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Open AccessArticle

The Detection of CMV in Saliva Can Mark a Systemic Infection with CMV in Renal Transplant Recipients

1
School of Biomedical Science, Curtin University, Bentley 6102, Australia
2
Department of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, Pathwest Laboratory Medicine, Murdoch 6150, Australia
3
School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup 6027, Australia
4
School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Nedlands 6009, Australia
5
Renal Unit, Fiona Stanley Hospital, Murdoch 6150, Australia
6
School of Medicine and Pharmacology, University of Western Australia, Nedlands 6009, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(20), 5230; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20205230
Received: 3 September 2019 / Revised: 17 October 2019 / Accepted: 18 October 2019 / Published: 22 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Immunology)
Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is often transmitted through saliva. The salivary gland is a site of CMV replication and saliva can be used to diagnose congenital CMV infections. CMV replication is monitored in whole blood or plasma in renal transplant recipients (RTR) and associates with clinical disease. However, these assays may not detect replication in the salivary gland and there is little data linking detection in saliva with systemic infection and clinical sequelae. RTR (n = 82) were recruited > 2 years after transplantation. An in-house quantitative PCR assay was used to detect CMV UL54 in saliva samples. CMV DNA was sought in plasma using a commercial assay. Vascular health was predicted using flow mediated dilatation (FMD) and plasma biomarkers. CMV-reactive antibodies were quantified by ELISA and circulating CMV-specific T-cells by an interferon-γ ELISpot assay. Vδ2 γδ T-cells were detected using multicolor flow cytometry reflecting population expansion after CMV infection. The presence of CMV DNA in saliva and plasma associated with plasma levels of antibodies reactive with CMV gB and with populations of circulating Vδ2 γδ T -cells (p < 0.01). T-cells reactive to CMV immediate early (IE)-1 protein were generally lower in patients with CMV DNA in saliva or plasma, but the level of significance varied (p = 0.02–0.16). Additionally, CMV DNA in saliva or plasma associated weakly with impaired FMD (p = 0.06–0.09). The data suggest that CMV detected in saliva reflects systemic infections in adult RTR. View Full-Text
Keywords: cytomegalovirus infection; saliva; renal transplantation cytomegalovirus infection; saliva; renal transplantation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Waters, S.; Lee, S.; Lloyd, M.; Irish, A.; Price, P. The Detection of CMV in Saliva Can Mark a Systemic Infection with CMV in Renal Transplant Recipients. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 5230.

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