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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 16, Issue 14 (July-2 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
The Actual Demand for the Elimination of Architectural Barriers among Senior Citizens in Poland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2601; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142601 (registering DOI)
Received: 14 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 20 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
The purpose of the study is to determine the actual demand for the elimination of architectural barriers among senior citizens in their place of residence and also in its immediate environment in Poland. The research covered a group of people in the post-productive [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study is to determine the actual demand for the elimination of architectural barriers among senior citizens in their place of residence and also in its immediate environment in Poland. The research covered a group of people in the post-productive age, living in the Lower Silesia voivodship in Poland. Different research methods were used in the study, primarily including the public opinion survey based on a questionnaire as well as statistical analyses. The cross-tabulation analysis of differences in quality characteristics was performed using Pearson’s chi-square test (χ2 test of independence) or Fisher’s exact test, when the expected number was lower than five. As a post hoc analysis, checking the nature of differences between the studied groups, the analyses were carried out using the method by Baesley and Schumacker. For all analyses, the maximum permissible error class I α = 0.05 was adopted, whereas p ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The research revealed that a much larger group of people aged 55 and older suffers from mobility limitations than the ones resulting from disability certificates, thus confirming the assumption that along with the respondents’ age, their mobility limitations intensify, resulting in the need for assistance while moving outside their houses/apartments. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Exposure to Indoor Mouldy Odour Increases the Risk of Asthma in Older Adults Living in Social Housing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2600; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142600 (registering DOI)
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 22 July 2019
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Abstract
Background: Indoor dampness is thought to affect around 16% of European homes. It is generally accepted that increased exposure to indoor dampness and mould contamination (e.g., spores and hyphae) increases the risk of developing and/or exacerbating asthma. Around 30% of people in the [...] Read more.
Background: Indoor dampness is thought to affect around 16% of European homes. It is generally accepted that increased exposure to indoor dampness and mould contamination (e.g., spores and hyphae) increases the risk of developing and/or exacerbating asthma. Around 30% of people in the Western world have an allergic disease (e.g., allergy, wheeze and asthma). The role of indoor mould contamination in the risk of allergic diseases in older adults is yet to be fully explored. This is of interest because older people spend more time indoors, as well as facing health issues due to the ageing process, and may be at greater risk of developing and/or exacerbating asthma as a result of indoor dampness. Methods: Face-to-face questionnaires were carried out with 302 participants residing in social housing properties located in South West England. Self-reported demographic, mould contamination (i.e., presence of mould growth and mouldy odour) and health information was linked with the asset management records (e.g., building type, age and levels of maintenance). Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate the odd ratios and confidence intervals of developing and/or exacerbating asthma, wheeze and allergy with exposure to reported indoor mould contamination. We adjusted for a range of factors that may affect asthma outcomes, which include age, sex, current smoking, presence of pets, education, and building type and age. To assess the role of mould contamination in older adults, we compared younger adults to those aged over 50 years. Results: Doctor-diagnosed adult asthma was reported by 26% of respondents, 34% had current wheeze while 18% had allergies. Asthma was common among subjects exposed to reported visible mould (32%) and reported mouldy odour (42%). Exposure to visible mould growth and mouldy odour were risk factors for asthma, but not for wheeze or allergy. Exposure to mouldy odour increased the risk of asthma in adults over the age of 50 years (odds ratio (OR) 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10–5.34) and the risk was higher for females than for males (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.37–9.08). These associations were modified by a range of built environment characteristics. Conclusions: We found that older adults living in social (public) housing properties, specifically women, may be at higher risk of asthma when exposed to mouldy odour, which has a number of implications for policy makers and practitioners working in the health and housing sector. Additional measures should be put in place to protect older people living in social housing against indoor damp and mould contamination. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Housing and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Autonomy-Supportive Teaching and Basic Psychological Need Satisfaction among School Students: The Role of Mindfulness
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2599; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142599
Received: 6 July 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
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Abstract
Grounded in self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between autonomy-supportive teaching, mindfulness, and basic psychological need satisfaction/frustration. Secondary school students (n = 390, Mage = 15) responded to a survey form measuring psychological constructs pertaining [...] Read more.
Grounded in self-determination theory, the purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between autonomy-supportive teaching, mindfulness, and basic psychological need satisfaction/frustration. Secondary school students (n = 390, Mage = 15) responded to a survey form measuring psychological constructs pertaining to the research purpose. A series of multiple regression analysis showed that autonomy-supportive teaching and mindfulness positively predicted need satisfaction and negatively predicted need frustration. In addition, the associations between autonomy-supportive teaching and need satisfaction/frustration were moderated by mindfulness. Students higher in mindfulness were more likely to feel need satisfaction and less likely to experience need frustration, even in a low autonomy-supportive teaching environment. These results speak to the relevance of creating autonomy-supportive teaching environments and highlight mindfulness as a potential pathway to basic psychological need satisfaction in educational settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mindfulness-Based Practice for Health Benefits)
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Open AccessArticle
Hip and Wrist-Worn Accelerometer Data Analysis for Toddler Activities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2598; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142598
Received: 5 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
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Abstract
Although accelerometry data are widely utilized to estimate physical activity and sedentary behavior among children age 3 years or older, for toddlers age 1 and 2 year(s), accelerometry data recorded during such behaviors have been far less examined. In particular, toddler’s unique behaviors, [...] Read more.
