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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 20, Issue 20 (October-2 2019)

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Open AccessArticle
Combination of SAXS and Protein Painting Discloses the Three-Dimensional Organization of the Bacterial Cysteine Synthase Complex, a Potential Target for Enhancers of Antibiotic Action
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205219 (registering DOI) - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
The formation of multienzymatic complexes allows for the fine tuning of many aspects of enzymatic functions, such as efficiency, localization, stability, and moonlighting. Here, we investigated, in solution, the structure of bacterial cysteine synthase (CS) complex. CS is formed by serine acetyltransferase (CysE) [...] Read more.
The formation of multienzymatic complexes allows for the fine tuning of many aspects of enzymatic functions, such as efficiency, localization, stability, and moonlighting. Here, we investigated, in solution, the structure of bacterial cysteine synthase (CS) complex. CS is formed by serine acetyltransferase (CysE) and O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase isozyme A (CysK), the enzymes that catalyze the last two steps of cysteine biosynthesis in bacteria. CysK and CysE have been proposed as potential targets for antibiotics, since cysteine and related metabolites are intimately linked to protection of bacterial cells against redox damage and to antibiotic resistance. We applied a combined approach of small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) spectroscopy and protein painting to obtain a model for the solution structure of CS. Protein painting allowed the identification of protein–protein interaction hotspots that were then used as constrains to model the CS quaternary assembly inside the SAXS envelope. We demonstrate that the active site entrance of CysK is involved in complex formation, as suggested by site-directed mutagenesis and functional studies. Furthermore, complex formation involves a conformational change in one CysK subunit that is likely transmitted through the dimer interface to the other subunit, with a regulatory effect. Finally, SAXS data indicate that only one active site of CysK is involved in direct interaction with CysE and unambiguously unveil the quaternary arrangement of CS. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
The Antithrombotic Function of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate on Human Adipose-Stem-Cell-Recellularized Tissue Engineered Vascular Graft In Vitro
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5218; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205218 (registering DOI) - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
Adipose stem cells (ASCs) show potential in the recellularization of tissue engineerined vascular grafts (TEVGs). However, whether sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) could further enhance the adhesion, proliferation, and antithrombosis of ASCs on decellularized vascular scaffolds is unknown. This study investigated the effect of S1P on [...] Read more.
Adipose stem cells (ASCs) show potential in the recellularization of tissue engineerined vascular grafts (TEVGs). However, whether sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) could further enhance the adhesion, proliferation, and antithrombosis of ASCs on decellularized vascular scaffolds is unknown. This study investigated the effect of S1P on the recellularization of TEVGs with ASCs. Human ASCs were derived from lipoaspirate. Scaffolds were derived from human umbilical arteries (HUAs) with treatment of 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) for 48 h (decellularized HUAs; DHUAs). The adhesion, proliferation, and antithrombotic functions (kinetic clotting time and platelet adhesion) of ASCs on DHUAs with S1P or without S1P were evaluated. The histology and DNA examination revealed a preserved structure and the elimination of the nuclear component more than 95% in HUAs after decellularizaiton. Human ASCs (hASCs) showed CD29(+), CD73(+), CD90(+), CD105(+), CD31(–), CD34(–), CD44(–), HLA-DR(–), and CD146(–) while S1P-treated ASCs showed marker shifting to CD31(+). In contrast to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), S1P didn’t significantly increase proliferation of ASCs on DHUAs. However, the kinetic clotting test revealed prolonged blood clotting in S1P-treated ASC-recellularized DHUAs. S1P also decreased platelet adhesion on ASC-recellularized DHUAs. In addition, S1P treatment increased the syndecan-1 expression of ASCs. TEVG reconstituted with S1P and ASC-recellularized DHUAs showed an antithrombotic effect in vitro. The preliminary results showed that ASCs could adhere to DHUAs and S1P could increase the antithrombotic effect on ASC-recellularized DHUAs. The antithrombotic effect is related to ASCs exhibiting an endothelial-cell-like function and preventing of syndecan-1 shedding. A future animal study is warranted to prove this novel method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Implant Surface Modification and Tissue Engineering)
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Open AccessReview
The Main (Glyco) Phospholipid (MPL) of Thermoplasma acidophilum
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5217; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205217 (registering DOI) - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
The main phospholipid (MPL) of Thermoplasma acidophilum DSM 1728 was isolated, purified and physico-chemically characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)/differential thermal analysis (DTA) for its thermotropic behavior, alone and in mixtures with other lipids, cholesterol, hydrophobic peptides and pore-forming ionophores. Model membranes from [...] Read more.
The main phospholipid (MPL) of Thermoplasma acidophilum DSM 1728 was isolated, purified and physico-chemically characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)/differential thermal analysis (DTA) for its thermotropic behavior, alone and in mixtures with other lipids, cholesterol, hydrophobic peptides and pore-forming ionophores. Model membranes from MPL were investigated; black lipid membrane, Langmuir-Blodgett monolayer, and liposomes. Laboratory results were compared to computer simulation. MPL forms stable and resistant liposomes with highly proton-impermeable membrane and mixes at certain degree with common bilayer-forming lipids. Monomeric bacteriorhodopsin and ATP synthase from Micrococcus luteus were co-reconstituted and light-driven ATP synthesis measured. This review reports about almost four decades of research on Thermoplasma membrane and its MPL as well as transfer of this research to Thermoplasma species recently isolated from Indonesian volcanoes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biochemistry and Biophysics of Archaea Membranes)
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Open AccessReview
Disinfection and Sterilization Using Plasma Technology: Fundamentals and Future Perspectives for Biological Applications
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5216; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205216 (registering DOI) - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
Recent studies have shown that plasma can efficiently inactivate microbial pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses in addition to degrading toxins. Moreover, this technology is effective at inactivating pathogens on the surface of medical and dental devices, as well as agricultural products. [...] Read more.
