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Special Issue "Matrix Metalloproteinase"

A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Biochemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2019).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Magnus S. Ågren
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Dermatology and Copenhagen Wound Healing Center, Bispebjerg Hospital, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
Interests: zinc; wound healing; skin; MMP; wound healing modeling; gastrointestinal
Prof. Dr. Ulrich Auf dem Keller
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biotechnology and Biomedicine, Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby, Denmark
Interests: proteins; biochemistry; inflammation; enzymes; bioinformatics; cancer research; proteomics; wound healing; skin; dermatology; proteome; matrix metalloproteinase; proteolysis; protease inhibitors; proteases

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Metalloproteinases (metzincins) comprise zinc-dependent exopeptidases and endopeptidases. MMPs (matrix metalloproteinases), ADAMs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase domain), ADAMTSs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase thrombospondin domain), astacins (including meprins), and neprilysins are metalloendopeptidases. Metalloproteinases play fundamental roles in extracellular matrix remodeling, and cytokine/growth factor release and processing. They are involved in physiological and pathophysiological processes throughout life. We warmly welcome contributions on the molecular aspects of these enzymes, as well as their preclinical and clinical relations to innate immunity, infection, and tissue repair.

Prof. Dr. Magnus S. Ågren
Prof. Dr. Ulrich auf dem Keller
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • metalloproteinases
  • inflammation
  • wound healing
  • cytokines
  • collagen
  • connective tissue
  • microbiota
  • skin

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Matrix Metalloproteinase-3 is Key Effector of TNF-α-Induced Collagen Degradation in Skin
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205234 - 22 Oct 2019
Abstract
Inflammatory processes in the skin augment collagen degradation due to the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The aim of the present project was to study the specific impact of MMP-3 on collagen loss in skin and its interplay with the collagenase MMP-13 under [...] Read more.
Inflammatory processes in the skin augment collagen degradation due to the up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). The aim of the present project was to study the specific impact of MMP-3 on collagen loss in skin and its interplay with the collagenase MMP-13 under inflammatory conditions mimicked by the addition of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Skin explants from MMP-3 knock-out (KO) mice or from transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing MMP-3 in the skin and their respective wild-type counterparts (WT and WTT) were incubated ex vivo for eight days. The rate of collagen degradation, measured by released hydroxyproline, was reduced (p < 0.001) in KO skin explants compared to WT control skin but did not differ (p = 0.47) between TG and WTT skin. Treatment with the MMP inhibitor GM6001 reduced hydroxyproline media levels from WT, WTT and TG but not from KO skin explants. TNF-α increased collagen degradation in the WT group (p = 0.0001) only. More of the active form of MMP-13 was observed in the three MMP-3 expressing groups (co-incubation with receptor-associated protein stabilized MMP-13 subforms and enhanced detection in the media). In summary, the innate level of MMP-3 seems responsible for the accelerated loss of cutaneous collagen under inflammatory conditions, possibly via MMP-13 in mice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Metalloproteinase)
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Open AccessArticle
Isolation of a Novel Metalloproteinase from Agkistrodon Venom and Its Antithrombotic Activity Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(17), 4088; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20174088 - 21 Aug 2019
Abstract
Snake venom contains large amounts of active proteins and peptides. In this study, a novel snake protein, metalloproteinase SP, was successfully isolated from the venom of Agkistrodon acutus by multi-gel chromatography. The isolated protein exhibits anti-platelet aggregation activity. Animal experiments showed that it [...] Read more.
