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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, Volume 16, Issue 14 (July-2 2019) – 185 articles

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The summer of 2019 marks the 100th year anniversary since most of the world went through three [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Investigation on the Injury Severity of Drivers in Rear-End Collisions Between Cars Using a Random Parameters Bivariate Ordered Probit Model
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2632; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142632 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 66 | Viewed by 1286
Abstract
The existing studies on drivers’ injury severity include numerous statistical models that assess potential factors affecting the level of injury. These models should address specific concerns tailored to different crash characteristics. For rear-end crashes, potential correlation in injury severity may present between the [...] Read more.
The existing studies on drivers’ injury severity include numerous statistical models that assess potential factors affecting the level of injury. These models should address specific concerns tailored to different crash characteristics. For rear-end crashes, potential correlation in injury severity may present between the two drivers involved in the same crash. Moreover, there may exist unobserved heterogeneity considering parameter effects, which may vary across both crashes and individuals. To address these concerns, a random parameters bivariate ordered probit model has been developed to examine factors affecting injury sustained by two drivers involved in the same rear-end crash between passenger cars. Taking both the within-crash correlation and unobserved heterogeneity into consideration, the proposed model outperforms the two separate ordered probit models with fixed parameters. The value of the correlation parameter demonstrates that there indeed exists significant correlation between two drivers’ injuries. Driver age, gender, vehicle, airbag or seat belt use, traffic flow, etc., are found to affect injury severity for both the two drivers. Some differences can also be found between the two drivers, such as the effect of light condition, crash season, crash position, etc. The approach utilized provides a possible use for dealing with similar injury severity analysis in future work. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
How to Stop Victims’ Suffering? Indirect Effects of an Anti-Bullying Program on Internalizing Symptoms
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2631; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142631 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1232
Abstract
Victims of bullying and cyberbullying present internalizing problems, such as anxiety, psychosomatic and depressive symptoms, and are at higher risk of considering or attempting suicide. Researchers have put great effort into developing interventions able to stop bullying and cyberbullying, and thus buffering possible [...] Read more.
Victims of bullying and cyberbullying present internalizing problems, such as anxiety, psychosomatic and depressive symptoms, and are at higher risk of considering or attempting suicide. Researchers have put great effort into developing interventions able to stop bullying and cyberbullying, and thus buffering possible negative consequences. Despite this, only a few of them have investigated the effects of these programs on the psychological suffering of the victims. The NoTrap! program is an Italian evidence-based intervention able to reduce victimization, bullying, cybervictimization and cyberbullying. The aim of the present study is to analyze whether the NoTrap! program can reduce internalizing symptoms through the decrease in both victimization and cybervictimization. Participants were 622 adolescents, enrolled in the 9th grade of eight high schools in Tuscany (experimental group: N = 451; control group: N = 171). We collected data at three time points: pre-, mid- and post-intervention. Using latent growth curve models, we found that the program significantly predicted the change in internalizing symptoms over time. Furthermore, the mediation model showed that only the indirect effect via cybervictimization was significant. In summary, the program reduced internalizing symptoms within the experimental group successfully, through the decrease in cybervictimization more so than through the mediational effect of decreasing victimization. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Child Victimisation)
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Open AccessArticle
Insights Following Implementation of an Exercise Intervention in Older Veterans with PTSD
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2630; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142630 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1368
Abstract
Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) face numerous barriers to exercise. Little is known about behavioral strategies to promote participation in this population. This is a secondary analysis of individual barriers and goals, exercise prescription characteristics, and patient perceptions of a 12-week, community-based, [...] Read more.
Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) face numerous barriers to exercise. Little is known about behavioral strategies to promote participation in this population. This is a secondary analysis of individual barriers and goals, exercise prescription characteristics, and patient perceptions of a 12-week, community-based, randomized controlled exercise trial targeting older adults with PTSD, (N = 45; mean age = 68; male = 91%). The most common cited goals for participating included weight loss (65%) and increasing strength (65%). Exercise mode varied among those who completed the program (n = 37), with 14 (38%) using exclusively treadmill; eight (22%) using only bike, and 15 (41%) utilizing a combination. Patient-reported exercise duration and intensity progressively increased over the 12 weeks, and duration differed by mode of exercise. We observed high rates of attendance (84%) and completion (88%) to the program. Patient-reported barriers to attendance most often included health problems (62%) and medical appointments (55%). Participant responses to a program evaluation revealed high levels of satisfaction, preferences for group-based programs, and insights about the acceptability of the exercise environment (physical and social). This study is the first to report on goals, barriers, exercise prescription needs, and individual responses to supervised exercise training in a unique population, that is, older veterans with PTSD. Results of this study can inform future health promotion programs targeting older veterans with PTSD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Physical Activity and Mental Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Attention Restoration Space on a University Campus: Exploring Restorative Campus Design Based on Environmental Preferences of Students
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2629; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142629 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1117
Abstract
Students studying for a long time frequently suffer from attentional fatigue; however, campuses lack specific spaces in which to restore attention. This study aimed to explore the significant perceptual factors related to student selection of landscape types that they perceive as most relaxing [...] Read more.