Recent studies have shown that plasma can efficiently inactivate microbial pathogens such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses in addition to degrading toxins. Moreover, this technology is effective at inactivating pathogens on the surface of medical and dental devices, as well as agricultural products. The current practical applications of plasma technology range from sterilizing therapeutic medical devices to improving crop yields, as well as the area of food preservation. This review introduces recent advances and future perspectives in plasma technology, especially in applications related to disinfection and sterilization. We also introduce the latest studies, mainly focusing on the potential applications of plasma technology for the inactivation of microorganisms and the degradation of toxins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Chemistry and Chemical Physics)
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Open AccessArticle
Protective Effects of Flavone from Tamarix aphylla against CCl4-Induced Liver Injury in Mice Mediated by Suppression of Oxidative Stress, Apoptosis and Angiogenesis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5215; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205215 (registering DOI) - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
The current study aimed to investigate, for the first time, the beneficial effects of 3,5-dihydroxy-4′,7-dimethoxyflavone isolated from Tamarix aphylla L. against liver injury in mice. Liver injury was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) at a dose of [...] Read more.
The current study aimed to investigate, for the first time, the beneficial effects of 3,5-dihydroxy-4′,7-dimethoxyflavone isolated from Tamarix aphylla L. against liver injury in mice. Liver injury was induced by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) at a dose of 0.4 mL/kg mixed in olive oil at ratio (1:4) twice a week for 6 consecutive weeks. The administration of CCl4 caused significant histopathological changes in liver tissues while the pre-treatment with the flavone at dose of 10 and 25 mg/kg ameliorated the observed liver damages. Also, it markedly reduced hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) level as well as increased the activities of liver superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (Gpx) compared with their recorded levels in CCl4 model group. Moreover, the immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the enhancement in the protein level of B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) while the protein levels of cysteine-aspartic acid protease-3 (caspase-3), Bcl-2-associated x protein (Bax), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and CD31 were suppressed following the flavone treatement. These results suggest that the flavone can inhibit liver injury induced in mice owning to its impact on the oxidation, apoptotic and angiogenesis mechanisms. Further pharmacological investigations are essential to determine the effectiveness of the flavone in human. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Endothelial Dysfunction in Primary Aldosteronism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5214; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205214 (registering DOI) - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is characterized by excess production of aldosterone from the adrenal glands and is the most common and treatable cause of secondary hypertension. Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid hormone that participates in the regulation of electrolyte balance, blood pressure, and tissue remodeling. [...] Read more.
Primary aldosteronism (PA) is characterized by excess production of aldosterone from the adrenal glands and is the most common and treatable cause of secondary hypertension. Aldosterone is a mineralocorticoid hormone that participates in the regulation of electrolyte balance, blood pressure, and tissue remodeling. The excess of aldosterone caused by PA results in an increase in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications, including coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and even arrhythmia and heart failure. Endothelial dysfunction is a well-established fundamental cause of cardiovascular diseases and also a predictor of worse clinical outcomes. Accumulating evidence indicates that aldosterone plays an important role in the initiation and progression of endothelial dysfunction. Several mechanisms have been shown to contribute to aldosterone-induced endothelial dysfunction, including aldosterone-mediated vascular tone dysfunction, aldosterone- and endothelium-mediated vascular inflammation, aldosterone-related atherosclerosis, and vascular remodeling. These mechanisms are activated by aldosterone through genomic and nongenomic pathways in mineralocorticoid receptor-dependent and independent manners. In addition, other cells have also been shown to participate in these mechanisms. The complex interactions among endothelium, inflammatory cells, vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts are crucial for aldosterone-mediated endothelial dysregulation. In this review, we discuss the association between aldosterone and endothelial function and the complex mechanisms from a molecular aspect. Furthermore, we also review current clinical research of endothelial dysfunction in patients with PA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Endothelial Dysfunction: Pathophysiology and Molecular Mechanisms)
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Open AccessArticle
Novel Peptidomic Approach for Identification of Low and High Molecular Weight Tauopathy Peptides Following Calpain Digestion, and Primary Culture Neurotoxic Challenges
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5213; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205213 (registering DOI) - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
Tauopathy is a class of a neurodegenerative disorder linked with tau hyperphosphorylation, proteolysis, and aggregation. Tau can be subjected to proteolysis upon calpain activation in Alzheimer disease (AD), and traumatic brain injury (TBI). We and others have extensively researched calpain-mediated tau breakdown products [...] Read more.
Tauopathy is a class of a neurodegenerative disorder linked with tau hyperphosphorylation, proteolysis, and aggregation. Tau can be subjected to proteolysis upon calpain activation in Alzheimer disease (AD), and traumatic brain injury (TBI). We and others have extensively researched calpain-mediated tau breakdown products (Tau-BDP; 45K, 35K, and 17K). Tau proteolysis might also generate low molecular weight (LMW ≤10K) proteolytic peptides after neurodegenerative damage. In this study, we have subjected purified tau protein (phospho and non-phospho) and mouse brain lysate to calpain-1 digestion to characterize the LMW generated by nano-liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization to tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS). We have also challenged differentiated primary cerebrocortical neuronal cultures (CTX) with neurotoxic agents (calcium ionophore calcimycin (A23187), staurosporine (STS), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), and Maitotoxin (MTX)) that mimic neurodegeneration to investigate the peptidome released into the conditioned cell media. We used a simple workflow in which we fractionate LMW calpain-mediated tau peptides by ultrafiltration (molecular weight cut-off value (MWCO) of 10K) and subject filtrate fractions to nano-LC-MS/MS analysis. The high molecular weight (HMW) peptides and intact proteins retained on the filter were analyzed separately by western blotting using total and phospho-specific tau antibodies. We have identified several novel proteolytic tau peptides (phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated) that are only present in samples treated with calpain or cell-based calpain activation model (particularly N- and C-terminal peptides). Our findings can help in developing future research strategies emphasizing on the suppression of tau proteolysis as a target. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biological Systems at the Protein Level)
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Open AccessArticle
Trans-Kingdom Conjugation within Solid Media from Escherichia coli to Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5212; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205212 (registering DOI) - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
Conjugation is a bacterial mechanism for DNA transfer from a donor cell to a wide range of recipients, including both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In contrast to conventional DNA delivery techniques, such as electroporation and chemical transformation, conjugation eliminates the need for DNA [...] Read more.