Although accelerometry data are widely utilized to estimate physical activity and sedentary behavior among children age 3 years or older, for toddlers age 1 and 2 year(s), accelerometry data recorded during such behaviors have been far less examined. In particular, toddler’s unique behaviors, such as riding in a stroller or being carried by an adult, have not yet been examined. The objective of this study was to describe accelerometry signal outputs recorded during participation in nine types of behaviors (i.e., running, walking, climbing up/down, crawling, riding a ride-on toy, standing, sitting, riding in a stroller/wagon, and being carried by an adult) among toddlers. Twenty-four toddlers aged 13 to 35 months (50% girls) performed various prescribed behaviors during free play in a commercial indoor playroom while wearing ActiGraph wGT3X-BT accelerometers on a hip and a wrist. Participants’ performances were video-recorded. Based on the video data, accelerometer data were annotated with behavior labels to examine accelerometry signal outputs while performing the nine types of behaviors. Accelerometer data collected during 664 behavior assessments from the 21 participants were used for analysis. Hip vertical axis counts for walking were low (median = 49 counts/5 s). They were significantly lower than those recorded while a toddler was “carried” by an adult (median = 144 counts/5 s; p < 0.01). While standing, sitting, and riding in a stroller, very low hip vertical axis counts were registered (median ≤ 5 counts/5 s). Although wrist vertical axis and vector magnitude counts for “carried” were not higher than those for walking, they were higher than the cut-points for sedentary behaviors. Using various accelerometry signal features, machine learning techniques showed 89% accuracy to differentiate the “carried” behavior from ambulatory movements such as running, walking, crawling, and climbing. In conclusion, hip vertical axis counts alone may be unable to capture walking as physical activity and “carried” as sedentary behavior among toddlers. Machine learning techniques that utilize additional accelerometry signal features could help to recognize behavior types, especially to differentiate being “carried” from ambulatory movements. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Absolute Income, Income Inequality and the Subjective Well-Being of Migrant Workers in China: Toward an Understanding of the Relationship and Its Psychological Mechanisms
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2597; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142597
Received: 25 May 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
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Abstract
No study has been conducted linking Chinese migrants’ subjective well-being (SWB) with urban inequality. This paper presents the effects of income and inequality on their SWB using a total of 128,000 answers to a survey question about “happiness”. We find evidence for a [...] Read more.
No study has been conducted linking Chinese migrants’ subjective well-being (SWB) with urban inequality. This paper presents the effects of income and inequality on their SWB using a total of 128,000 answers to a survey question about “happiness”. We find evidence for a satiation point above which higher income is no longer associated with greater well-being. Income inequality is detrimental to well-being. Migrants report lower SWB levels where income inequality is higher, even after controlling for personal income, a large set of individual characteristics, and province dummies. We also find striking differences across socio-economic and geographic groups. The positive effect of income is more pronounced for rural and western migrants, and is shown to be significantly correlated with the poor’s SWB but not for the well-being of more affluent respondents. Interestingly, high-income earners are more hurt by income inequality than low-income respondents. Moreover, compared with migrants in other regions, those in less developed Western China are found to be more averse to income inequality. Our results are quite robust to different specifications. We provide novel explanations for these findings by delving into psychological channels, including egalitarian preferences, social comparison concerns, expectations, perceived fairness concerns and perceived social mobility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Emotional Wellbeing)
Open AccessArticle
Application of Social Big Data to Identify Trends of School Bullying Forms in South Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2596; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142596
Received: 22 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
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Abstract
As the contemporary phenomenon of school bullying has become more widespread, diverse, and frequent among adolescents in Korea, social big data may offer a new methodological paradigm for understanding the trends of school bullying in the digital era. This study identified Term Frequency-Inverse [...] Read more.
As the contemporary phenomenon of school bullying has become more widespread, diverse, and frequent among adolescents in Korea, social big data may offer a new methodological paradigm for understanding the trends of school bullying in the digital era. This study identified Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF) and Future Signals of 177 school bullying forms to understand the current and future bullying experiences of adolescents from 436,508 web documents collected between 1 January 2013, and 31 December 2017. In social big data, sexual bullying rapidly increased, and physical and cyber bullying had high frequency with a high rate of growth. School bullying forms, such as “group assault” and “sexual harassment”, appeared as Weak Signals, and “cyber bullying” was a Strong Signal. Findings considering five school bullying forms (verbal, physical, relational, sexual, and cyber bullying) are valuable for developing insights into the burgeoning phenomenon of school bullying. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Dose–Response Relationship of Outdoor Exposure and Myopia Indicators: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Various Research Methods
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2595; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142595
Received: 24 May 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 21 July 2019
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Abstract
Myopia in children has dramatically increased worldwide. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate the effects of outdoor light exposure on myopia. According to research data from 13 studies of 15,081 children aged 4–14 at baseline, outdoor light exposure significantly reduced [...] Read more.
Myopia in children has dramatically increased worldwide. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate the effects of outdoor light exposure on myopia. According to research data from 13 studies of 15,081 children aged 4–14 at baseline, outdoor light exposure significantly reduced myopia incidence/prevalence (odds ratio [OR] = 0.85, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.80–0.91, p < 0.00001; I2 = 90%), spherical equivalent refractive error (SER) by 0.15 D/year (0.09–0.27, p < 0.0001), and axial elongation by 0.08 mm/year (−0.14 to −0.02, p = 0.02). The benefits of outdoor light exposure intervention, according to pooled overall results, included decreases in three myopia indicators: 50% in myopia incidence, 32.9% in SER, and 24.9% in axial elongation for individuals in Asia. Daily outdoor light exposure of more than 120 min was the most effective intervention, and weekly intervention time exhibited a dose–response relationship with all three indicators. Subgroup comparisons revealed that interventional studies report greater benefits from outdoor light exposure compared with cohort and cross-sectional studies, and individuals with myopia in intervention studies experienced slightly greater benefits than individuals without, in terms of SER and axial elongation. Therefore, this study suggests 120 min/day of outdoor light exposure at school. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Factors, Children’s Health and Safety)
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Open AccessArticle
Risk, Transformation and Adaptation: Ideas for Reframing Approaches to Disaster Risk Reduction
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2594; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142594
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
Recognition of projected increases in exposure to large-scale hazard events over the coming decades has identified a need to develop how disaster risk reduction and recovery are conceptualized and enacted. This paper discusses some strategies for pursing this goal in both disaster recovery [...] Read more.