Snake venom contains large amounts of active proteins and peptides. In this study, a novel snake protein, metalloproteinase SP, was successfully isolated from the venom of Agkistrodon acutus by multi-gel chromatography. The isolated protein exhibits anti-platelet aggregation activity. Animal experiments showed that it exhibited defibration, anticoagulation, and antithrombotic effects and contributes to improved blood rheology and antiplatelet aggregation. In vivo experiments demonstrated that it prolonged clotting time, partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen time and reduced fibrinogen content of mice. Also, metalloproteinase SP inhibited carrageenan-induced tail thrombosis, ADP-induced acute pulmonary embolism, and ADP, Arachidonic acid (AA), or collagen-induced platelet aggregation. In vitro experiments showed that the protein cleaved the α, β, and γ chains of fibrinogen. Metabolomic analysis upon metalloproteinase SP treatment revealed that 14 metabolites, which are mainly involved in phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan biosynthesis, responded to metalloproteinase SP treatment. In summary, the isolated snake venom protein inhibits formation of acute pulmonary embolism probably through regulating and restoring perturbed energy, lipid, and amino acid metabolism. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Metalloproteinase)
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Open AccessArticle
Differences in Shedding of the Interleukin-11 Receptor by the Proteases ADAM9, ADAM10, ADAM17, Meprin α, Meprin β and MT1-MMP
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(15), 3677; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20153677 - 26 Jul 2019
Abstract
Interleukin-11 (IL-11) has been associated with inflammatory conditions, bone homeostasis, hematopoiesis, and fertility. So far, these functions have been linked to classical IL-11 signaling via the membrane bound receptor (IL-11R). However, a signaling cascade via the soluble IL-11R (sIL-11R), generated by proteolytic cleavage, [...] Read more.
Interleukin-11 (IL-11) has been associated with inflammatory conditions, bone homeostasis, hematopoiesis, and fertility. So far, these functions have been linked to classical IL-11 signaling via the membrane bound receptor (IL-11R). However, a signaling cascade via the soluble IL-11R (sIL-11R), generated by proteolytic cleavage, can also be induced. This process is called IL-11 trans-signaling. A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) and neutrophil elastase were described as ectodomain sheddases of the IL-11R, thereby inducing trans-signaling. Furthermore, previous studies employing approaches for the stimulation and inhibition of endogenous ADAM-proteases indicated that ADAM10, but not ADAM17, can cleave the IL-11R. Herein, we show that several metalloproteases, namely ADAM9, ADAM10, ADAM17, meprin β, and membrane-type 1 matrix metalloprotease/matrix metalloprotease-14 (MT1-MMP/MMP-14) when overexpressed are able to shed the IL-11R. All sIL-11R ectodomains were biologically active and capable of inducing signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation in target cells. The difference observed for ADAM10/17 specificity compared to previous studies can be explained by the different approaches used, such as stimulation of protease activity or making use of cells with genetically deleted enzymes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Metalloproteinase)
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Open AccessArticle
Identification of ADAM12 as a Novel Basigin Sheddase
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(8), 1957; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20081957 - 22 Apr 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
The transmembrane glycoprotein basigin, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, stimulates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-mediated extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and thereby drives cancer cell invasion. Basigin is proteolytically shed from the cell surface and high concentrations of soluble basigin in the blood dictates poor [...] Read more.
The transmembrane glycoprotein basigin, a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, stimulates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-mediated extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation and thereby drives cancer cell invasion. Basigin is proteolytically shed from the cell surface and high concentrations of soluble basigin in the blood dictates poor prognosis in cancer patients. A positive correlation between basigin and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM)-12 in serum from prostate cancer patients has been reported. Yet, the functional relevance of this correlation is unknown. Here, we show that ADAM12 interacts with basigin and cleaves it in the juxtamembrane region. Specifically, overexpression of ADAM12 increases ectodomain shedding of an alkaline phosphatase-tagged basigin reporter protein from the cell surface. Moreover, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated knockout of ADAM12 in human HeLa carcinoma cells results in reduced shedding of the basigin reporter, which can be rescued by ADAM12 re-expression. We detected endogenous basigin fragments, corresponding to the expected size of the ADAM12-generated ectodomain, in conditioned media from ADAM12 expressing cancer cell-lines, as well as serum samples from a healthy pregnant donor and five bladder cancer patients, known to contain high ADAM12 levels. Supporting the cancer relevance of our findings, we identified several cancer-associated mutations in the basigin membrane proximal region. Subsequent in vitro expression showed that some of these mutants are more prone to ADAM12-mediated shedding and that the shed ectodomain can enhance gelatin degradation by cancer cells. In conclusion, we identified ADAM12 as a novel basigin sheddase with a potential implication in cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Metalloproteinase)
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Open AccessArticle
Cellular and Molecular Effects of High-Molecular-Weight Heparin on Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Expression
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(7), 1595; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20071595 - 30 Mar 2019
Abstract
Blood sampling with different anticoagulants alters matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-) 9 expression, thus influencing its concentration and diagnostic validity. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of different anticoagulants on MMP-9 regulation. MMP-9 expression was assessed in response to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, citrate, and high-/low-molecular-weight [...] Read more.