Conjugation is a bacterial mechanism for DNA transfer from a donor cell to a wide range of recipients, including both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In contrast to conventional DNA delivery techniques, such as electroporation and chemical transformation, conjugation eliminates the need for DNA extraction, thereby preventing DNA damage during isolation. While most established conjugation protocols allow for DNA transfer in liquid media or on a solid surface, we developed a procedure for conjugation within solid media. Such a protocol may expand conjugation as a tool for DNA transfer to species that require semi-solid or solid media for growth. Conjugation within solid media could also provide a more stable microenvironment in which the conjugative pilus can establish and maintain contact with recipient cells for the successful delivery of plasmid DNA. Furthermore, transfer in solid media may enhance the ability to transfer plasmids and chromosomes greater than 100 kbp. Using our optimized method, plasmids of varying sizes were tested for transfer from Escherichia coli to Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrated that there was no significant change in conjugation frequency when plasmid size increased from 56.5 to 138.6 kbp in length. Finally, we established an efficient PCR-based synthesis protocol to generate custom conjugative plasmids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Yeast Biology)
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Open AccessArticle
Targeting NRF2 for the Treatment of Friedreich’s Ataxia: A Comparison among Drugs
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5211; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205211 (registering DOI) - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
NRF2 (Nuclear factor Erythroid 2-related Factor 2) signaling is impaired in Friedreich’s Ataxia (FRDA), an autosomal recessive disease characterized by progressive nervous system damage and degeneration of nerve fibers in the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. The loss of frataxin in patients results [...] Read more.
NRF2 (Nuclear factor Erythroid 2-related Factor 2) signaling is impaired in Friedreich’s Ataxia (FRDA), an autosomal recessive disease characterized by progressive nervous system damage and degeneration of nerve fibers in the spinal cord and peripheral nerves. The loss of frataxin in patients results in iron sulfur cluster deficiency and iron accumulation in the mitochondria, making FRDA a fatal and debilitating condition. There are no currently approved therapies for the treatment of FRDA and molecules able to activate NRF2 have the potential to induce clinical benefits in patients. In this study, we compared the efficacy of six redox-active drugs, some already adopted in clinical trials, targeting NRF2 activation and frataxin expression in fibroblasts obtained from skin biopsies of FRDA patients. All of these drugs consistently increased NRF2 expression, but differential profiles of NRF2 downstream genes were activated. The Sulforaphane and N-acetylcysteine were particularly effective on genes involved in preventing inflammation and maintaining glutathione homeostasis, the dimethyl fumarate, omaxevolone, and EPI-743 in counteracting toxic products accumulation, the idebenone in mitochondrial protection. This study may contribute to develop synergic therapies, based on a combination of treatment molecules. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Involvement of Progranulin and Granulin Expression in Inflammatory Responses after Cerebral Ischemia
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5210; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205210 - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
Progranulin (PGRN) plays a crucial role in diverse biological processes, including cell proliferation and embryonic development. PGRN can be cleaved by neutrophil elastase to release granulin (GRN). PGRN has been found to inhibit inflammation. Whereas, GRN plays a role as a pro-inflammatory factor. [...] Read more.
Progranulin (PGRN) plays a crucial role in diverse biological processes, including cell proliferation and embryonic development. PGRN can be cleaved by neutrophil elastase to release granulin (GRN). PGRN has been found to inhibit inflammation. Whereas, GRN plays a role as a pro-inflammatory factor. However, the pathophysiological roles of PGRN and GRN, at early stages after cerebral ischemia, have not yet been fully understood. The aim of this study was to obtain further insight into the pathologic roles of PGRN and GRN. We demonstrated that the amount of PGRN was significantly increased in microglial cells after cerebral ischemia in rats and that neutrophil elastase activity was also increased at an early stage after cerebral ischemia, resulting in the production of GRN. The inhibition of neutrophil elastase activity suppressed PGRN cleavage and GRN production, as well as the increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, after cerebral ischemia. The administration of an elastase inhibitor decreased the number of injured cells and improved the neurological deficits test scores. Our findings suggest that an increase in the activity of elastase to cleave PGRN, and to produce GRN, was involved in an inflammatory response at the early stages after cerebral ischemia, and that inhibition of elastase activity could suppress the progression of cerebral ischemic injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle
New Phosphorus Analogs of Bevirimat: Synthesis, Evaluation of Anti-HIV-1 Activity and Molecular Docking Study
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5209; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205209 - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
Since the beginning of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, many groups of drugs characterized by diverse mechanisms of action have been developed, which can suppress HIV viremia. 3-O-(3′,3′-Dimethylsuccinyl) betulinic acid, known as bevirimat (BVM), was the first compound in the [...] Read more.
Since the beginning of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic, many groups of drugs characterized by diverse mechanisms of action have been developed, which can suppress HIV viremia. 3-O-(3′,3′-Dimethylsuccinyl) betulinic acid, known as bevirimat (BVM), was the first compound in the class of HIV maturation inhibitors. In the present work, phosphate and phosphonate derivatives of 3-carboxyacylbetulinic acid were synthesized and evaluated for anti-HIV-1 activity. In vitro studies showed that 30-diethylphosphonate analog of BVM (compound 14a) has comparable effects to BVM (half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) equal to 0.02 μM and 0.03 μM, respectively) and is also more selective (selectivity indices: 3450 and 967, respectively). To investigate the possible mechanism of antiviral effect of 14a, molecular docking was carried out on the C-terminal domain (CTD) of HIV-1 capsid (CA)–spacer peptide 1 (SP1) fragment of Gag protein, designated as CTD-SP1, which was described as a molecular target for maturation inhibitors. Compared with interactions between BVM and the protein, an increased number of strong interactions between ligand 14a and protein, generated by the phosphonate group, was observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessReview
Amelioration of Mitochondrial Quality Control and Proteostasis by Natural Compounds in Parkinson’s Disease Models
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5208; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205208 - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a well-known age-related neurodegenerative disorder associated with longer lifespans and rapidly aging populations. The pathophysiological mechanism is a complex progress involving cellular damage such as mitochondrial dysfunction and protein homeostasis. Age-mediated degenerative neurological disorders can reduce the quality of [...] Read more.