Recognition of projected increases in exposure to large-scale hazard events over the coming decades has identified a need to develop how disaster risk reduction and recovery are conceptualized and enacted. This paper discusses some strategies for pursing this goal in both disaster recovery and preparedness settings. The approaches discussed include understanding how communities learn from their hazardous experiences and transform these lessons into beliefs, relationships and capabilities that build future adaptive capacity. The paper draws on examples of transformative learning that illustrate how people can make fundamental shifts in how they think about, prepare for and respond to environmental challenge and change. Regarding transformation in pre-event settings, the paper first discusses why the addition of transformative strategies to disaster risk reduction programs is required. These include a need for rethinking socio-environmental relationships, increasing risk acceptance in the context of evolving hazardscapes, and countering beliefs regarding not preparing. The paper then offers strategies for motivating transformation and consolidating the outcomes of transformation in pre-event disaster risk reduction (DRR) strategies. A preliminary model that could inform the development of research questions on the development of transformative outcomes and their consolidation in enduring adaptive processes is presented. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Life Expectancy Gap between Registered Disabled and Non-Disabled People in Korea from 2004 to 2017
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2593; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142593
Received: 23 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
This study aimed to estimate and compare life expectancy at birth among people with and without officially registered disabilities in Korea between 2004 and 2017. We used the National Health Information Database in Korea to obtain aggregate data on the numbers of population [...] Read more.
This study aimed to estimate and compare life expectancy at birth among people with and without officially registered disabilities in Korea between 2004 and 2017. We used the National Health Information Database in Korea to obtain aggregate data on the numbers of population and deaths according to calendar year (2004 to 2017), sex, age groups, and officially registered disability status. A total of 697,503,634 subjects and 3,536,778 deaths, including 33,221,916 disabled subjects (829,464 associated deaths), were used to construct life tables. Between 2004 and 2017, life expectancy for people with disabilities increased by 9.1 years in men and 8.3 years in women, while life expectancy for the non-disabled increased by 5.5 years in men and 4.6 years in women. The average life expectancy difference between non-disabled and disabled people was 18.2 years during the study period, decreasing from 20.4 years in 2004 to 16.4 years in 2017. In 2017, the life expectancy of people with the most severe grade of disabilities was 49.7 years, while the life expectancy of people with the least severe grade of disabilities was 77.7 years. The government should implement more effective policies to protect the health of people with officially registered disabilities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Association of Access to Healthcare with Self-Assessed Health and Quality of Life among Old Adults with Chronic Disease in China: Urban Versus Rural Populations
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2592; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142592
Received: 26 May 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 19 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
This study examined urban–rural differences in the association of access to healthcare with self-assessed health and quality of life (QOL) among old adults with chronic diseases (CDs) in China. The data of 5796 older adults (≥60) with self-reported CDs were collected from the [...] Read more.
This study examined urban–rural differences in the association of access to healthcare with self-assessed health and quality of life (QOL) among old adults with chronic diseases (CDs) in China. The data of 5796 older adults (≥60) with self-reported CDs were collected from the Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health in China, including indicators of self-assessed health and QOL and information on access to healthcare. Associations of access to healthcare with self-assessed health and QOL at the 10th, 50th, and 90th conditional quantiles were determined after controlling individual and household factors, showing that urban patients who received healthcare within two weeks gave higher ratings on self-assessed health scores at the 10th and 50th quantiles. In rural areas, one-year and two-week access to healthcare was found to be associated with QOL scores at the 10th and 90th quantiles, respectively. Marginal effects of using needed health service decreased with a growth in QOL and self-assessed health scores in both urban and rural locations despite these effects being significant across the whole distribution. Overall, access to healthcare affects the self-assessed health and QOL of the elderly with CDs in China, especially in patients with poor health, though differently for urban and rural patients. Policy actions targeted at vulnerable and rural populations should give priority to reducing barriers to seeking health services. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Eight Elements in Soils from a Typical Light Industrial City, China: Spatial Distribution, Ecological Assessment, and the Source Apportionment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2591; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142591
Received: 20 June 2019 / Revised: 10 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
Contamination with the eight elements, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cd, is a serious concern in Zhongshan, which is a typical light industrial city, China. 60 surface soil samples were collected to investigate the concentrations, spatial distribution, human health risk, [...] Read more.
Contamination with the eight elements, Hg, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Cd, is a serious concern in Zhongshan, which is a typical light industrial city, China. 60 surface soil samples were collected to investigate the concentrations, spatial distribution, human health risk, and sources of these elements in the soils in Zhongshan. The concentrations of the eight elements were analyzed while using ordinary kriging analysis, pollution load index (PLI), potential ecological risk index (RI), human health risk, correlation analysis, and factor analysis. The mean concentrations of the tested elements, excluding Pb and As, were higher than the soil background values in the Pearl River Delta. The spatial distribution of the tested elements revealed a zonal distribution pattern and high values in several areas. The mean PLI and RI indicated slight and moderate risk levels. Health risk assessment demonstrates that both children and adults were more exposed to Cu than to Cr, As, and Cd. However, the associated carcinogenic risk is acceptable. Hg that originated from human activities; As, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Cd originated from industrial activities; and, Pb and Zn originated from transportation activities. Cd was the main pollutant in the study area and it was present at higher concentrations when compared with those of the other elements. Therefore, Zhongshan should encourage enterprises to conduct industrial transformation to control the ecological risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health in EIA/SEA)
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Open AccessArticle
The Role of Culture in Maintaining Post-Partum Sexual Abstinence of Swazi Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2590; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142590
Received: 22 May 2019 / Revised: 13 July 2019 / Accepted: 14 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
Eswatini is one of the countries in the African continent where post-partum sexual abstinence is practiced. Beside scarcity of research exploring sexual abstinence in Eswatini, there are only a few studies that explore post-partum abstinence across HIV-positive and negative women in sub-Saharan Africa. [...] Read more.