Blood sampling with different anticoagulants alters matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-) 9 expression, thus influencing its concentration and diagnostic validity. Here, we aimed to evaluate the effects of different anticoagulants on MMP-9 regulation. MMP-9 expression was assessed in response to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, citrate, and high-/low-molecular-weight heparin (HMWH, LMWH) in co-culture experiments using THP-1, Jurkat, and HT cells (representing monocytes, T, and B cells). Triple and double cell line co-culture experiments revealed that HMWH treatment of THP-1 and Jurkat led to a significant MMP-9 induction, whereas other anticoagulants and cell type combinations had no effect. Supernatant of HMWH-treated Jurkat cells also induced MMP-9 in THP-1 suggesting monocytes as MMP-9 producers. HMWH-induced cytokine/chemokine secretion was assessed in co-culture supernatant, and the influence of cytokines/chemokines on MMP-9 production was analyzed. These experiments revealed that Jurkat-derived IL-16 and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (sICAM-) 1 are able to induce MMP-9 and IL-8 production by THP-1. As a consequence, the increased MMP-9 expression found in HMWH blood samples may be influenced by HMWH-dependent secretion of IL-16 and sICAM-1 by T cells resulting in an increased production of MMP-9 and IL-8 by monocytes. IL-8, in turn, may support MMP-9 and its own expression in a positive autocrine feedback loop. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Metalloproteinase)
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Open AccessArticle
Metalloproteinases TACE and MMP-9 Differentially Regulate Death Factors on Adult and Neonatal Monocytes After Infection with Escherichia coli
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1399; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061399 - 20 Mar 2019
Abstract
Background: Cleaving ligands and receptors of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily can critically regulate the induction of apoptosis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP-9 and tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme (TACE) have been shown to cleave CD95-Ligand (CD95L) and TNF/(TNF receptor-1) TNFR1 which [...] Read more.
Background: Cleaving ligands and receptors of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily can critically regulate the induction of apoptosis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) such as MMP-9 and tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme (TACE) have been shown to cleave CD95-Ligand (CD95L) and TNF/(TNF receptor-1) TNFR1 which induce phagocytosis induced cell death (PICD) in adult monocytes. This process is reduced in neonatal monocytes. Methods: Here we tested in vitro, whether Escherichia coli infection mounts for activation of MMP-9 and TACE in monocytes and whether this process regulates PICD. Results: The surface expression of TACE was most prominent on infected adult monocytes. In contrast, surface presentation of MMP-9 was highest on infected neonatal monocytes. Selective blocking of MMP-9 decreased CD95L secretion, while inhibition of TACE left CD95L secretion unaltered. Blocking of MMP-9 increased surface CD95L (memCD95L) expression on infected neonatal monocytes to levels comparable to infected adult monocytes. Moreover, MMP-9 inhibition raised PICD of infected neonatal monocytes to levels observed for infected adult monocytes. In contrast, TACE inhibition decreased PICD in infected monocytes. Addition of extracellular TNF effectively induced memCD95L presentation and PICD of adult monocytes and less of neonatal monocytes. Conclusion: MMP-9 activity is crucial for downregulating cell-contact dependent PICD in E. coli infected neonatal monocytes. By this mechanism, MMP-9 could contribute to reducing sustained inflammation in neonates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Metalloproteinase)
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Open AccessArticle
Biomarker Analysis of Orally Dosed, Dual Active, Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 Inhibitor, AQU-118, in the Spinal Nerve Ligation (SNL) Rat Model of Neuropathic Pain
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(4), 811; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040811 - 14 Feb 2019
Abstract
There is an unmet medical need for the development of non-addicting pain therapeutics with enhanced efficacy and tolerability. The current study examined the effects of AQU-118, an orally active inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, in the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) rat model [...] Read more.