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a well-known age-related neurodegenerative disorder associated with longer lifespans and rapidly aging populations. The pathophysiological mechanism is a complex progress involving cellular damage such as mitochondrial dysfunction and protein homeostasis. Age-mediated degenerative neurological disorders can reduce the quality of life and also impose economic burdens. Currently, the common treatment is replacement with levodopa to address low dopamine levels; however, this does not halt the progression of PD and is associated with adverse effects, including dyskinesis. In addition, elderly patients can react negatively to treatment with synthetic neuroprotection agents. Recently, natural compounds such as phytochemicals with fewer side effects have been reported as candidate treatments of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. This review focuses on mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, hormesis, proteostasis, the ubiquitin‒proteasome system, and autophagy (mitophagy) to explain the neuroprotective effects of using natural products as a therapeutic strategy. We also summarize the efforts to use natural extracts to develop novel pharmacological candidates for treatment of age-related PD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Products and Neuroprotection)
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Open AccessArticle
Fetuin-A Inhibits Placental Cell Growth and Ciliogenesis in Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5207; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205207 - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a type of unbalanced glucose tolerance that occurs during pregnancy, which affects approximately 10% of pregnancies worldwide. Fetuin-A is associated with insulin resistance, and the concentration of circulating fetuin-A increases in women with GDM, however, the role of [...] Read more.
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a type of unbalanced glucose tolerance that occurs during pregnancy, which affects approximately 10% of pregnancies worldwide. Fetuin-A is associated with insulin resistance, and the concentration of circulating fetuin-A increases in women with GDM, however, the role of fetuin-A in the placenta remains unclear. In this study, we enrolled placental samples from twenty pregnant women with GDM and twenty non-GDM pregnant women and found that the abundance of fetuin-A was upregulated in terms of mRNA and protein levels. Fetuin-A inhibited placental cell growth by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting S phase entry. Irregular alignment of mitotic chromosomes and aberrant mitotic spindle poles were observed. In addition, centrosome amplification was induced by fetuin-A treatment, and these amplified centrosomes nucleated microtubules with disorganized microtubule arrays in placental cells. Furthermore, fetuin-A inhibited autophagy, and thus blocked the growth of the primary cilium, a cellular antenna that regulates placenta development and differentiation. Thus, our study uncovered the novel function of fetuin-A in regulating placental cell growth and ciliogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Embryo Implantation and Placental Development)
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Open AccessArticle
Glycosylation of Zika Virus is Important in Host–Virus Interaction and Pathogenic Potential
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5206; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205206 - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a global public health issue due to its association with severe developmental disorders in infants and neurological disorders in adults. ZIKV uses glycosylation of its envelope (E) protein to interact with host cell receptors to facilitate entry; these interactions [...] Read more.
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a global public health issue due to its association with severe developmental disorders in infants and neurological disorders in adults. ZIKV uses glycosylation of its envelope (E) protein to interact with host cell receptors to facilitate entry; these interactions could also be important for designing therapeutics and vaccines. Due to a lack of proper information about Asn-linked (N-glycans) on ZIKV E, we analyzed ZIKV E of various strains derived from different cells. We found ZIKV E proteins being extensively modified with oligomannose, hybrid and complex N-glycans of a highly heterogeneous nature. Host cell surface glycans correlated strongly with the glycomic features of ZIKV E. Mechanistically, we observed that ZIKV N-glycans might play a role in viral pathogenesis, as mannose-specific C-type lectins DC-SIGN and L-SIGN mediate host cell entry of ZIKV. Our findings represent the first detailed mapping of N-glycans on ZIKV E of various strains and their functional significance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Glycan Pattern Recognition in Innate Immune Response)
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Open AccessArticle
Anti-Diabetic Nephropathy Activities of Polysaccharides Obtained from Termitornyces albuminosus via Regulation of NF-κB Signaling in db/db Mice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205205 - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
Termitornyces albuminosus is a kind of traditional Chinese edible fungus rich in nutrients and medicinal ingredients, and it has anti-oxidative, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the hypoglycemic and nephroprotective effects of polysaccharides separated from T. albuminosus (PTA) have not been reported. The properties [...] Read more.
Termitornyces albuminosus is a kind of traditional Chinese edible fungus rich in nutrients and medicinal ingredients, and it has anti-oxidative, analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, the hypoglycemic and nephroprotective effects of polysaccharides separated from T. albuminosus (PTA) have not been reported. The properties of PTA were analyzed in a BKS.Cg-Dock7m +/+ Leprdb/JNju (db/db) mouse model of diabetes. After the administration of PTA for eight weeks, the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of PTA in the db/db mice were assessed. The results of a cytokine array combined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay confirmed the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities of PTA. An eight-week administration of PTA caused hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic functioning, as indicated by suppressed plasma glucose levels, as well as the modulation of several cytokines related to glycometabolism, in the sera and kidneys of the mice. PTA treatment also had a protective effect on renal function, restoring renal structures and regulating potential indicators of nephropathy. In the kidneys of the db/db mice, PTA treatment reduced the activation of protein kinase B, the inhibitor of κB kinase alpha and beta, and the inhibitor of κB alpha and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). We establish the hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and anti-diabetic nephropathy effects of PTA, and we find that the renal protection effects of PTA may be related to anti-inflammatory activity via the regulation of NF-κB signaling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Carbohydrate Polymers for Pharmaceutical Applications)
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Open AccessArticle
Age- and BMI-Associated Expression of Angiogenic Factors in White Adipose Tissue of Children
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5204; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205204 - 21 Oct 2019
Abstract
The growth of adipose tissue and its vasculature are tightly associated. Angiogenic factors have been linked to obesity, yet little is known about their expression during early childhood. To identify associations of angiogenic factors with characteristics on individual and tissue level, subcutaneous white [...] Read more.
The growth of adipose tissue and its vasculature are tightly associated. Angiogenic factors have been linked to obesity, yet little is known about their expression during early childhood. To identify associations of angiogenic factors with characteristics on individual and tissue level, subcutaneous white adipose tissue samples were taken from 45 children aged 0–9 years undergoing elective surgery. We measured the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEFGA), fibroblast growth factor 1 and 2 (FGF1, FGF2), angiopoietin 1 and 2 (ANGPT1, ANGPT2), TEK receptor tyrosine kinase (TEK), and von Willebrand factor (VWF). In addition, we determined the mean adipocyte size in histologic tissue sections. We found positive correlations of age with FGF1 and FGF2 and a negative correlation with ANGPT2, with pronounced differences in the first two years of life. FGF1, FGF2, and ANGPT1 correlated positively with adipocyte size. Furthermore, we identified a correlation of ANGPT1 and TEK with body mass index-standard deviation score (BMI-SDS), a measure to define childhood obesity. Except for ANGPT2, all angiogenic factors correlated positively with the endothelial marker VWF. In sum, our findings suggest that differences related to BMI-SDS begin early in childhood, and the analyzed angiogenic factors possess distinct roles in adipose tissue biology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Adipogenesis and Adipose Tissue Metabolism)
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Open AccessReview
Adverse Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors—Evidence and Plausibility
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5203; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205203 - 21 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been increasingly used over the last decades and there are concerns about overuse and the numerous reported side-effects. It is uncertain whether associations between PPI use and potential side effects are causal. However, important evidence from experimental and [...] Read more.
Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been increasingly used over the last decades and there are concerns about overuse and the numerous reported side-effects. It is uncertain whether associations between PPI use and potential side effects are causal. However, important evidence from experimental and mechanistic studies that could support a causal relationship may have been underestimated by epidemiologists and meta-analysists. In the current manuscript we review the combined epidemiological and mechanistic evidence of the adverse effects of PPI use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proton-Pump Inhibitors (PPIs))
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Open AccessArticle
Carvedilol Ameliorates Experimental Atherosclerosis by Regulating Cholesterol Efflux and Exosome Functions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5202; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205202 - 20 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Carvedilol (Cav), a nonselective β-blocker with α1 adrenoceptor blocking effect, has been used as a standard therapy for coronary artery disease. This study investigated the effects of Cav on exosome expression and function, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression, and cholesterol efflux that [...] Read more.
Carvedilol (Cav), a nonselective β-blocker with α1 adrenoceptor blocking effect, has been used as a standard therapy for coronary artery disease. This study investigated the effects of Cav on exosome expression and function, ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression, and cholesterol efflux that are relevant to the process of atherosclerosis. Human monocytic (THP-1) cell line and human hepatic (Huh-7) cells were treated with Cav, and cholesterol efflux was measured. Exosomes from cell culture medium or mice serum were isolated using glycan-coated recognition beads. Low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (ldlr−/−) mice were fed with high-fat diet and treated with Cav. Cav accentuated cholesterol efflux and enhanced the expressions of ABCA1 protein and mRNA in both THP-1 and Huh-7 cells. In addition, Cav increased expression and function of exosomal ABCA1 in THP-1 macrophage exosomes. The mechanisms were associated with inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and protein kinase B (Akt). In hypercholesterolemic ldlr−/− mice, Cav enhanced serum exosomal ABCA1 expression and suppressed atherosclerosis by inhibiting lipid deposition and macrophage accumulation. Cav halts atherosclerosis by enhancing cholesterol efflux and increasing ABCA1 expression in macrophages and in exosomes, possibly through NF-κB and Akt signaling, which provides mechanistic insights regarding the beneficial effects of Cav on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pathomechanisms of Atherosclerosis. Part II)
Open AccessReview
Enterovirus-Associated Hand-Foot and Mouth Disease and Neurological Complications in Japan and the Rest of the World
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5201; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205201 - 20 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Enteroviruses (EVs) are responsible for extremely large-scale, periodic epidemics in pediatric cohorts, particularly in East and Southeast Asia. Clinical presentation includes a diverse disease spectrum, including hand-foot and mouth disease (HFMD), aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, and acute flaccid myelitis. HFMD is [...] Read more.
Enteroviruses (EVs) are responsible for extremely large-scale, periodic epidemics in pediatric cohorts, particularly in East and Southeast Asia. Clinical presentation includes a diverse disease spectrum, including hand-foot and mouth disease (HFMD), aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis, and acute flaccid myelitis. HFMD is predominantly attributable to EV-A types, including the major pathogen EV-A71, and coxsackieviruses, particularly CV-A6, CV-A16, and CV-A10. There have been multiple EV-A71 outbreaks associated with a profound burden of neurological disease and fatal outcomes in Asia since the early 1980s. Efficacious vaccines against EV-A71 have been developed in China but widespread pediatric vaccination programs have not been introduced in other countries. Encephalitis, as a consequence of complications arising from HFMD infection, leads to damage to the thalamus and medulla oblongata. Studies in Vietnam suggest that myoclonus is a significant indicator of central nervous system (CNS) complications in EV-A71-associated HFMD cases. Rapid response in HFMD cases in children is imperative to prevent the progression to a CNS infection; however, prophylactic and therapeutic agents have not been well established internationally, therefore surveillance and functional studies including development of antivirals and multivalent vaccines is critically important to reduce disease burden in pediatric populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Research in Emerging Viruses 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
MicroRNA Mediate Visfatin and Resistin Induction of Oxidative Stress in Human Osteoarthritic Synovial Fibroblasts Via NF-κB Pathway
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5200; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205200 - 20 Oct 2019
Viewed by 166
Abstract
Synovial membrane inflammation actively participate to structural damage during osteoarthritis (OA). Adipokines, miRNA, and oxidative stress contribute to synovitis and cartilage destruction in OA. We investigated the relationship between visfatin, resistin and miRNA in oxidative stress regulation, in human OA synovial fibroblasts. Cultured [...] Read more.
Synovial membrane inflammation actively participate to structural damage during osteoarthritis (OA). Adipokines, miRNA, and oxidative stress contribute to synovitis and cartilage destruction in OA. We investigated the relationship between visfatin, resistin and miRNA in oxidative stress regulation, in human OA synovial fibroblasts. Cultured cells were treated with visfatin and resistin. After 24 h, we evaluated various pro-inflammatory cytokines, metalloproteinases (MMPs), type II collagen (Col2a1), miR-34a, miR-146a, miR-181a, antioxidant enzymes, and B-cell lymphoma (BCL)2 by qRT-PCR, apoptosis and mitochondrial superoxide production by cytometry, p50 nuclear factor (NF)-κB by immunofluorescence. Synoviocytes were transfected with miRNA inhibitors and oxidative stress evaluation after adipokines stimulus was performed. The implication of NF-κB pathway was assessed by the use of a NF-κB inhibitor (BAY-11-7082). Visfatin and resistin significantly up-regulated gene expression of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, MMP-1, MMP-13 and reduced Col2a1. Furthermore, adipokines induced apoptosis and superoxide production, the transcriptional levels of BCL2, superoxide dismutase (SOD)-2, catalase (CAT), nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2 (NRF2), miR-34a, miR-146a, and miR-181a. MiRNA inhibitors counteracted adipokines modulation of oxidative stress. Visfatin and resistin effects were suppressed by BAY-11-7082. Our data suggest that miRNA may represent possible mediators of oxidative stress induced by visfatin and resistin via NF-κB pathway in human OA synoviocytes. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Cytoprotective Preconditioning of Osteoblast-Like Cells with N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine for Bone Regeneration in Cell Therapy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5199; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205199 - 20 Oct 2019
Viewed by 155
Abstract
Oxidative stress hinders tissue regeneration in cell therapy by inducing apoptosis and dysfunction in transplanted cells. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) reinforces cellular antioxidant capabilities by increasing a major cellular endogenous antioxidant molecule, glutathione, and promotes osteogenic differentiation. This study investigates the effects [...] Read more.