Eswatini is one of the countries in the African continent where post-partum sexual abstinence is practiced. Beside scarcity of research exploring sexual abstinence in Eswatini, there are only a few studies that explore post-partum abstinence across HIV-positive and negative women in sub-Saharan Africa. The study explored the practice of post-partum sexual abstinence in Swazi women and examined how cultural beliefs influence and promotes the perpetuation of the practice. The study population consisted of post-partum women who were selected, using purposive sampling. Thematic approach was used for data analysis. Despite feeling that the period for post-partum, sexual abstinence was long; the participants adhered to the practice as prescribed by their culture. Nevertheless, they felt that the practice is imposed on women only because while they are observing post-partum abstinence, their partners get to sleep with other sexual partners. They raised concerns that the practice increases the risk of acquiring HIV and sexually transmitted infections. There is an element of coercion to the practice of post-partum abstinence, the myths and misconceptions around the early resumption of sexual intercourse forces the practice on women. At the family and community level, the discussions to change the way sexual abstinence is viewed and practiced are crucial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Women's Reproductive and Maternal Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Attending Informal Preschools and Daycare Centers Is a Risk Factor for Underweight, Stunting and Wasting in Children under the Age of Five Years in Underprivileged Communities in South Africa
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2589; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142589
Received: 28 May 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 20 July 2019
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Abstract
The study objectives were to determine the nutritional status of children between the ages of 12–60 months and to establish the association between attending preschool and the prevalence of undernutrition. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in health facilities in Tshwane district in [...] Read more.
The study objectives were to determine the nutritional status of children between the ages of 12–60 months and to establish the association between attending preschool and the prevalence of undernutrition. This was a cross-sectional survey conducted in health facilities in Tshwane district in South Africa, consisting of both a questionnaire and anthropometric measures of 1256 mothers and their children. Weight-for-age (WAZ), height-for age (HAZ) and BMI-for-age (BAZ) were calculated and bivariate and multivariable analysis was performed to establish association. The results showed that child-related factors, namely birthweight, age, gender, and attending preschool increased the risk of undernutrition. Children over the age of 24 months were likely to be stunted and underweight. Maternal education reduced the odds of underweight. Children who stayed at home had reduced odds of underweight and stunting. High birthweight reduced the odds of wasting and underweight. The risks for undernutrition are multifaceted, but children who attend preschool have an increased risk of undernutrition. The risk of undernutrition increased with age and coincided with the time of cessation of breast-feeding and attendance at daycare or preschool. The complementary role of quality childcare in preschools and daycare centers is vital in alleviating the problem of undernutrition in underprivileged communities. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Detection of Hepatitis A Virus and Other Enteric Viruses in Shellfish Collected in the Gulf of Naples, Italy
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2588; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142588
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 14 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
To assess the quality of shellfish harvest areas, bivalve mollusk samples from three coastal areas of the Campania region in Southwest Italy were evaluated for viruses over a three-year period (2015–2017). Screening of 289 samples from shellfish farms and other locations by qPCR [...] Read more.
To assess the quality of shellfish harvest areas, bivalve mollusk samples from three coastal areas of the Campania region in Southwest Italy were evaluated for viruses over a three-year period (2015–2017). Screening of 289 samples from shellfish farms and other locations by qPCR and RT-qPCR identified hepatitis A virus (HAV; 8.9%), norovirus GI (NoVGI; 10.8%) and GII (NoVGII; 39.7%), rotavirus (RV; 9.0%), astrovirus (AsV; 20.8%), sapovirus (SaV; 18.8%), aichivirus-1 (AiV-1; 5.6%), and adenovirus (AdV, 5.6%). Hepatitis E virus (HEV) was never detected. Sequence analysis identified HAV as genotype IA and AdV as type 41. This study demonstrates the presence of different enteric viruses within bivalve mollusks, highlighting the limitations of the current EU classification system for shellfish growing waters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Contributions of Indoor and Outdoor Sources to Ozone in Residential Buildings in Nanjing
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2587; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142587
Received: 14 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Ozone has become one of the most serious air pollutants in China in recent years. Since people spend most of their time indoors, the ozone in the indoor environment could be a major factor affecting the occupants’ health. The indoor ozone in residential [...] Read more.
Ozone has become one of the most serious air pollutants in China in recent years. Since people spend most of their time indoors, the ozone in the indoor environment could be a major factor affecting the occupants’ health. The indoor ozone in residential buildings mainly comes from two sources: outdoor atmosphere and indoor ozone produced by electrical devices. In this study, a typical residence in Nanjing was taken as an example to calculate and compare the contributions of indoor and outdoor sources to ozone in the building. A questionnaire survey about the type, the placement, and the frequency of use of the ozone emission devices was performed to provide the basis for the settings of indoor ozone sources. The multi-zone software CONTAM was used hourly to simulate the ozone concentration in summer and in winter with inner doors either closed or open, and it was noted whether there were ozone emission devices indoors or not. Source contribution was quantified and compared by three methods in this paper: (1) the average indoor/outdoor (I/O) ratio, (2) the I/O ratio frequency, and (3) the ratio of indoor ozone concentration without ozone sources to that with ozone sources. The results showed that the contribution of outdoor sources was much greater than that of indoor sources in summer, but in winter, the frequency of I/O > 1 could reach 55.8% of the total seasonal time, and the ratio of indoor ozone concentration without sources to that with sources could reach as high as 74.3%. This meant that the indoor concentration had the potential to exceed the outdoor. Furthermore, human respiratory exposure in different ages and genders was calculated. It was found that teenagers aged 10–18 years old and female adults had a higher respiratory exposure level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Types of Exposure Pesticide Poisoning in Jiangsu Province, China; The Epidemiologic Trend between 2006 and 2018
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2586; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142586
Received: 8 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Background: Pesticide poisoning is an important issue in rural China, and is also a major public health problem that affects the health of farmers. The purpose of this paper is to explore the epidemiology of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province, and to put [...] Read more.