Students studying for a long time frequently suffer from attentional fatigue; however, campuses lack specific spaces in which to restore attention. This study aimed to explore the significant perceptual factors related to student selection of landscape types that they perceive as most relaxing on a university campus. To understand the design factors of an attention restoration space, this study examined the preference of students regarding restorative environments on university campuses at six universities in northeastern China using a questionnaire survey (n = 360). Place-mapping revealed the spatial characteristics of the preferences of students for relaxing in the available space. The primary perceptual factors were obtained using correlation analysis and keyword frequency. A relationship model of landscape types and perceptual factors was established using categorical regression (CATREG). Results showed that waterfront spaces have the optimal perceived attention restoration effect, followed by vegetation spaces, courtyard spaces and square spaces. Visibility, accessibility, comfort, recognition and sense of belonging are significant perceptual factors that should be first considered. Moreover, the optimal selection of design factors depends on the interaction of landscape types and perceptual factors. The design implications may assist designers to gain a new perspective on student requirements for a healthy environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Digital Leadership Skills and Associations with Psychological Well-Being
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2628; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142628 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2101
Abstract
Due to increasing digitalisation, today’s working world is changing rapidly and provides managers with new challenges. Digital leadership is an important factor in managing these challenges and has become a key concept in the discussion about what kinds of skills managers need for [...] Read more.
Due to increasing digitalisation, today’s working world is changing rapidly and provides managers with new challenges. Digital leadership is an important factor in managing these challenges and has become a key concept in the discussion about what kinds of skills managers need for digital transformation. The main research question our study explored was if digital leadership is associated with psychological well-being in upper-level managers. Based on a qualitative pilot study and relevant literature, we developed a new scale for digital leadership in managers. We conducted an online survey with a sample of 368 upper-level managers from a large German ICT-company. Using a stepwise logistic regression analysis, potential effects of digital leadership on psychological well-being (WHO-5) were analysed. Logistic regression analyses showed that better skills in digital leadership were significantly associated with higher well-being. Results also showed that gender, age and managerial experience had no effect in our model. Our study provides a valuable insight into the association between digital leadership and well-being in managers. However, further research is necessary to validate the newly developed scale for digital leadership and to confirm a causal effect in the relationship between digital leadership and well-being. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mental Health and Emotional Wellbeing)
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Open AccessArticle
Telephone-Based Coaching and Prompting for Physical Activity: Short- and Long-Term Findings of a Randomized Controlled Trial (Movingcall)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2626; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142626 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
This study analyzed the short- and long-term efficacy of telephone coaching and short message service (SMS) prompting for physical activity (PA) promotion. Two-hundred-and-eighty-eight adults (age: 42 ± 11 years) were assigned randomly to three intervention arms: The intervention groups received 12 bi-weekly telephone [...] Read more.
This study analyzed the short- and long-term efficacy of telephone coaching and short message service (SMS) prompting for physical activity (PA) promotion. Two-hundred-and-eighty-eight adults (age: 42 ± 11 years) were assigned randomly to three intervention arms: The intervention groups received 12 bi-weekly telephone calls with (coaching and SMS group) or without (coaching group) additional SMS prompts (n = 48 SMS). The control group received a single written PA recommendation. Self-reported and objective moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) levels were assessed by a structured interview and by accelerometer at baseline, after the intervention (6 months), as well as after a no-contact follow-up (12 months). At post-test, self-reported MVPA increased by 173 min/week (95% CI 95 to 252) in the coaching group and by 165 min/week (95% CI 84 to 246) in the coaching and SMS group compared to control. These group differences remained similar in the follow-up test. For the objectively assessed MVPA, the coaching group increased by 32 min/week (95% CI 0.1 to 63) and the coaching and SMS group by 34 min/week (95% CI 1.6 to 66) compared to the control group. In the follow-up test, the objective MVPA levels of the intervention groups no longer differed from baseline, but group differences persisted as the control group decreased below baseline. Additional SMS prompts did not result in a further increase in PA. Telephone coaching can be considered an effective tool for PA promotion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion)
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Open AccessArticle
Street Dust Heavy Metal Pollution Source Apportionment and Sustainable Management in A Typical City—Shijiazhuang, China
by Kui Cai and Chang Li
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2625; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142625 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 944
Abstract
Street dust is repeatedly raised by the wind as a secondary suspension, helping heavy metals therein to enter the human body through the respiratory system, harming human health. A detailed investigation was conducted to determine levels and sources of Cd (cadmium), Cr (chromium), [...] Read more.
Street dust is repeatedly raised by the wind as a secondary suspension, helping heavy metals therein to enter the human body through the respiratory system, harming human health. A detailed investigation was conducted to determine levels and sources of Cd (cadmium), Cr (chromium), Cu (copper), Pb (lead), Zn (zinc), Ni (nick), and Hg (mercury) contamination in street dust from Shijiazhuang, China. The average concentrations of these metals were: Cd, 1.86 mg·kg−1; Cr, 131.7 mg·kg−1; Ni, 40.99 mg·kg−1; Cu, 91.06 mg·kg−1; Pb, 154.78 mg·kg−1, Hg, 0.29 mg·kg−1; and Zn, 496.17 mg·kg−1—all of which were greater than the local soil reference values. The concentrations of the heavy metals were mapped for the three Shijiazhuang ring roads, with the results showing significant differences between each ring. Application of enrichment factors and geoaccumulation indexes showed that there was significant enrichment and accumulation of Cd, Pb, Zn, and Hg. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that Cd, Pb, Zn, and Hg levels were mainly controlled by human activities, while Cr, Ni, and Cu levels were associated with natural sources. Absolute principal component scores with multiple linear regression (APCS-MLR) were applied to facilitate source apportionment. The results showed that the mixed (traffic and industry) group contributed 53.55%, 59.7%, and 62.25% of the Cd, Pb, and Zn concentration, respectively, while the natural sources group contributed 58.01%, 65.09%, and 66.91% of the Cu, Ni, and Cr concentration, respectively. The burning coal group was found to be responsible for 63.38% of the Hg present in the samples. These results provide a useful theoretical basis for Shijiazhuang authorities to address heavy metal pollution management. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Scoping Review of Climate Change and Health Research in the Philippines: A Complementary Tool in Research Agenda-Setting
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2624; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142624 - 23 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1591
Abstract
The impacts of climate change on human health have been observed and projected in the Philippines as vector-borne and heat-related diseases have and continue to increase. As a response, the Philippine government has given priority to climate change and health as one of [...] Read more.