Oxidative stress hinders tissue regeneration in cell therapy by inducing apoptosis and dysfunction in transplanted cells. N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) reinforces cellular antioxidant capabilities by increasing a major cellular endogenous antioxidant molecule, glutathione, and promotes osteogenic differentiation. This study investigates the effects of pretreatment of osteoblast-like cells with NAC on oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and dysfunction and bone regeneration in local transplants. Rat femur bone marrow-derived osteoblast-like cells preincubated for 3 h with and without 5 mM NAC were cultured in a NAC-free osteogenic differentiation medium with continuous exposure to 50 μM hydrogen peroxide to induce oxidative stress. NAC preincubation prevented disruption of intracellular redox balance and alleviated apoptosis and negative impact on osteogenic differentiation, even under oxidative stress. Autologous osteoblast-like cells with and without NAC pretreatment in a collagen sponge vehicle were implanted in critical-size defects in rat femurs. In the third week, NAC-pretreated cells yielded complete defect closure with significantly matured lamellar bone tissue in contrast with poor bone healing by cells without pretreatment. Cell-tracking analysis demonstrated direct bone deposition by transplanted cells pretreated with NAC. Pretreatment of osteoblast-like cells with NAC enhances bone regeneration in local transplantation by preventing oxidative stress-induced apoptosis and dysfunction at the transplanted site. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functional Materials for Bone Regeneration: Biomaterials and Cells)
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Open AccessArticle
Exposure to the RXR Agonist SR11237 in Early Life Causes Disturbed Skeletal Morphogenesis in a Rat Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5198; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205198 - 20 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Longitudinal bone growth occurs through endochondral ossification (EO), controlled by various signaling molecules. Retinoid X Receptor (RXR) is a nuclear receptor with important roles in cell death, development, and metabolism. However, little is known about its role in EO. In this study, the [...] Read more.
Longitudinal bone growth occurs through endochondral ossification (EO), controlled by various signaling molecules. Retinoid X Receptor (RXR) is a nuclear receptor with important roles in cell death, development, and metabolism. However, little is known about its role in EO. In this study, the agonist SR11237 was used to evaluate RXR activation in EO. Rats given SR11237 from post-natal day 5 to post-natal day 15 were harvested for micro-computed tomography (microCT) scanning and histology. In parallel, newborn CD1 mouse tibiae were cultured with increasing concentrations of SR11237 for histological and whole-mount evaluation. RXR agonist-treated rats had shorter long bones than the controls and developed dysmorphia of the growth plate. Cells invading the calcified and dysmorphic growth plate appeared pre-hypertrophic in size and shape, in correspondence with p57 immunostaining. Additionally, SOX9-positive cells were found surrounding the calcified tissue. The epiphysis of SR11237-treated bones showed increased TRAP staining and additional TUNEL staining at the osteo-chondral junction. MicroCT revealed morphological disorganization in the long bones of the treated animals. This study suggests that stimulation of RXR causes irregular ossification, premature closure of the growth plate, and disrupted long bone growth in rodent models Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
Effect of Single Amino Acid Substitutions by Asn and Gln on Aggregation Properties of Bence-Jones Protein BIF
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5197; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205197 - 20 Oct 2019
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Abstract
The nature of renal amyloidosis involving Bence-Jones proteins in multiple myeloma is still unclear. The development of amyloidosis in neurodegenerative diseases is often associated with a high content of asparagine and glutamine residues in proteins forming amyloid deposits. To estimate the influence of [...] Read more.
The nature of renal amyloidosis involving Bence-Jones proteins in multiple myeloma is still unclear. The development of amyloidosis in neurodegenerative diseases is often associated with a high content of asparagine and glutamine residues in proteins forming amyloid deposits. To estimate the influence of Asn and Gln residues on the aggregation of Bence-Jones protein BIF, we obtained recombinant BIF and its mutants with the substitution of Tyr187→Asn (Y187N) in α-helix of CL domain, Lys170→Asn (K170N) and Ser157→Gln (S157Q) in CL domain loops, Arg109→Asn in VL-CL linker (R109N) and Asp29→Gln in VL domain loop (D29Q). The morphology of protein aggregates was studied at pH corresponding to the conditions in bloodstream (pH 7.2), distal (pH 6.5) and proximal renal tubules (pH 4.5) by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS). The Lys170→Asn replacement almost completely inhibits amyloidogenic activity. The Y187N forms fibril-like aggregates at all pH values. The Arg109→Asn replacement resulted in formation of fibril-like structures at pH 7.2 and 6.5 while the substitutions by Gln provoked formation of those structures only at pH 7.2. Therefore, the amyloidogenic properties are highly dependent on the location of Asn or Gln. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biophysics)
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Open AccessArticle
Inhibitory Effects of N-[2-(4-acetyl-1-piperazinyl) phenyl]-2-(2-chlorophenoxy) acetamide on Osteoclast Differentiation In Vitro via the Downregulation of TRAF6
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5196; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205196 - 20 Oct 2019
Viewed by 145
Abstract
Osteoclasts are poly-nuclear cells that resorb mineral components from old or damaged bone tissue. Primary mononuclear cells are activated by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL) and differentiate into large multinucleated cells. Dysregulation of osteoclast differentiation can lead to pathological bone [...] Read more.