Background: Pesticide poisoning is an important issue in rural China, and is also a major public health problem that affects the health of farmers. The purpose of this paper is to explore the epidemiology of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province, and to put forward the relevant suggestions on the logical and discerning utilization of the pesticides. Methods: According to the data of the pesticide poisoning report card established by the health hazard detection information system, the cases of pesticide poisoning in Jiangsu Province from 2006 to 2018 were exported to Excel, and the database of pesticide poisoning was established. Furthermore, the imported data was screened and collected. A descriptive statistical analysis had been employed on this data utilizing SPSS 20.0. Results: Between the years 2006 and 2018, 38,513 pesticide poisoning cases were registered in Jiangsu Province, with a downward trend. Meanwhile, 77.83% of poisoning cases involved insecticide poisoning, followed by herbicide and rodenticide. The greater part of the diverse sorts of studied insecticide poisoning cases involved people aged between 30 and 59 years (57.51%). Poisoning cases caused by rodenticide accounted for a large proportion of people aged between 0 and 14 years (23.72%) in non-occupational pesticide poisoning. Regarding seasons, it was distinguished that more insecticide cases were reported in autumn (46.95% of the total number of cases). Pesticide poisoning was reported in 13 cities of Jiangsu Province, and among these, insecticide poisoning was reported mainly from the northern Jiangsu area, which was the same as rodenticide and herbicide. Conclusions: Although there is a decreased risk for pesticide poisoning among farmworkers in Jiangsu Province, the number of farmworkers with pesticide poisoning is still high. Further management of the pesticide utilization is necessary, especially insecticide. More attention ought to be paid to the protection of vulnerable groups, including children and the elderly. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology and Public Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Prevalence, Related Factors, and Levels of Burnout Syndrome Among Nurses Working in Gynecology and Obstetrics Services: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2585; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142585
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 9 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Background: Although burnout levels and the corresponding risk factors have been studied in many nursing services, to date no meta-analytical studies have been undertaken of obstetrics and gynecology units to examine the heterogeneity of burnout in this environment and the variables associated with [...] Read more.
Background: Although burnout levels and the corresponding risk factors have been studied in many nursing services, to date no meta-analytical studies have been undertaken of obstetrics and gynecology units to examine the heterogeneity of burnout in this environment and the variables associated with it. In the present paper, we aim to determine the prevalence, levels, and related factors of burnout syndrome among nurses working in gynecology and obstetrics services. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature were carried out using the following sources: CINAHL (Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature), Medline, ProQuest (Proquest Health and Medical Complete), SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online), and Scopus. Results: Fourteen relevant studies were identified, including, for this meta-analysis, n = 464 nurses. The following prevalence values were obtained: emotional exhaustion 29% (95% CI: 11–52%), depersonalization 19% (95% CI: 6–38%), and low personal accomplishment 44% (95% CI: 18–71%). The burnout variables considered were sociodemographic (age, marital status, number of children, gender), work-related (duration of the workday, nurse-patient ratio, experience or number of miscarriages/abortions), and psychological (anxiety, stress, and verbal violence). Conclusion: Nurses working in obstetrics and gynecology units present high levels of burnout syndrome. In over 33% of the study sample, at least two of the burnout dimensions considered are apparent. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Worker and Public Health and Safety: Current Views)
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Open AccessReview
Epidermal Growth Factor is Effective in the Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcers: Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2584; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142584
Received: 28 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are one the common complications of diabetes mellitus. Many trials were performed to evaluate the effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) in healing DFUs. This meta-analysis was performed to synthesize the evidence of rhEGF treatment in DFUs [...] Read more.
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are one the common complications of diabetes mellitus. Many trials were performed to evaluate the effect of recombinant human epidermal growth factor (rhEGF) in healing DFUs. This meta-analysis was performed to synthesize the evidence of rhEGF treatment in DFUs in comparison to placebo. Databases included for the search were PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, EBSCOhost, ScienceDirect, and Scopus (up to January 2019). The outcome of interest was the complete healing rate of DFUs. We performed random effects meta-analysis stratified by the types of administration route (intralesional injection and topical apply) by calculating the odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). A total of six studies involving 530 patients were eligible for analysis. The combined OR (intralesional injection and topical apply) was 4.005 (95% CI: (2.248; 7.135), p < 0.001). The ORs for intralesional injection and topical application were 3.599 (95% CI: (1.213; 10.677), p = 0.021) and 4.176 (95% CI: (2.112; 8.256), p < 0.001), respectively. Statistical heterogeneity might not be important in overall treatment (I2 = 15.17, p = 0.317) and both of the subgroups (I2: 24.56, p = 0.25 and I2: 33.26, p = 0.213, respectively). Our results support the use of rhEGF in the treatment of DFUs. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Study Design, Rationale and Procedures for Human Biomonitoring of Hazardous Chemicals from Foods and Cooking in Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2583; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142583
Received: 9 June 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Objectives: A nationwide biomonitoring program identified the long-term trends of environmental exposures to hazardous chemicals in the general population and found geographical locations where body burdens of an exposed group significantly differed from those of the general population. The purpose of this [...] Read more.