The impacts of climate change on human health have been observed and projected in the Philippines as vector-borne and heat-related diseases have and continue to increase. As a response, the Philippine government has given priority to climate change and health as one of the main research funding topics. To guide in identifying more specific research topics, a scoping review was done to complement the agenda-setting process by mapping out the extent of climate change and health research done in the country. Research articles and grey literature published from 1980 to 2017 were searched from online databases and search engines, and a total of 34 quantitative studies were selected. Fifty-three percent of the health topics studied were about mosquito-borne diseases, particularly dengue fever. Seventy-nine percent of the studies reported evidence of positive associations between climate factors and health outcomes. Recommended broad research themes for funding were health vulnerability, health adaptation, and co-benefits. Other notable recommendations were the development of open data and reproducible modeling schemes. In conclusion, the scoping review was useful in providing a background for research agenda-setting; however, additional analyses or consultations should be complementary for added depth. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Climate Change and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Adverse Childhood Experiences of Urban and Rural Preschool Children in Poverty
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2623; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142623 - 23 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1169
Abstract
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have long-term health consequences. Young children in the southern part of the United States (US) are at greater risk than children in other parts of the US. This study assessed preschool children ACEs using a family-friendly tool, the Family [...] Read more.
Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have long-term health consequences. Young children in the southern part of the United States (US) are at greater risk than children in other parts of the US. This study assessed preschool children ACEs using a family-friendly tool, the Family Map (FMI), and compared children living in rural/urban areas while examining the potential moderation of race. The FMI–ACE score was examined as a total and two sub-scores. We found that race did not moderate the FMI–ACE score but that Black children (Cohen’s d = 0.52) and children in urban and large rural areas were at highest risk (Cohen’s d = 0.38). However, the subscale FMI–ACEs parenting risk was moderated by race such as that Black children were less at risk in rural areas than urban (Cohen’s d = 0.62). For FMI–ACEs environmental risk, race moderated risk such that Black children were most at risk in large rural areas but less so in small rural areas (Cohen’s d = 0.21). Hispanic children were most at risk in small rural areas and least in large rural environments. Findings from this study suggest that targeting the most at-risk children for interventions should consider the context including race and location. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Factors, Children’s Health and Safety)
Open AccessArticle
Health-Related Quality of Life and Mental Health of Adolescents Involved in School Bullying and Homophobic Verbal Content Bullying
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2622; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142622 - 23 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
Bullying has been traditionally related to a significant reduction in well-being and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of adolescents. This negative impact on HRQoL seems to be modulated by the developed role in bullying (uninvolved, bully, victim or bully-victim). However, no studies have [...] Read more.
Bullying has been traditionally related to a significant reduction in well-being and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) of adolescents. This negative impact on HRQoL seems to be modulated by the developed role in bullying (uninvolved, bully, victim or bully-victim). However, no studies have identified if these negative results are the same when other types of bullying, such as homophobic bullying, are evaluated. The main aim of the present study was to analyze the prevalence of different roles of bullying and homophobic bullying and the relationship between these roles in both types of bullying with HRQoL, depression and anxiety levels in a sample of 1723 Spanish adolescents. Although results exhibited lower prevalence of homophobic bullying roles when compared to traditionally bullying in general, in the case of victims, the prevalence was high in the case of homophobic bullying. When differences between roles in HRQoL, depression and anxiety were evaluated, in both types of bullying, uninvolved adolescents showed the best results and bully-victim adolescents the worst. The obtained results suppose an improvement in the understanding of the negative effects of different types of bullying on HRQoL and mental health in adolescents. Future research could advance in this comprehension, analyzing possible differences with other types of bullying, such as cyberbullying. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Dental Care-Seeking and Information Acquisition During Pregnancy: A Qualitative Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2621; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142621 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1106
Abstract
Background: Pregnant women are at risk of oral health problems. This qualitative study aims to understand dental care-seeking behaviours of pregnant women and their oral health-related information acquisition, to identify barriers to and motivators for, dental visits, and further explore their expectations and [...] Read more.
