incidence in Japanese patients with CLL is unclear. This study aimed to investigate IFD incidence in Japanese patients with CLL. This retrospective cohort study used data of patients with CLL registered between April 2008 and December 2019 in the Medical Data Vision database (n = 3484). IFD incidence after CLL diagnosis in the watch-and-wait (WW) and drug therapy (DT) groups was 1.5% and 9.2%, respectively. The most common type of IFD was invasive aspergillosis (28.1%). Cox proportional hazards multivariate analysis revealed that DT (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.13) and steroid use (HR: 4.19) were significantly associated with IFD occurrence. IFD incidence was significantly higher in the DT group than in the WW group (log-rank p < 0.001); however, there was no significant between-group difference in the time to IFD onset or the type of IFD (p = 0.09). This study determined the incidence of IFD in patients with CLL during WW. Physicians should monitor for IFD, even among patients with CLL undergoing the WW protocol. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia: Therapy and Outcome)
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Review
Tumor Stroma Ratio and Its Significance in Locally Advanced Colorectal Cancer
Curr. Oncol. 2022, 29(5), 3232-3241; https://doi.org/10.3390/curroncol29050263 - 03 May 2022
Viewed by 417
Abstract
Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death, and its incidence is rising in the younger patient population. In the past decade, research has unveiled several processes (underlying tumorigenesis, many of which involve interactions between tumor cells and the surrounding tissue [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related death, and its incidence is rising in the younger patient population. In the past decade, research has unveiled several processes (underlying tumorigenesis, many of which involve interactions between tumor cells and the surrounding tissue or tumor microenvironment (TME). Interactions between components of the TME are mediated at a sub-microscopic level. However, the endpoint of those interactions results in morphologic changes which can be readily assessed at microscopic examination of biopsy and resection specimens. Among these morphologic changes, alteration to the tumor stroma is a new, important determinant of colorectal cancer progression. Different methodologies to estimate the proportion of tumor stroma relative to tumor cells, or tumor stroma ratio (TSR), have been developed. Subsequent validation has supported the prognostic value, reproducibility and feasibility of TSR in various subgroups of colorectal cancer. In this manuscript, we review the literature surrounding TME in colorectal cancer, with a focus on tumor stroma ratio. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gastrointestinal Oncology)
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