Objectives: A nationwide biomonitoring program identified the long-term trends of environmental exposures to hazardous chemicals in the general population and found geographical locations where body burdens of an exposed group significantly differed from those of the general population. The purpose of this study is to analyze the hazardous compounds associated with foods and cooking in the nationwide general population for evaluation of the environmental exposures and health risk factors and for the establishment of the reference levels at the national level. Methods: During 2009–2010, the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation (NIFDS) conducted a nationwide human biomonitoring study, including a questionnaire survey and environmental exposure assessments for specific hazardous compounds from foods and cooking among the general population in South Korea. Results: A total of 2139 individuals voluntarily participated in 98 survey units in South Korea, including 889 (41.6%) men and 1250 women (58.4%). Bio-specimens (serum and urine) and questionnaires were collected from the study population. Acrylamides, heterocyclic amines (HCAs), phenols, and phthalates were analyzed from urine, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and organic chloride pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed from serum samples. The information on exposure pathway and geographical locations for all participants was collected by questionnaire interviews, which included demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, history of family diseases, conditions of the indoor and outdoor environment, lifestyles, occupational history, and food and dietary information. Conclusion: We describe the design of the study and sampling of human biospecimen procedures including bio-sample repository systems. The resources produced from this nationwide human biomonitoring study and survey will be valuable for use in future biomarkers studies and for the assessment of exposure to hazardous compounds associated with foods and cooking. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Biomonitoring of Environmental and Occupational Exposures)
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Open AccessArticle
Anthropometric Indices and Some Aspects of Physical Fitness in Croatian Adolescents by Gender
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2582; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142582
Received: 25 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Background. The main purpose of this study was to explore the body-mass index and waist circumference associated with physical fitness by gender. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we included 1036 adolescents (55.4% girls) from eight randomly selected secondary schools within the city [...] Read more.
Background. The main purpose of this study was to explore the body-mass index and waist circumference associated with physical fitness by gender. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we included 1036 adolescents (55.4% girls) from eight randomly selected secondary schools within the city of Zagreb (Croatia). Body-mass index and waist circumference were objectively measured. Physical fitness included three tests: (1) 1 min sit-ups, (2) standing long jump and (3) a sit-and-reach test. Associations were calculated using linear regression models. Results. Boys had higher body-mass index and waist circumference values, compared to girls (p < 0.001). They also performed better in 1 min sit-ups and the standing long jump tests (p < 0.001), while girls obtained higher values in the sit-and-reach test (p < 0.001). In boys, body-mass index and waist circumference were associated with 1 min sit-ups and the standing long jump. In girls, waist circumference was also associated with 1 min sit-ups and the standing long jump, while body-mass index was only associated with this standing long jump. Conclusions. Our study shows that anthropometric indices have non-linear associations with physical fitness tests in a large sample of Croatian adolescents. Screening for thinness and obesity to predict the level of physical fitness should be of a great interest. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Children Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Assessment of a Voluntary Non-Profit Health Insurance Scheme for Migrants along the Thai–Myanmar Border: A Case Study of the Migrant Fund in Thailand
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2581; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142581
Received: 5 May 2019 / Revised: 14 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Access to health care and financial protection for migrants can be promoted through diverse health insurance schemes, designed to suit migrants’ needs within a specific context. The Migrant Fund (M-Fund) is a voluntary, non-profit health insurance scheme operating along the Thai–Myanmar border in [...] Read more.
Access to health care and financial protection for migrants can be promoted through diverse health insurance schemes, designed to suit migrants’ needs within a specific context. The Migrant Fund (M-Fund) is a voluntary, non-profit health insurance scheme operating along the Thai–Myanmar border in Thailand since 2017 and aims to protect the health of migrants uncovered by existing government insurance schemes. A qualitative evaluation was conducted between December 2018 and March 2019 to determine M-Fund’s operational impacts, provide recommendations for improvement, and draw suggestions about its role in protecting migrant health. In-depth interviews with 20 individuals and 5 groups were conducted in three categories: (1) International, national, and local partners; (2) M-Fund clients; and (3) M-Fund staff. Interview information was triangulated with findings from other informants, a document review, and researchers’ observations. Despite covering a small number of 9131 migrants, the M-Fund has contributed to improving access to care for migrants, raised awareness about migrant health protection, and reduced the financial burden for public hospitals. The M-Fund acts as a safety-net initiative for those left behind due to unclear government policy to protect the health of undocumented/illegal migrants. Despite clear merits, the issue of adverse selection to the scheme is a critical challenge. Evidence from this evaluation is useful to inform the future design of government insurance schemes for migrants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health of Marginalized People)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Pyrochar and Hydrochar on Water Evaporation in Clayey Soil under Greenhouse Cultivation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2580; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142580
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 16 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
Greenhouse cultivation consumes large volumes of freshwater, and excessive irrigation induces environmental problems, such as nutrient leaching and secondary salinization. Pyrochar (biochar from high-temperature pyrolysis) is an effective soil amendment, and researches have shown that pyrochar application could maintain soil nutrient and enhance [...] Read more.