There is an unmet medical need for the development of non-addicting pain therapeutics with enhanced efficacy and tolerability. The current study examined the effects of AQU-118, an orally active inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9, in the spinal nerve ligation (SNL) rat model of neuropathic pain. Mechanical allodynia and the levels of various biomarkers were examined within the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) before and after oral dosing with AQU-118. The rats that received the SNL surgery exhibited significant mechanical allodynia as compared to sham controls. Animals received either vehicle, positive control (gabapentin), or AQU-118. After SNL surgery, the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) of those rats dosed with vehicle had elevated messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels for MMP-2, IL1-β & IL-6 and elevated protein levels for caspase-3 while exhibiting decreased protein levels for myelin basic protein (MBP) & active IL-β as compared to sham controls. Rats orally dosed with AQU-118 exhibited significantly reduced mechanical allodynia and decreased levels of caspase-3 in the DRG as compared to vehicle controls. Results demonstrate that oral dosing with the dual active, MMP-2/-9 inhibitor, AQU-118, attenuated mechanical allodynia while at the same time significantly reduced the levels of caspase-3 in the DRG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Metalloproteinase)
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Open AccessArticle
ADAMTS-9 in Mouse Cartilage Has Aggrecanase Activity That Is Distinct from ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(3), 573; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20030573 - 29 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)-4 and ADAMTS-5 are the principal aggrecanases in mice and humans; however, mice lacking the catalytic domain of both enzymes (TS-4/5∆cat) have no skeletal phenotype, suggesting there is an alternative aggrecanase for modulating normal growth and [...] Read more.
A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS)-4 and ADAMTS-5 are the principal aggrecanases in mice and humans; however, mice lacking the catalytic domain of both enzymes (TS-4/5∆cat) have no skeletal phenotype, suggesting there is an alternative aggrecanase for modulating normal growth and development in these mice. We previously identified aggrecanase activity that (a) cleaved at E↓G rather than E↓A bonds in the aggrecan core protein, and (b) was upregulated by retinoic acid but not IL-1α. The present study aimed to identify the alternative aggrecanase. Femoral head cartilage explants from TS-4/5∆cat mice were stimulated with IL-1α or retinoic acid and total RNA was analysed by microarray. In addition to ADAMTS-5 and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13, which are not candidates for the novel aggrecanase, the microarray analyses identified MMP-11, calpain-5 and ADAMTS-9 as candidate aggrecanases upregulated by retinoic acid. When calpain-5 and MMP-11 failed to meet subsequent criteria, ADAMTS-9 emerged as the most likely candidate for the novel aggrecanase. Immunohistochemistry revealed ADAMTS-9 expression throughout the mouse growth plate and strong expression, particularly in the proliferative zone of the TS-4/5-∆cat mice. In conclusion, ADAMTS-9 has a novel specificity for aggrecan, cleaving primarily at E↓G rather than E↓A bonds in mouse cartilage. ADAMTS-9 might have more important roles in normal skeletal development compared with ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5, which have key roles in joint pathology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Metalloproteinase)
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Open AccessArticle
Stimulation of Peritoneal Mesothelial Cells to Secrete Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) by TNF-α: A Role in the Invasion of Gastric Carcinoma Cells
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3961; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123961 - 09 Dec 2018
Cited by 4
Abstract
It has recently been recognized that inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), upregulate the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) from cancer cells and thereby promote peritoneal dissemination. In this study, we found that TNF-α also stimulated peritoneal mesothelial cells to secrete [...] Read more.
