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Gender Differences in Chronic Hormonal and Immunological Responses to CrossFit®

Physical Education Department, University of Unopar, Nilópolis 36045–050, Brazil
Physical Education Department, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa 58051–900, Brazil
Posgraduate Program of Educação Física, University of Cariri Regional, Crato 63105–010, Brazil
Federal Technology Institute of Paraíba, João Pessoa 58015–020, Brazil
Gymnastics Department, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941–901, Brazil
Faculty of Physical Education Sports, Federal University of Juiz de Fora, São Pedro 36036-900, Brazil
Granbery Methodist College, Juiz de Fora 36015–440, Brazil
Superior School of Education of Polytechnic Institute of Setubal, Setúbal 2910–761, Portugal
Research Centre in Sports Sciences, Health Sciences and Human Development, CIDESD, Vila Real 5000–103, Portugal
Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences of Juiz de Fora, Suprema, Juiz de Fora 36033–003, Brazil
Division of Endocrinology, IPEMED Medical School, Rio de Janeiro 22031–060, Brazil
Sports Department, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto-Douro, Vila Real 5001–801, Portugal
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2577;
Received: 26 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Effects of Exercise on Health-related Markers and Bioenergetics)
This study was designed to analyze the chronical responses of the hormonal and immune systems after a CrossFit® training period of six months as well as to compare these results between genders. Twenty-nine CrossFit® practitioners (35.3 ± 10.4 years, 175.0 ± 9.2 cm, 79.5 ± 16.4 kg) with a minimum CrossFit® experience of six months were recruited, and hormonal and immune responses were verified every two months during training. The training was conducted in five consecutive days during the week, followed by two resting days. Testosterone (T) values were significantly higher at the last measurement time (T6 = 346.0 ± 299.7 pg·mL−1) than at all the other times (p < 0.002) and were higher in men than in women (p < 0.001). Cortisol (C) levels were lower at all times compared to the initial level before training, and differences were observed between men and women, with men having a lower value (T0: p = 0.028; T2: p = 0.013; T4: p = 0.002; and T6: p = 0.002). The TC ratio in women was lower at all times (p < 0.0001) than in men. Significant effects on CD8 levels at different times (F(3.81) = 7.287; p = 0.002; ηp2 = 0.213) and between genders (F(1.27) = 4.282; p = 0.048; ηp2 = 0.137), and no differences in CD4 levels were observed. CrossFit® training changed the serum and basal levels of testosterone and cortisol in men (with an increase in testosterone and a decrease in cortisol). View Full-Text
Keywords: CrossFit; hormonal responses; immunological responses; RPE CrossFit; hormonal responses; immunological responses; RPE
MDPI and ACS Style

Poderoso, R.; Cirilo-Sousa, M.; Júnior, A.; Novaes, J.; Vianna, J.; Dias, M.; Leitão, L.; Reis, V.; Neto, N.; Vilaça-Alves, J. Gender Differences in Chronic Hormonal and Immunological Responses to CrossFit®. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2577.

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