Greenhouse cultivation consumes large volumes of freshwater, and excessive irrigation induces environmental problems, such as nutrient leaching and secondary salinization. Pyrochar (biochar from high-temperature pyrolysis) is an effective soil amendment, and researches have shown that pyrochar application could maintain soil nutrient and enhance carbon sequestration. In addition to pyrochar from pyrolysis, hydrochar from hydrothermic carbonization is considered as a new type of biochar and has the advantages of low energy consumption and a high productive rate. However, the effect of these two biochars on water evaporation in clayey soils under a greenhouse system has seldom been studied. The relationship between water evaporation and biochar properties is still unknown. Thus, in the present study, water evaporation under pyrochar and hydrochar application were recorded. Results showed that both pyrochar and hydrochar application could inhibit water evaporation in clayey soil under greenhouse cultivation. Pyrochar showed a better inhibition effect compared with hydrochar. Correlation analysis indicated that the water evaporation rate was significantly positively correlated with bulk density of biochar (p < 0.05). Overall, application of pyrochar or hydrochar could both reduce soil bulk density and inhibit soil evaporation, and be available for greenhouse cultivation. However, the inhibition effect depends on the properties of the biochar. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Maternal and Child Nutrition and Oral Health in Urban Vietnam
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2579; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142579
Received: 7 June 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 12 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
The global nutrition transition has contributed to child obesity and dental caries in developing countries, including Vietnam. Few studies have described the nutrition and oral health of mothers and children. This a descriptive study of the nutrition and oral health characteristics of a [...] Read more.
The global nutrition transition has contributed to child obesity and dental caries in developing countries, including Vietnam. Few studies have described the nutrition and oral health of mothers and children. This a descriptive study of the nutrition and oral health characteristics of a convenience sample of 571 children aged 2 to 5 years and their mothers from 5 urban preschools in Central and South Vietnam. The mothers completed a written survey, and the children received dental exams and weight/height measurements. High rates of bottle-feeding and the consumption of sweets were reported. One in 4 children were overweight/obese. Dental caries increased in prevalence and severity by age—at 5 years, 86.7% of children had tooth decay in an average of 8.5 teeth, and 70.9% experienced mouth pain. Most mothers and children suffered from untreated dental disease. Public health programs should focus on nutrition and oral health promotion, as well as dental treatment from pregnancy and birth onward. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Medical Students and Childhood Obesity: Health Disparity and Implication for Education
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2578; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142578
Received: 7 June 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 15 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
This study aimed at examining the relationship between medical students’ perceptions about health disparity and childhood obesity care. A cross-sectional survey (n = 163) was used to examine medical students’ characteristics and perceptions related to health disparity and childhood obesity. Multiple mixed [...] Read more.
This study aimed at examining the relationship between medical students’ perceptions about health disparity and childhood obesity care. A cross-sectional survey (n = 163) was used to examine medical students’ characteristics and perceptions related to health disparity and childhood obesity. Multiple mixed effects regression models with Tukey’s tests were used to examine participants’ perceived importance of different roles (e.g., parents) and topics to discuss with child patients and their parents. Separate models were used to examine whether health disparity perception was associated with participants’ perceived importance of different roles and topics to discuss with child patients and their parents. Despite acknowledging that low-income families might lack resources to change health behaviors, many medical students still reported patients and parents being primarily responsible for childhood obesity condition. Participants perceived that the most important topic to discuss was patient’s behaviors, followed by access to safe environments and school-based interventions. Participants’ perception about health disparity was significantly associated with their perceived importance of different roles and topics to discuss with parents. The current study implies disconnection in linking health disparity with childhood obesity among medical students and confirms the importance of sensitizing medical students about the socio-environmental determinants of childhood obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Gender Differences in Chronic Hormonal and Immunological Responses to CrossFit®
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2577; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142577
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
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Abstract
This study was designed to analyze the chronical responses of the hormonal and immune systems after a CrossFit® training period of six months as well as to compare these results between genders. Twenty-nine CrossFit® practitioners (35.3 ± 10.4 years, 175.0 ± [...] Read more.
This study was designed to analyze the chronical responses of the hormonal and immune systems after a CrossFit® training period of six months as well as to compare these results between genders. Twenty-nine CrossFit® practitioners (35.3 ± 10.4 years, 175.0 ± 9.2 cm, 79.5 ± 16.4 kg) with a minimum CrossFit® experience of six months were recruited, and hormonal and immune responses were verified every two months during training. The training was conducted in five consecutive days during the week, followed by two resting days. Testosterone (T) values were significantly higher at the last measurement time (T6 = 346.0 ± 299.7 pg·mL−1) than at all the other times (p < 0.002) and were higher in men than in women (p < 0.001). Cortisol (C) levels were lower at all times compared to the initial level before training, and differences were observed between men and women, with men having a lower value (T0: p = 0.028; T2: p = 0.013; T4: p = 0.002; and T6: p = 0.002). The TC ratio in women was lower at all times (p < 0.0001) than in men. Significant effects on CD8 levels at different times (F(3.81) = 7.287; p = 0.002; ηp2 = 0.213) and between genders (F(1.27) = 4.282; p = 0.048; ηp2 = 0.137), and no differences in CD4 levels were observed. CrossFit® training changed the serum and basal levels of testosterone and cortisol in men (with an increase in testosterone and a decrease in cortisol). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)
Open AccessReply
Reply to Comment on Maani Hessari, N.; van Schalkwyk, M.C.; Thomas, S.; Petticrew, M. Alcohol Industry CSR Organisations: What Can Their Twitter Activity Tell Us about Their Independence and Their Priorities? A Comparative Analysis. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 892
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2576; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142576
Received: 23 May 2019 / Accepted: 26 June 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
We are grateful for the opportunity to respond to the letter from the DrinkAware medical advisory panel [...] Full article
Open AccessArticle
Auxiliary Companies of the Horticultural Sector as a Competitiveness Element: The Case of Almeria (Spain)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2575; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142575
Received: 2 July 2019 / Revised: 14 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
The horticultural model of Almeria (Spain) based on the operation of greenhouses is an international reference and has been considered as an economic miracle. Alongside this agricultural development has been the deployment of the diverse productive activity of auxiliary companies. The objective of [...] Read more.
