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Open AccessArticle

Genome-Wide Identification, Classification, and Expression Analysis of the Hsf Gene Family in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus)

by Wei Li 1,†, Xue-Li Wan 1,†, Jia-Yu Yu 1, Kui-Ling Wang 1,* and Jin Zhang 2,3,*
College of Landscape Architecture and Forestry, Qingdao Agricultural University, Qingdao 266000, China
State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Key Laboratory of Tree Breeding and Cultivation of the National Forestry and Grassland Administration, Research Institute of Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China
Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5233;
Received: 21 September 2019 / Revised: 16 October 2019 / Accepted: 18 October 2019 / Published: 22 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mapping Abiotic Stress-Tolerance Genes in Plants)
Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs) are a class of important transcription factors (TFs) which play crucial roles in the protection of plants from damages caused by various abiotic stresses. The present study aimed to characterize the Hsf genes in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus), which is one of the four largest cut flowers worldwide. In this study, a total of 17 non-redundant Hsf genes were identified from the D. caryophyllus genome. Specifically, the gene structure and motifs of each DcaHsf were comprehensively analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the DcaHsf family distinctly separated nine class A, seven class B, and one class C Hsf genes. Additionally, promoter analysis indicated that the DcaHsf promoters included various cis-acting elements that were related to stress, hormones, as well as development processes. In addition, cis-elements, such as STRE, MYB, and ABRE binding sites, were identified in the promoters of most DcaHsf genes. According to qRT-PCR data, the expression of DcaHsfs varied in eight tissues and six flowering stages and among different DcaHsfs, even in the same class. Moreover, DcaHsf-A1, A2a, A9a, B2a, B3a revealed their putative involvement in the early flowering stages. The time-course expression profile of DcaHsf during stress responses illustrated that all the DcaHsfs were heat- and drought-responsive, and almost all DcaHsfs were down-regulated by cold, salt, and abscisic acid (ABA) stress. Meanwhile, DcaHsf-A3, A7, A9a, A9b, B3a were primarily up-regulated at an early stage in response to salicylic acid (SA). This study provides an overview of the Hsf gene family in D. caryophyllus and a basis for the breeding of stress-resistant carnation. View Full-Text
Keywords: heat shock factor; Dianthus caryophyllus; abiotic stresses; gene expression heat shock factor; Dianthus caryophyllus; abiotic stresses; gene expression
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Li, W.; Wan, X.-L.; Yu, J.-Y.; Wang, K.-L.; Zhang, J. Genome-Wide Identification, Classification, and Expression Analysis of the Hsf Gene Family in Carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus). Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5233.

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