Background: Pregnant women are at risk of oral health problems. This qualitative study aims to understand dental care-seeking behaviours of pregnant women and their oral health-related information acquisition, to identify barriers to and motivators for, dental visits, and further explore their expectations and possible strategies to improve oral health care during pregnancy. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 pregnant women (after 32 gestational weeks) enrolled in the antenatal care programme in a public hospital in Hong Kong. Two main areas of interest were probed: Dental care-seeking behaviour and oral health information acquisition. Their expectations and suggestions on oral health care service for pregnant women were also explored. An inductive thematic approach was adopted to analyse the data. Results: Pregnant women’s dental care-seeking behaviour was deterred by some internal factors, such as misunderstandings on oral health, and priority on other issues over oral health. External factors such as inconvenient access to dental service during pregnancy also affected their care-seeking behaviours. Oral health information was passively absorbed by pregnant women through mass media and the social environment, which sometimes led to confusion. Oral health information acquisition from antenatal institutions and care providers was rare. Greater attention was paid to dental visit when they obtained proper information from previous dental visit experience or family members. A potential strategy to improve oral health care suggested by the interviewees is to develop a health care system strengthened by inter-professional (antenatal-dental) collaboration. Efficient oral health information delivery, convenient access to dental service, and improved ‘quality’ of dental care targeting the needs of pregnant women were identified as possible approaches to improve dental care for this population. Conclusion: Dental care-seeking behaviour during pregnancy was altered by various internal and external factors. A lack of, or conflict between, information sources result in confusion that can restrict utilisation of dental service. Integrating dental care into antenatal service would be a viable way to improve dental service utilisation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Community Dental Care)
Open AccessArticle
Willingness to Use and Adhere to HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM) in China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2620; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142620 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1245
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the levels of willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and intention to adhere to PrEP and to further explore factors associated with PrEP uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. A total of 524 [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the levels of willingness to use pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and intention to adhere to PrEP and to further explore factors associated with PrEP uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. A total of 524 MSM were recruited from Chengdu, China. Half of the participants had heard of PrEP, and the awareness rate varied from 33.8%, 30.7%, and 7.1% for daily oral PrEP, on-demand PrEP, and long-acting injectable PrEP (LAI-PrEP), respectively. The overall willingness to use any type of PrEP in the next six months was 84.9% if PrEP is effective and provided for free. Participants were less likely to say that they would use PrEP if they used a condom consistently with their regular partners. However, participants were more likely to say that they would use PrEP if they had casual partners in the past month and had higher HIV prevention literacy. The majority of participants intended to adhere to PrEP prescription. More than forty percent (43.1%) of the participants reported that they might reduce condom use if they took PrEP. We found that the overall willingness to use PrEP was high among MSM living in China, but willingness varied across the different types of PrEP. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health of Marginalized People)
Open AccessArticle
The Main Drivers of Wetland Changes in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2619; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142619 - 23 Jul 2019
Viewed by 881
Abstract
Wetlands are the most threatened ecosystem in China, and wetland conservation is a national priority because of their importance for water security, flood mitigation, and biodiversity conservation. A goal has been established for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region (BTH) to recover 340 km2 of [...] Read more.
Wetlands are the most threatened ecosystem in China, and wetland conservation is a national priority because of their importance for water security, flood mitigation, and biodiversity conservation. A goal has been established for the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Region (BTH) to recover 340 km2 of wetlands by 2020. To guide restoration and protection efforts, policymakers need information on the trends of wetland loss, conversion of wetlands, and their associated human drivers. The main drivers of changes in different wetland types in the BTH were identified and quantified from 2000 to 2015. In 2015, there was 6264.07 km2 less wetland area than in 2000, with the remaining wetlands primarily located in Hebei and Tianjin. Reservoirs/ponds were the most abundant wetland type, followed by herbaceous swamps, rivers, canals and channels, and then lakes as the least represented. There were continuous losses of wetlands from 2000 to 2015, with marked decreases for rivers (30.48%), channels/canals (23.30%), and herbaceous swamps (16.12%). However, there was an increase in the area of lakes and reservoirs/ponds, with increases of 54.96% and 3.47%, respectively. The largest changes in natural wetlands were due to agricultural production followed by artificialization and grassland expansion. The driving forces of the observed changes were specific to each local region. According to an aggregated boosted trees (ABT) analysis, gross farm production, total aquatic products, and irrigated area were the top three drivers of the decrease in natural wetlands, which agreed with the main patterns of change in the BTH. The purpose of this study was to provide guidance for policy makers working to meet the 2020 BTH wetland recovery target. Recommendations were provided at the provincial level, including water transfers across provincial boundaries, the control of agricultural expansion, exploration of species-specific irrigation deficits, a reduction in the artificialization of land surfaces, the development of a sustainable intensified aquaculture model, and the promotion of awareness of wetland importance among local people. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Common Mental Health Disorders among Informal Waste Pickers in Johannesburg, South Africa 2018—A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2618; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142618 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1305
Abstract
Waste-picking is an income-generating opportunity for individuals living in poverty. Waste picking is associated with a range of risk factors for common mental disorders (CMD). This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with CMD among waste pickers in Johannesburg. A [...] Read more.
Waste-picking is an income-generating opportunity for individuals living in poverty. Waste picking is associated with a range of risk factors for common mental disorders (CMD). This study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with CMD among waste pickers in Johannesburg. A cross-sectional study analyzed secondary data for 365 waste pickers. A validated Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) was used to assess CMD. Multivariable logistic regression was fitted to identify factors associated with CMD. The overall prevalence of CMD among waste pickers was 37.3%. The odds of having CMD were 2.5 and 3.2 higher in females and cigarette smokers, respectively (p = 0.019 and p = 0.003). Life enjoyment (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 0.54, p = 0.02) and a good quality of life (aOR 0.34, p ≤ 0.001) were associated with lower odds of CMD. The high prevalence of CMD among waste pickers was significantly associated with cigarette smoking, being female, not enjoying life, and a poor quality of life. Mental health awareness of CMD will assist with the prevention, early detection, and comprehensive management of CMD among waste pickers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Instrumental Activities of Daily Living: The Processes Involved in and Performance of These Activities by Japanese Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Subjective Memory Complaints
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2617; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142617 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) may predict the onset of dementia. The purpose of this study was to clarify characteristics of performance of activities of daily living (ADL) for older adults with SMCs and to offer support options that enable them to maintain their [...] Read more.