Osteoclasts are poly-nuclear cells that resorb mineral components from old or damaged bone tissue. Primary mononuclear cells are activated by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL) and differentiate into large multinucleated cells. Dysregulation of osteoclast differentiation can lead to pathological bone loss and destruction. Many studies have focused on the development of new molecules to regulate RANKL-mediated signaling. In this study, N-[2-(4-acetyl-1-piperazinyl)phenyl]-2-(2-chlorophenoxy) acetamide (PPOA-N-Ac-2-Cl) led to a significant decrease in the formation of multinucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells in a dose-dependent manner, without inducing significant cytotoxicity. PPOA-N-Ac-2-Cl affected the expression of osteoclast-specific marker genes, such as TRAF6, c-fos, DC-STAMP, NFATc1, MMP9, CtsK, and TRAP (Acp5), during RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, PPOA-N-Ac-2-Cl significantly attenuated the protein levels of CtsK, a critical protease involved in bone resorption. Accordingly, bone resorption activity and F-actin ring formation decreased in the presence of PPOA-N-Ac-2-Cl. In conclusion, this study shows that PPOA-N-Ac-2-Cl acts as an inhibitor of osteoclast differentiation and may serve as a potential candidate agent for the treatment of osteoclast-related bone diseases by virtue of attenuating bone resorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms Regulating Osteoclastogenesis)
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Open AccessReview
Atherosclerosis and Coenzyme Q10
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5195; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205195 - 20 Oct 2019
Viewed by 152
Abstract
Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of cardiac deaths worldwide. Classically, atherosclerosis has been explained as a simple arterial lipid deposition with concomitant loss of vascular elasticity. Eventually, this condition can lead to consequent blood flow reduction through the affected vessel. However, numerous [...] Read more.
Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of cardiac deaths worldwide. Classically, atherosclerosis has been explained as a simple arterial lipid deposition with concomitant loss of vascular elasticity. Eventually, this condition can lead to consequent blood flow reduction through the affected vessel. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that more factors than lipid accumulation are involved in arterial damage at the cellular level, such as inflammation, autophagy impairment, mitochondrial dysfunction, and/or free-radical overproduction. In order to consider the correction of all of these pathological changes, new approaches in atherosclerosis treatment are necessary. Ubiquinone or coenzyme Q10 is a multifunctional molecule that could theoretically revert most of the cellular alterations found in atherosclerosis, such as cholesterol biosynthesis dysregulation, impaired autophagy flux and mitochondrial dysfunction thanks to its redox and signaling properties. In this review, we will show the latest advances in the knowledge of the relationships between coenzyme Q10 and atherosclerosis. In addition, as atherosclerosis phenotype is closely related to aging, it is reasonable to believe that coenzyme Q10 supplementation could be beneficial for both conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Metabolism 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Loss of Tumor Suppressor CYLD Expression Triggers Cisplatin Resistance in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5194; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205194 - 20 Oct 2019
Viewed by 150
Abstract
Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents commonly used for several malignancies including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Although cisplatin resistance is a major obstacle to effective treatment and is associated with poor prognosis of OSCC patients, the molecular mechanisms by [...] Read more.
Cisplatin is one of the most effective chemotherapeutic agents commonly used for several malignancies including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Although cisplatin resistance is a major obstacle to effective treatment and is associated with poor prognosis of OSCC patients, the molecular mechanisms by which it develops are largely unknown. Cylindromatosis (CYLD), a deubiquitinating enzyme, acts as a tumor suppressor in several malignancies. Our previous studies have shown that loss of CYLD expression in OSCC tissues is significantly associated with poor prognosis of OSCC patients. Here, we focused on CYLD expression in OSCC cells and determined whether loss of CYLD expression is involved in cisplatin resistance in OSCC and elucidated its molecular mechanism. In this study, to assess the effect of CYLD down-regulation on cisplatin resistance in human OSCC cell lines (SAS), we knocked-down the CYLD expression by using CYLD-specific siRNA. In cisplatin treatment, cell survival rates in CYLD knockdown SAS cells were significantly increased, indicating that CYLD down-regulation caused cisplatin resistance to SAS cells. Our results suggested that cisplatin resistance caused by CYLD down-regulation was associated with the mechanism through which both the reduction of intracellular cisplatin accumulation and the suppression of cisplatin-induced apoptosis via the NF-κB hyperactivation. Moreover, the combination of cisplatin and bortezomib treatment exhibited significant anti-tumor effects on cisplatin resistance caused by CYLD down-regulation in SAS cells. These findings suggest the possibility that loss of CYLD expression may cause cisplatin resistance in OSCC patients through NF-κB hyperactivation and may be associated with poor prognosis in OSCC patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Mechanisms and Biomarkers in Drug-Induced Organ Injury)
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Open AccessArticle
N-Glycosylation of TREK-1/hK2P2.1 Two-Pore-Domain Potassium (K2P) Channels
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5193; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205193 - 20 Oct 2019
Viewed by 105
Abstract
Mechanosensitive hTREK-1 two-pore-domain potassium (hK2P2.1) channels give rise to background currents that control cellular excitability. Recently, TREK-1 currents have been linked to the regulation of cardiac rhythm as well as to hypertrophy and fibrosis. Even though the pharmacological and biophysical characteristics [...] Read more.
Mechanosensitive hTREK-1 two-pore-domain potassium (hK2P2.1) channels give rise to background currents that control cellular excitability. Recently, TREK-1 currents have been linked to the regulation of cardiac rhythm as well as to hypertrophy and fibrosis. Even though the pharmacological and biophysical characteristics of hTREK-1 channels have been widely studied, relatively little is known about their posttranslational modifications. This study aimed to evaluate whether hTREK-1 channels are N-glycosylated and whether glycosylation may affect channel functionality. Following pharmacological inhibition of N-glycosylation, enzymatic digestion or mutagenesis, immunoblots of Xenopus laevis oocytes and HEK-293T cell lysates were used to assess electrophoretic mobility. Two-electrode voltage clamp measurements were employed to study channel function. TREK-1 channel subunits undergo N-glycosylation at asparagine residues 110 and 134. The presence of sugar moieties at these two sites increases channel function. Detection of glycosylation-deficient mutant channels in surface fractions and recordings of macroscopic potassium currents mediated by these subunits demonstrated that nonglycosylated hTREK-1 channel subunits are able to reach the cell surface in general but with seemingly reduced efficiency compared to glycosylated subunits. These findings extend our understanding of the regulation of hTREK-1 currents by posttranslational modifications and provide novel insights into how altered ion channel glycosylation may promote arrhythmogenesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessArticle
A Genome-Centric Approach Reveals a Novel Glycosyltransferase from the GA A07 Strain of Bacillus thuringiensis Responsible for Catalyzing 15-O-Glycosylation of Ganoderic Acid A
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5192; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205192 - 20 Oct 2019
Viewed by 146
Abstract
Strain GA A07 was identified as an intestinal Bacillus bacterium of zebrafish, which has high efficiency to biotransform the triterpenoid, ganoderic acid A (GAA), into GAA-15-O-β-glucoside. To date, only two known enzymes (BsUGT398 and BsUGT489) of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 strain [...] Read more.