The horticultural model of Almeria (Spain) based on the operation of greenhouses is an international reference and has been considered as an economic miracle. Alongside this agricultural development has been the deployment of the diverse productive activity of auxiliary companies. The objective of this article is to understand how these companies operate and analyze their factors of competitiveness, competing needs, and future competitive improvements, taking as reference four of the most important subsectors (machinery, greenhouse infrastructure, plastics, and seeds). The Delphi method was used and through a panel of experts the conditioning factors of each of the variables to be analyzed (factors, needs, and competitiveness improvements) was chosen. Of the 120 companies that were sent questionnaires, 72 participated. The sectors that make up the auxiliary companies are heterogeneous and therefore the results obtained have differed among them. The synergies between the greenhouse crops and the auxiliary companies are an example of diversification of productive activity that can be extrapolated to other production areas worldwide. The future of the auxiliary companies is linked to that of the intensive agriculture and the key variables must be underscored by competitiveness and sustainability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse and Horticulture)
Open AccessBrief Report
Challenges in Implementing Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction in Poland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2574; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142574
Received: 3 June 2019 / Revised: 11 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
Currently, weather conditions and extreme weather are becoming more frequent and more intense. Along with climate change, the vulnerability of society and individual regions to the risk of various types of threats also increases. The objectives of “The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk [...] Read more.
Currently, weather conditions and extreme weather are becoming more frequent and more intense. Along with climate change, the vulnerability of society and individual regions to the risk of various types of threats also increases. The objectives of “The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015–2030”, are the first global political frameworks of the United Nations program designed for the period post-2015. The original priority objectives of the Framework are: Understanding disaster risk, strengthening disaster risk governance to manage disaster risk, investing in disaster risk reduction for resilience, and enhancing disaster preparedness for effective response, and to “Build Back Better” in recovery, rehabilitation, and reconstruction. The provisions contained in the document are an essential step towards building global political coherence with an apparent reference to health, development, and climate change. The article is briefly reporting current Disaster Risk Reduction related programs and policies in Poland, contributions as part of The Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction implementation, and its challenges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Disaster Medicine: Preparedness and Response)
Open AccessArticle
Identifying Predictors of Changes in Physical Activity Level in Adolescence: A Prospective Analysis in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2573; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142573
Received: 1 July 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 17 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
It is known that physical activity levels (PA levels) decline during adolescence, but there is a lack of knowledge on possible predictors of changes in PA levels in this period of life. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the relationship between sociodemographic and [...] Read more.
It is known that physical activity levels (PA levels) decline during adolescence, but there is a lack of knowledge on possible predictors of changes in PA levels in this period of life. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the relationship between sociodemographic and behavioral factors (predictors), PA levels and changes in PA levels in older adolescents from Bosnia and Herzegovina. The sample comprised 872 participants (404 females) tested at baseline (16 years of age) and at follow-up (18 years of age). Predictors were sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, socioeconomic status, urban/rural residence, paternal and maternal education level) and variables of substance misuse (consumption of cigarettes, alcohol and illicit drugs). The PA level, as measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (PAQ-A), was observed as a criterion. Boys had higher PAQ-A scores than girls at baseline and follow-up. Paternal education levels were correlated with PAQ-A scores at baseline (Spearman’s R: 0.18, 0.15 and 0.14, p < 0.05, for the total sample, females and males, respectively) and at follow-up (Spearman’s R: 0.12, p < 0.01 for the total sample). Logistic regression, which was used to calculate changes in PA levels between baseline and follow-up as a binomial criterion (PA decline vs. PA incline), evidenced a higher likelihood of PA incline in adolescents whose mothers were more educated (OR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.05–1.60) and who live in urban communities (OR: 1.56, 95% CI: 1.16–2.10). The consumption of illicit drugs at baseline was evidenced as a factor contributing to the lower likelihood of PA incline (OR: 0.36, 95% CI: 0.14–0.92). The negative relationship between illicit drug consumption and PA decline could be a result of a large number of children who quit competitive sports in this period of life. In achieving appropriate PA-levels, special attention should be placed on children whose mothers are not highly educated, who live in rural communities, and who report the consumption of illicit drugs. The results highlighted the importance of studying correlates of PA levels and changes in PA levels during adolescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
A Sustainable Career Perspective of Work Ability: The Importance of Resources across the Lifespan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2572; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142572
Received: 31 May 2019 / Revised: 12 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 18 July 2019
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Abstract
In this study, we examine employees’ perceptions of their work ability from a sustainable career perspective. Specifically, we investigate the role of a person’s perceived current fit (i.e., autonomy, strengths use and needs-supply fit), and future fit with their job as resources that [...] Read more.
In this study, we examine employees’ perceptions of their work ability from a sustainable career perspective. Specifically, we investigate the role of a person’s perceived current fit (i.e., autonomy, strengths use and needs-supply fit), and future fit with their job as resources that affect perceived work ability, defined as the extent to which employees feel capable of continuing their current work over a longer time period. In addition, we test whether meaningfulness of one’s work mediates this relationship, and we address the moderating role of age. Our hypotheses were tested using a sample of 5205 employees working in diverse sectors in Belgium. The results of multi-group Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) provide mixed evidence for our hypotheses. While all four resources were significantly and positively related to perceived meaningfulness, only needs-supply fit was positively related to perceived work ability. Strengths use, on the other hand, was also significantly related to perceived work ability, yet in a negative way. These findings underscore the importance of distinguishing between several types of resources to understand their impact upon perceived work ability. Interestingly, the relationship between future-orientedness of the job and perceived work ability was moderated by age, with the relationship only being significant and positive for middle-aged and senior workers. This suggests an increasingly important role of having a perspective of future fit with one’s job as employees grow older. Contrary to our expectations, meaningfulness did not mediate the relationships between resources and perceived work ability. We discuss these findings and their implications from the perspective of sustainable career development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Work Ability and Aging)
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