Subjective memory complaints (SMCs) may predict the onset of dementia. The purpose of this study was to clarify characteristics of performance of activities of daily living (ADL) for older adults with SMCs and to offer support options that enable them to maintain their community-based lifestyle. A self-administered questionnaire was sent to 2000 randomly selected members of CO-OP Kagoshima, and 621 responded. 270 responders answered all questions were categorized into SMC (+) group and SMC (−) group (n = 133). Participants were evaluated the Process Analysis of Daily Activity for Dementia. A 2-sample t-test or the Chi-square test were used to compare the averages of continuous variables or the proportions of categorical variables. The results showed the SMC (+) group ranked significantly lower in ability to use the telephone, shop, cook, do housekeeping, manage finances, and manage medications compared with the SMC (−) group. In addition, the SMC (+) group was significantly less independent than the SMC (−) group in many processes requiring the use of tools, operation of machines, management of goods, selection of tools, and monitoring. To enable continued independence of older adults’ experiencing SMCs, it may be important to analyze their performance of ADL and to develop plans for supporting their strengths. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Geriatrics Syndromes Prevention)
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Open AccessArticle
Associations Among Health Insurance Type, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, and the Risk of Dementia: A Prospective Cohort Study in Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2616; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142616 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1148
Abstract
Due to an aging population, dementia incidence has rapidly increased in South Korea, heaping psychological and economic burdens upon families and the society. This study was aimed at investigating the associations of health insurance type and cardiovascular risk factors with the risk of [...] Read more.
Due to an aging population, dementia incidence has rapidly increased in South Korea, heaping psychological and economic burdens upon families and the society. This study was aimed at investigating the associations of health insurance type and cardiovascular risk factors with the risk of dementia. The study was performed using data from 15,043 participants aged 60 years and above, enrolled in the Seoul Dementia Management Project in 2008 and followed up until 2012. Factors such as demographic data, health insurance type, lifestyle factors, and cardiovascular risk factors were subjected to Cox proportional hazard regression analysis to identify their associations with dementia incidence. During the follow-up, 495 participants (3.3%) developed dementia. Medical Aid beneficiaries were associated with an increase in the risk of dementia (hazard ratio [HR] 1.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.421–2.215). Upon analyzing a composite cardiovascular risk score derived from all five cardiovascular risk factors, the risk for dementia incidence in participants increased from 1.56 for the presence of three risk factors to 2.55 for that of four risk factors (HR 2.55, 95% CI 1.174–5.546), compared with those who had no risk factors. The Medical Aid beneficiaries of health insurance type and the presence of multiple cardiovascular risk factors were found to be associated with a higher risk of dementia incidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Aging and Public Health)
Open AccessArticle
Growth Inhibition of Phaeocystis Globosa Induced by Luteolin-7-O-glucuronide from Seagrass Enhalus acoroides
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2615; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142615 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 904
Abstract
Enhalus acoroides (E. acoroides) is one of the most common species in seagrass meadows. Based on the application of allelochemicals from aquatic plants to inhibit harmful algal blooms (HABs), we used E. acoroides aqueous extract against harmful algae species Phaeocystis globosa [...] Read more.
Enhalus acoroides (E. acoroides) is one of the most common species in seagrass meadows. Based on the application of allelochemicals from aquatic plants to inhibit harmful algal blooms (HABs), we used E. acoroides aqueous extract against harmful algae species Phaeocystis globosa (P. globosa). The results showed that E. acoroides aqueous extract could significantly inhibited the growth of P. globosa, decrease the chlorophyll-a content and photosynthetic efficiency (Fv/Fm) values of P. globosa, followed by vacuolization, plasmolysis, and the destruction of organelles. Twelve types of major chemical constituents were identified in E. acoroides aqueous extracts by ultraperformance liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS), including six flavonoids, two homocyclic peptides, two long-chain aliphatic amides, one tannin, and one nitrogen heterocyclic compound. Flavonoids were the characteristic chemical constituents of E. acoroides aqueous extract. Furthermore, the antialgal activity of luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (68.125 μg/mL in 8 g/L E. acoroides aqueous extract) was assessed. The EC50–96 h value was 34.29 μg/mL. In conclusion, the results revealed that luteolin 7-O-glucuronide was one of the antialgal compounds of E. acoroides aqueous extract, with potential application as novel algaecide. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Primary Care Networks and Eritrean Immigrants’ Experiences with Health Care Professionals in Switzerland: A Qualitative Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2614; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142614 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 855
Abstract
Growing migration in European countries has simultaneously increased cultural diversity in health care. Migrants’ equal access to health care systems and migrant friendly health care have therefore become relevant topics. Findings gathered in recent years have mainly focussed on the perspective of care [...] Read more.
Growing migration in European countries has simultaneously increased cultural diversity in health care. Migrants’ equal access to health care systems and migrant friendly health care have therefore become relevant topics. Findings gathered in recent years have mainly focussed on the perspective of care providers, whereas this study includes migrant perspectives. It explores the primary care network of Eritrean immigrants in Switzerland as well as their experiences of interacting with health professionals. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews with intercultural interpreters from Eritrea were conducted. On the basis of a thematic analysis, the study identified the important informal and formal contacts in these Eritrean immigrants’ primary care networks and the specific forms of support each actor provides. In this network, encounters with health professionals were predominately expressed positively. The main barriers reported were language difficulties and intercultural understanding. On the basis of the participants’ statements, six key lessons for practice have been derived. These lessons are specifically important for facilitating Eritrean immigrants’ access to the Swiss health care system. Nevertheless, they are also relevant for other groups of migrants in European countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health of Marginalized People)
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Open AccessArticle
A Comparative Study of the Relationship among Antecedents and Job Satisfaction in Taiwan and Mainland China: Employability as Mediator
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2613; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142613 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 945
Abstract
Previous studies of the relationship between job security and job satisfaction were mostly conducted on research samples in Asia from the perspective of oriental culture; however, under the same cultural background, different social systems might lead to different cognition outcomes. Therefore, this study [...] Read more.