Strain GA A07 was identified as an intestinal Bacillus bacterium of zebrafish, which has high efficiency to biotransform the triterpenoid, ganoderic acid A (GAA), into GAA-15-O-β-glucoside. To date, only two known enzymes (BsUGT398 and BsUGT489) of Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 strain can biotransform GAA. It is thus worthwhile to identify the responsible genes of strain GA A07 by whole genome sequencing. A complete genome of strain GA A07 was successfully assembled. A phylogenomic analysis revealed the species of the GA A07 strain to be Bacillus thuringiensis. Forty glycosyltransferase (GT) family genes were identified from the complete genome, among which three genes (FQZ25_16345, FQZ25_19840, and FQZ25_19010) were closely related to BsUGT398 and BsUGT489. Two of the three candidate genes, FQZ25_16345 and FQZ25_19010, were successfully cloned and expressed in a soluble form in Escherichia coli, and the corresponding proteins, BtGT_16345 and BtGT_19010, were purified for a biotransformation activity assay. An ultra-performance liquid chromatographic analysis further confirmed that only the purified BtGT_16345 had the key biotransformation activity of catalyzing GAA into GAA-15-O-β-glucoside. The suitable conditions for this enzyme activity were pH 7.5, 10 mM of magnesium ions, and 30 °C. In addition, BtGT_16345 showed glycosylation activity toward seven flavonoids (apigenein, quercetein, naringenein, resveratrol, genistein, daidzein, and 8-hydroxydaidzein) and two triterpenoids (GAA and antcin K). A kinetic study showed that the catalytic efficiency (kcat/KM) of BtGT_16345 was not significantly different compared with either BsUGT398 or BsUGT489. In short, this study identified BtGT_16345 from B. thuringiensis GA A07 is the catalytic enzyme responsible for the 15-O-glycosylation of GAA and it was also regioselective toward triterpenoid substrates. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
In Silico and In Vitro Assessment of Portuguese Oyster (Crassostrea angulata) Proteins as Precursor of Bioactive Peptides
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5191; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205191 - 20 Oct 2019
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Abstract
In this study, the potential bioactivities of Portuguese oyster (Crassostrea angulata) proteins were predicted through in silico analyses and confirmed by in vitro tests. C. angulata proteins were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and identified by proteomics [...] Read more.
In this study, the potential bioactivities of Portuguese oyster (Crassostrea angulata) proteins were predicted through in silico analyses and confirmed by in vitro tests. C. angulata proteins were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and identified by proteomics techniques. Hydrolysis simulation by BIOPEP-UWM database revealed that pepsin (pH > 2) can theoretically release greatest amount of bioactive peptides from C. angulata proteins, predominantly angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitory peptides, followed by stem bromelain and papain. Hydrolysates produced by pepsin, bromelain and papain have shown ACE and DPP-IV inhibitory activities in vitro, with pepsin hydrolysate (PEH) having the strongest activity of 78.18% and 44.34% at 2 mg/mL, respectively. Bioactivity assays of PEH fractions showed that low molecular weight (MW) fractions possessed stronger inhibitory activity than crude hydrolysate. Overall, in vitro analysis results corresponded with in silico predictions. Current findings suggest that in silico analysis is a rapid method to predict bioactive peptides in food proteins and determine suitable enzymes for hydrolysis. Moreover, C. angulata proteins can be a potential source of peptides with pharmaceutical and nutraceutical application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Peptides for Health Benefits 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Functional Prediction of Candidate MicroRNAs for CRC Management Using in Silico Approach
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5190; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205190 - 19 Oct 2019
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Abstract
Approximately 30–50% of malignant growths can be prevented by avoiding risk factors and implementing evidence-based strategies. Colorectal cancer (CRC) accounted for the second most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide. This cancer subtype can be reduced by [...] Read more.
Approximately 30–50% of malignant growths can be prevented by avoiding risk factors and implementing evidence-based strategies. Colorectal cancer (CRC) accounted for the second most common cancer and the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide. This cancer subtype can be reduced by early detection and patients’ management. In this study, the functional roles of the identified microRNAs were determined using an in silico pipeline. Five microRNAs identified using an in silico approach alongside their seven target genes from our previous study were used as datasets in this study. Furthermore, the secondary structure and the thermodynamic energies of the microRNAs were revealed by Mfold algorithm. The triplex binding ability of the oligonucleotide with the target promoters were analyzed by Trident. Finally, evolutionary stage-specific somatic events and co-expression analysis of the target genes in CRC were analyzed by SEECancer and GeneMANIA plugin in Cytoscape. Four of the five microRNAs have the potential to form more than one secondary structure. The ranges of the observed/expected ratio of CpG dinucleotides of these genes range from 0.60 to 1.22. Three of the candidate microRNA were capable of forming multiple triplexes along with three of the target mRNAs. Four of the total targets were involved in either early or metastatic stage-specific events while three other genes were either a product of antecedent or subsequent events of the four genes implicated in CRC. The secondary structure of the candidate microRNAs can be used to explain the different degrees of genetic regulation in CRC due to their conformational role to modulate target interaction. Furthermore, due to the regulation of important genes in the CRC pathway and the enrichment of the microRNA with triplex binding sites, they may be a useful diagnostic biomarker for the disease subtype. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Non-Coding RNA Biogenesis and Function)
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