It has recently been recognized that inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), upregulate the secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) from cancer cells and thereby promote peritoneal dissemination. In this study, we found that TNF-α also stimulated peritoneal mesothelial cells to secrete MMP-9 as assessed by zymography. MMP-9 gene expression in mesothelial cells induced by TNF-α was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis. We then utilized the reconstituted artificial mesothelium, which was composed of a monolayer of mesothelial cells cultured on a Matrigel layer in a Boyden chamber system, to examine the effects of TNF-α on carcinoma cell invasion. The transmigration of MKN1 human gastric carcinoma cells through the reconstituted mesothelium was promoted by TNF-α in a dose-dependent manner. The increased MKN1 cell migration was partially inhibited by the anti-α3 integrin antibody, indicating that the invasion process involves an integrin-dependent mechanism. Finally, we observed that the invasion of MMP-9-knockdown MKN1 cells into Matrigel membranes was potentiated by the exogenous addition of purified proMMP-9. These results suggest that TNF-α-induced MMP-9 secretion from mesothelial cells plays an important role in the metastatic dissemination of gastric cancer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Metalloproteinase)
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Open AccessArticle
Matrix Metalloproteinase Response of Dendritic Cell, Gingival Epithelial Keratinocyte, and T-Cell Transwell Co-Cultures Treated with Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemagglutinin-B
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19(12), 3923; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms19123923 - 07 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes involved in periodontal tissue destruction. Hemagglutinin B (HagB) from the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis induces an elevated MMP response in dendritic cells, but responses from cultures of single-cell types do not reflect the local tissue environment. The objective [...] Read more.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes involved in periodontal tissue destruction. Hemagglutinin B (HagB) from the periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis induces an elevated MMP response in dendritic cells, but responses from cultures of single-cell types do not reflect the local tissue environment. The objective of this study was to measure HagB-induced MMP responses in a transwell co-culture system containing dendritic cells, gingival epithelial (GE) keratinocytes, and CD4+ T-cells. Transwell co-cultures were assembled and treated with or without HagB. Immunoassays were used to determine production of MMP1, MMP7, MMP9, and MMP12 in response to HagB up to 64 h. Control responses were subtracted from HagB-induced responses. A two-way fixed effect ANOVA was fit to log-transformed concentrations and pairwise group comparisons were conducted (p < 0.05). At 64 h, dendritic cells produced elevated MMP1 and MMP9 responses, which were attenuated in the 3-cell co-culture (p < 0.05). There were also significant differences in MMP7 and MMP12 production between single-cell cultures and co-cultures. These results support the need to use multiple cell types in culture models to evaluate a more representative response to proinflammatory agonists. This three-cell transwell co-culture model may help us better understand the inflammatory process in periodontal disease and test novel therapeutic approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Metalloproteinase)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Matrix Metalloproteases as Influencers of the Cells’ Social Media
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(16), 3847; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20163847 - 07 Aug 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been studied in the context of cancer due to their ability to increase cell invasion, and were initially thought to facilitate metastasis solely through the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM). MMPs have also been investigated in the context [...] Read more.
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been studied in the context of cancer due to their ability to increase cell invasion, and were initially thought to facilitate metastasis solely through the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM). MMPs have also been investigated in the context of their ECM remodeling activity in several acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. However, after several MMP inhibitors failed in phase III clinical trials, a global reassessment of their biological functions was undertaken, which has revealed multiple unanticipated functions including the processing of chemokines, cytokines, and cell surface receptors. Despite what their name suggests, the matrix aspect of MMPs could contribute to a lesser part of their physiological functions in inflammatory diseases, as originally anticipated. Here, we present examples of MMP substrates implicated in cell signaling, independent of their ECM functions, and discuss the impact for the use of MMP inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Metalloproteinase)
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Open AccessReview
Post-Translational Modification-Dependent Activity of Matrix Metalloproteinases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(12), 3077; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20123077 - 24 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
Due to their capacity to process different proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were initially described as a family of secreted proteases, functioning as main ECM regulators. However, through proteolytic processing of various biomolecules, MMPs also modulate intra- and extracellular [...] Read more.