Previous studies of the relationship between job security and job satisfaction were mostly conducted on research samples in Asia from the perspective of oriental culture; however, under the same cultural background, different social systems might lead to different cognition outcomes. Therefore, this study examines the job security and organizational support of Taiwan and mainland China employees from the perspectives of competence enhancement motivation, and investigates the relationship between employability and job satisfaction. Adopting judgmental sampling, a total of 1307 valid questionnaires were collected from Taiwan and mainland China employees. The path relationship of the two groups was examined through structural equation modeling (SEM) by using analysis of moment structure (AMOS). Results show that job security and organizational support are positive for employability and job satisfaction. Employability has a positive influence on job satisfaction. Additionally, employability has a mediating effect of job security and organizational support on job satisfaction. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Addictive Features of Social Media/Messenger Platforms and Freemium Games against the Background of Psychological and Economic Theories
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2612; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142612 - 23 Jul 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2662
Abstract
Currently about 2.71 billion humans use a smartphone worldwide. Although smartphone technology has brought many advances, a growing number of scientists discuss potential detrimental effects due to excessive smartphone use. Of importance, the likely culprit to understand over-usage is not the smartphone itself, [...] Read more.
Currently about 2.71 billion humans use a smartphone worldwide. Although smartphone technology has brought many advances, a growing number of scientists discuss potential detrimental effects due to excessive smartphone use. Of importance, the likely culprit to understand over-usage is not the smartphone itself, but the excessive use of applications installed on smartphones. As the current business model of many app-developers foresees an exchange of personal data for allowance to use an app, it is not surprising that many design elements can be found in social media apps and Freemium games prolonging app usage. It is the aim of the present work to analyze several prominent smartphone apps to carve out such elements. As a result of the analysis, a total of six different mechanisms are highlighted to illustrate the prevailing business model in smartphone app development. First, these app-elements are described and second linked to classic psychological/economic theories such as the mere-exposure effect, endowment effect, and Zeigarnik effect, but also to psychological mechanisms triggering social comparison. It is concluded that many of the here presented app-elements on smartphones are able to prolong usage time, but it is very hard to understand such an effect on the level of a single element. A systematic analysis would require insights into app data usually only being available for the app-designers, but not for independent scientists. Nevertheless, the present work supports the notion that it is time to critically reflect on the prevailing business model of ‘user data in exchange for app-use allowance’. Instead of using a service in exchange for data, it ultimately might be better to ban or regulate certain design elements in apps to come up with less addictive products. Instead, users could pay a reasonable fee for an app service. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Environmental and Occupational Exposure to Asbestos as a Result of Consumption and Use in Poland
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2611; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142611 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1053
Abstract
Asbestos is harmful to human health; exposure to asbestos causes a wide range of asbestos-related diseases. Aim: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is unique to occupational and environmental asbestos exposure. Methods: Environmental asbestos exposure was examined in relation to asbestos use and manufacturing, the quantity [...] Read more.
Asbestos is harmful to human health; exposure to asbestos causes a wide range of asbestos-related diseases. Aim: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is unique to occupational and environmental asbestos exposure. Methods: Environmental asbestos exposure was examined in relation to asbestos use and manufacturing, the quantity of the asbestos-containing products still in use, the concentrations of asbestos fibres in the air and the number of MM cases diagnosed each year per county. Results: The correlation coefficient of the measurements of the asbestos fibre concentrations in the air and the quantity of asbestos-cement products in use is high and amounts to 0.68. Meanwhile, the correlation coefficient of the measurements of asbestos fibre concentrations in air and MM morbidity rate resulting from environmental exposure calculated for particular counties in provinces is low and amounts to 0.37. The highest MM morbidity rate was observed for Małopolskie and Śląskie, a typical industrial area of Poland. Conclusions: There are MM cases which are still attributable to occupational asbestos exposure, although MM cases resulting from environmental exposure to asbestos have an increased MM risk. Poland is among those countries with a low MM incidence rate, which seems to be an underestimation of environmental asbestos exposure. As long as asbestos-cement products are used in the environment, actions should be undertaken to protect public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Asbestos Exposure and Disease: An Update)
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Open AccessArticle
An Inexact Optimization Model for Crop Area Under Multiple Uncertainties
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2610; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142610 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 751
Abstract
This paper developed a type-2 fuzzy interval chance constrained programming model for optimizing a crop area, which integrated chance constrained programming and type-2 fuzzy interval programming. The developed model was then applied to a case study in Wuwei City, Gansu Province, China, and [...] Read more.
This paper developed a type-2 fuzzy interval chance constrained programming model for optimizing a crop area, which integrated chance constrained programming and type-2 fuzzy interval programming. The developed model was then applied to a case study in Wuwei City, Gansu Province, China, and the maximization of economic benefit was selected as the planning objective. Furthermore, different water-saving irrigation modes were considered as the development mode. A series of optimal irrigation water and planting structure schemes were obtained under different violation probabilities in each water-saving scenario. The obtained results could be helpful to make decisions on the planting structure and the optimal use of irrigation water and land resources under multiple uncertainties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Allocation of Rainwater Harvesting Sites in Catchments)
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Open AccessArticle
Rural Households’ Poverty and Relocation and Settlement: Evidence from Western China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2609; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142609 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 943
Abstract
Based on survey data collected from five counties across southern Shaanxi, China, the present study employs a multinomial logistic model to explore the main factors related to the type of poverty of rural households, particularly focusing on the role of relocation time, reason [...] Read more.
