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Open AccessArticle

Study Design, Rationale and Procedures for Human Biomonitoring of Hazardous Chemicals from Foods and Cooking in Korea

Samsung Health Research Institute, Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd. 1 Samsungjeonja-ro, Hwaseong, Gyeonggi-do 18448, Korea
Department of Health Sciences, Dongduk Women’s University, 13 gil, 60 Hwarang-ro, Seoul 02748, Korea
Department of Environmental Health Science, College of Natural Science, Soonchunhyang University, 22 Soonchunhyang-ro, Asan 31538, Korea
Department of Environmental Education, Kongju National University, Gongju 32588, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(14), 2583;
Received: 9 June 2019 / Revised: 8 July 2019 / Accepted: 16 July 2019 / Published: 19 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Biomonitoring of Environmental and Occupational Exposures)
Objectives: A nationwide biomonitoring program identified the long-term trends of environmental exposures to hazardous chemicals in the general population and found geographical locations where body burdens of an exposed group significantly differed from those of the general population. The purpose of this study is to analyze the hazardous compounds associated with foods and cooking in the nationwide general population for evaluation of the environmental exposures and health risk factors and for the establishment of the reference levels at the national level. Methods: During 2009–2010, the National Institute of Food and Drug Safety Evaluation (NIFDS) conducted a nationwide human biomonitoring study, including a questionnaire survey and environmental exposure assessments for specific hazardous compounds from foods and cooking among the general population in South Korea. Results: A total of 2139 individuals voluntarily participated in 98 survey units in South Korea, including 889 (41.6%) men and 1250 women (58.4%). Bio-specimens (serum and urine) and questionnaires were collected from the study population. Acrylamides, heterocyclic amines (HCAs), phenols, and phthalates were analyzed from urine, and perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) and organic chloride pesticides (OCPs) were analyzed from serum samples. The information on exposure pathway and geographical locations for all participants was collected by questionnaire interviews, which included demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, history of family diseases, conditions of the indoor and outdoor environment, lifestyles, occupational history, and food and dietary information. Conclusion: We describe the design of the study and sampling of human biospecimen procedures including bio-sample repository systems. The resources produced from this nationwide human biomonitoring study and survey will be valuable for use in future biomarkers studies and for the assessment of exposure to hazardous compounds associated with foods and cooking. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomonitoring; hazardous chemicals; biomarkers; foods and cooking biomonitoring; hazardous chemicals; biomarkers; foods and cooking
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Lee, S.; Ahn, R.M.; Kim, J.H.; Han, Y.-D.; Lee, J.H.; Son, B.-S.; Lee, K. Study Design, Rationale and Procedures for Human Biomonitoring of Hazardous Chemicals from Foods and Cooking in Korea. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2583.

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