Due to their capacity to process different proteins of the extracellular matrix (ECM), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were initially described as a family of secreted proteases, functioning as main ECM regulators. However, through proteolytic processing of various biomolecules, MMPs also modulate intra- and extracellular pathways and networks. Thereby, they are functionally implicated in the regulation of multiple physiological and pathological processes. Consequently, MMP activity is tightly regulated through a combination of epigenetic, transcriptional, and post-transcriptional control of gene expression, proteolytic activation, post-translational modifications (PTMs), and extracellular inhibition. In addition, MMPs, their substrates and ECM binding partners are frequently modified by PTMs, which suggests an important role of PTMs in modulating the pleiotropic activities of these proteases. This review summarizes the recent progress towards understanding the role of PTMs (glycosylation, phosphorylation, glycosaminoglycans) on the activity of several members of the MMP family. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Metalloproteinase)
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Open AccessReview
Matrix Metalloproteinases in Pulmonary and Central Nervous System Tuberculosis—A Review
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(6), 1350; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20061350 - 18 Mar 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) remains the single biggest infectious cause of death globally, claiming almost two million lives and causing disease in over 10 million individuals annually. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes with various physiological roles implicated as key factors contributing [...] Read more.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains the single biggest infectious cause of death globally, claiming almost two million lives and causing disease in over 10 million individuals annually. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes with various physiological roles implicated as key factors contributing to the spread of TB. They are involved in the breakdown of lung extracellular matrix and the consequent release of Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli into the airways. Evidence demonstrates that MMPs also play a role in central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis, as they contribute to the breakdown of the blood brain barrier and are associated with poor outcome in adults with tuberculous meningitis (TBM). However, in pediatric TBM, data indicate that MMPs may play a role in both pathology and recovery of the developing brain. MMPs also have a significant role in HIV-TB-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in the lungs and the brain, and their modulation offers potential novel therapeutic avenues. This is a review of recent research on MMPs in pulmonary and CNS TB in adults and children and in the context of co-infection with HIV. We summarize different methods of MMP investigation and discuss the translational implications of MMP inhibition to reduce immunopathology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Metalloproteinase)
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Open AccessReview
MT4-MMP: The GPI-Anchored Membrane-Type Matrix Metalloprotease with Multiple Functions in Diseases
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(2), 354; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20020354 - 16 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
MT4-MMP (or MMP17) belongs to the Membrane-Type Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT-MMP) family. This family of proteases contributes to extracellular matrix remodeling during several physiological processes, including embryogenesis, organogenesis, tissue regeneration, angiogenesis, wound healing, and inflammation. MT4-MMP (MMP17) presents unique characteristics compared to other members [...] Read more.
MT4-MMP (or MMP17) belongs to the Membrane-Type Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT-MMP) family. This family of proteases contributes to extracellular matrix remodeling during several physiological processes, including embryogenesis, organogenesis, tissue regeneration, angiogenesis, wound healing, and inflammation. MT4-MMP (MMP17) presents unique characteristics compared to other members of the family in terms of sequence homology, substrate specificity, and internalization mode, suggesting distinct physiological and pathological functions. While the physiological functions of MT4-MMP are poorly understood, it has been involved in different pathological processes such as arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer progression. The mt4-mmp transcript has been detected in a large diversity of cancers. The contribution of MT4-MMP to tumor development has been further investigated in gastric cancer, colon cancer, head and neck cancer, and more deeply in breast cancer. Given its contribution to different pathologies, particularly cancers, MT4-MMP represents an interesting therapeutic target. In this review, we examine its biological and structural properties, and we propose an overview of its physiological and pathological functions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Matrix Metalloproteinase)
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