Based on survey data collected from five counties across southern Shaanxi, China, the present study employs a multinomial logistic model to explore the main factors related to the type of poverty of rural households, particularly focusing on the role of relocation time, reason for relocation, and type of relocation. The results showed that three types of poverty, “voluntary poverty”, “transient poverty”, and “chronic poverty”, are distinguished by combining income and consumption criteria. Moreover, relocation and settlement programs contribute to a certain degree to these three kinds of poverty, and the effects vary according to the relocation characteristics. Specifically, those relocated long-term were more likely to be trapped in “voluntary poverty” and “chronic poverty”, whereas those relocated short-term were less likely to fall into “voluntary poverty” and “transient poverty”. The poverty alleviation and disaster-related resettlers were less likely to be trapped in “chronic poverty”, whereas centralized resettlers were less likely to be trapped in “voluntary poverty” and “chronic poverty”. Additionally, demographic characteristics, capital endowment variables, and geographical features are all important factors affecting rural households’ type of poverty. This study can serve as a reference for further resettlement practice in China and other developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
The Disparity in Mental Health Between Two Generations of Internal Migrants (IMs) in China: Evidence from A Nationwide Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2608; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142608 - 22 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1062
Abstract
Background: Internal migrants (IMs) are a large, vulnerable population in China and are mostly driven by national economic reform. IMs who were born before and after 1980, when the general social and economic reform began to appear in China, are considered to be [...] Read more.
Background: Internal migrants (IMs) are a large, vulnerable population in China and are mostly driven by national economic reform. IMs who were born before and after 1980, when the general social and economic reform began to appear in China, are considered to be two separate generations. The generational differences in mental health across IMs remain undocumented. In this study, the intergenerational disparity in IMs’ mental health, using data from a national cross-sectional study, was assessed. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the “National Internal Migrant Dynamic Monitoring Survey 2014” were used. IMs were divided into the “old” or “new” generation, based on their date of birth (before 1980 vs. from 1980 onwards). Mental health includes psychological distress, which was measured using the Kessler Screening Scale for Psychological Distress (K6), and perceived stress, which was measured with the Perceived Stress Scales (PSS-4). Two-level Generalized Linear Mixed Models were performed so as to assess the generation gap and associated factors of each group’s mental health. IM demographics, migration characteristics, and social integration indicators were controlled for when assessing the intergenerational disparity in mental health. Results: A total of 15,999 IMs from eight different cities participated in the survey. New generation migrants accounted for 61.5% (9838/15,999) of the total sample. After controlling for participants’ characteristics, new generation migrants had higher psychological distress scores (βad = 0.084, 95% CI: (0.026,0.193) and higher perceived stress scores (βad = 0.118, 95% CI: 0.029, 0.207) than the older generation. For both generations, factors associated with good mental health included high levels of social integration, personal autonomy, and life satisfaction, as well as self-rated good physical health. For the new generation, the mental health of urban-to-urban IMs (βad = 0.201, 95%CI: 0.009, 0.410) for the K6, βad = 0.241, 95% CI: 0.073, 0.409 for the PSS-4), IMs with a longer migration duration (βad = 0.002, 95% CI: (0.000, 0.003) for the PSS-4) and IMs with a higher annual income (βad = 0.124, 95% CI: (0.029, 0.218) for the K6) was significantly poorer than their counterparts. Conclusions: New-generation migrants’ mental health is worse compared to older IMs. An array of services for addressing these generation-specific needs may facilitate the promotion of mental health among IMs in China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intergenerational Effects of Psychosocial Factors on Health)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Minireview: The Epigenetic Modulation of KISS1 in Reproduction and Cancer
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2607; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142607 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 994
Abstract
Epigenetics describes how both lifestyle and environment may affect human health through the modulation of genome functions and without any change to the DNA nucleotide sequence. The discovery of several epigenetic mechanisms and the possibility to deliver epigenetic marks in cells, gametes, and [...] Read more.
Epigenetics describes how both lifestyle and environment may affect human health through the modulation of genome functions and without any change to the DNA nucleotide sequence. The discovery of several epigenetic mechanisms and the possibility to deliver epigenetic marks in cells, gametes, and biological fluids has opened up new perspectives in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of human diseases. In this respect, the depth of knowledge of epigenetic mechanisms is fundamental to preserving health status and to developing targeted interventions. In this minireview, we summarize the epigenetic modulation of the KISS1 gene in order to provide an example of epigenetic regulation in health and disease. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Correlation of Internal Exposure Levels of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Methylation of Imprinting Genes of Sperm DNA
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2606; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142606 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 836
Abstract
Human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) results in adverse health implications. However, the specific impact of paternal preconception PAHs exposure has not been fully studied. In this study, a total of 219 men aged 24–53 were recruited and an investigation was conducted [...] Read more.
Human exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) results in adverse health implications. However, the specific impact of paternal preconception PAHs exposure has not been fully studied. In this study, a total of 219 men aged 24–53 were recruited and an investigation was conducted using a questionnaire requesting information about age, occupation, education, family history, lifestyle, and dietary preferences. Urine and semen samples were examined for the levels of the hydroxyl metabolites of PAHs (OH-PAHs) using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry and sperm DNA methylation by pyrosequencing. The results from the correlation analysis using seven OH-PAHs and the average methylation levels of the imprinting genes H19, PEG3, and MEG3 indicated that 1-OHPH is positively correlated with H19/PEG3 methylation levels. We further examined the correlation between each OH-PAH and the methylation levels at the individual CpGs. The results showed 1-OHPH is specifically correlated with CpG4 and CpG6 of the imprinted gene H19, CpG1 and CpG2 of PEG3, and CpG2 of MEG3; whereas 1-OHP is positively correlated with PEG3 at CpG1. Multivariate regression model analysis confirmed that 1-OHPH and 1-OHP are independent risk factors for the methylation of H19. These data show that sperm DNA imprinting genes are sensitive to adverse environmental perturbations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Harmful Compounds and Willingness to Buy for Reduced-Additives Salami. An Outlook on Italian Consumers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2605; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142605 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 787
Abstract
The consumption pattern of salami has been subjected to relatively widespread attention by academician, but few studies concerning the health implications of salami consumption have been published. Since additives and product origins represent important attributes for salami, the objective of this paper is [...] Read more.
The consumption pattern of salami has been subjected to relatively widespread attention by academician, but few studies concerning the health implications of salami consumption have been published. Since additives and product origins represent important attributes for salami, the objective of this paper is twofold: (i) to explore the role of two additives, salt and nitrates, in addition to the Italian origin, in relation to consumer attitudes and preferences towards salami, (ii) to segment consumer behaviour by assessing their willingness-to-buy salami, in order to verify whether different purchasing patterns can be identified within the different social groups. The analysis was conducted on two different levels. The first was developed through a conjoint analysis, while the second implemented a frequency analysis based on a bivariate analysis. Results show the price as one of the most important variables in identifying the quality level of salami, in addition, certain socio-economic segments of consumers show a significant propensity to pay an additional price for salami with a low salt content and is nitrate-free. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Determination of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Sludge from Water and Wastewater Treatment Plants by GC-MS
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2604; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142604 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1025
Abstract
The qualitative and quantitative analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge samples from drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) were established using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method was suitable to quantify PAHs in the sludge of [...] Read more.
The qualitative and quantitative analysis of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sludge samples from drinking water treatment plants (DWTP) and wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) were established using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The method was suitable to quantify PAHs in the sludge of DWTP and WWTP and it was confirmed by the relevant quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) procedures. The recovery of individual PAHs in the spiked samples ranged from 74.3% to 108.7%. Detection limits of the analytical procedure were 0.0010–0.0046 mg/kg dw for individual PAHs. This method was used to determine the concentration of PAHs in the selected two DWTP and four WWTP sludge samples. The results showed that the total PAHs (∑PAHs) were in low levels which ranged from 0.0668 to 0.1357 mg/kg dw, and 0.5342–1.0666 mg/kg dw for DWTP and WWTP respectively. The 3- & 4-ring PAHs were predominant in DWTP sludge, ranging from 77.4% to 82.7%; the 4-ring PAHs were predominant in WWTP sludge, ranging from 40.7% to 47.6%. The PAHs of DWTP sludge are mainly composed of 3-ring phenanthrene and anthracene and 4-ring pyrene, and chrysene. The PAHs of WWTP sludge are dominated by 4-ring fluoranthene, pyrene, and chrysene. The detected PAHs concentration should be undoubtedly considered for agriculture in sludge applications based on the limits of the EU regulations. The results of this study can be used for regular monitoring to establish a reference for sludge management and application to agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Science and Engineering)
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Open AccessArticle
Changes in Income after an Industrial Accident According to Industry and Return-to-Work Status
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2603; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142603 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 932
Abstract
Objective: To investigate changes in the incomes of workers, particularly those in the construction sector, who experienced industrial accidents according to their status of return to work. Methods: We used data from the fifth Panel Study of Workers’ Compensation Insurance. A repeated measures [...] Read more.
Objective: To investigate changes in the incomes of workers, particularly those in the construction sector, who experienced industrial accidents according to their status of return to work. Methods: We used data from the fifth Panel Study of Workers’ Compensation Insurance. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare annual differential incomes before and after the industrial accident, and a linear mixed model was used to investigate the changes in income from before to after the industrial accident according to the industry and return-to-work status. Results: A comparison of the industrial categories revealed that construction industry workers exhibited the greatest incomes before the accident and the greatest decrease in income after the industrial accident. Regression analysis for assessing changes in income after the industrial accident showed that a comparison by industry revealed a significantly greater reduction in income in the construction than service industry. A comparison by work status revealed significantly greater decreases in income in the reemployment and non-return to work groups than among those who returned to their original work. Conclusions: The economic statuses of the victims of industrial accidents decreased relative to the pre-accident statuses in all industries. The ability to return to original work is important for preserving the accident victim’s economic status. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Return to Work and Occupational Health Services)
Open AccessArticle
Factors Influencing Technology Integration in the Curriculum for Taiwanese Health Profession Educators: A Mixed-Methods Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2602; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16142602 - 22 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 897
Abstract
In this study, we explored the considerations and the influencing factors for the technological integration of educational curricula based on the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) framework for health profession educators (HPEs). A mixed methodology was used that included semi-structured interviews with 15 [...] Read more.
In this study, we explored the considerations and the influencing factors for the technological integration of educational curricula based on the technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPCK) framework for health profession educators (HPEs). A mixed methodology was used that included semi-structured interviews with 15 HPEs and an online TPCK survey with a randomly selected sample of 319 HPEs from 217 Taiwanese universities. Five themes emerged, namely, supplementing traditional teaching methods, improving immediate educator–student interactions, tracking the learning process and improving the record-keeping, keeping up with technological trends, and advancing professional learning objectives for different student needs. The presence of pre-existing platforms and inspiration from colleagues and students were facilitators, whereas the risk of technological problems and the need to invest extra time into the preparation process were impediments to technology integration in the curriculum. Of the online respondents (n = 210), 64.2% have integrated at least one technological method into their curriculum. The logistic regression model revealed that gender, prior knowledge regarding how to incorporate technology with teaching, high mean TPCK scores, and relevant school policies were significant predictors of technology integration in the curriculum. Based on these results, recommendations for development in the health profession included efforts to equip HPEs with TPCK, in order to integrate technology into the curriculum effectively. Full article
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