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Int. J. Mol. Sci., Volume 20, Issue 19 (October-1 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Using gold–iron nanoparticles, we enhanced the angiogenic paracrine factor expression for high [...] Read more.
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Open AccessReview
Programmed Cell-Death by Ferroptosis: Antioxidants as Mitigators
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4968; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194968 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 430
Abstract
Iron, the fourth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, is vital in living organisms because of its diverse ligand-binding and electron-transfer properties. This ability of iron in the redox cycle as a ferrous ion enables it to react with H2O [...] Read more.
Iron, the fourth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, is vital in living organisms because of its diverse ligand-binding and electron-transfer properties. This ability of iron in the redox cycle as a ferrous ion enables it to react with H2O2, in the Fenton reaction, to produce a hydroxyl radical (•OH)—one of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) that cause deleterious oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, and membrane lipids. Ferroptosis is a non-apoptotic regulated cell death that is dependent on iron and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and is characterized by lipid peroxidation. It is triggered when the endogenous antioxidant status of the cell is compromised, leading to lipid ROS accumulation that is toxic and damaging to the membrane structure. Consequently, oxidative stress and the antioxidant levels of the cells are important modulators of lipid peroxidation that induce this novel form of cell death. Remedies capable of averting iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, therefore, are lipophilic antioxidants, including vitamin E, ferrostatin-1 (Fer-1), liproxstatin-1 (Lip-1) and possibly potent bioactive polyphenols. Moreover, most of the enzymes and proteins that cascade or interact in the pathway of ferroptosis such as a subunit of the cystine/glutamate transporter xc (SLC7A11), glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), and the glutamate–cysteine ligase (GCLC) iron metabolism genes transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1) ferroportin, (Fpn) heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and ferritin are regulated by the antioxidant response element of the transcription factor, Nrf2. These, as well as other radical trapping antioxidants (RTAs), are discussed in the current review. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Bioactives and Nutraceuticals)
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Open AccessArticle
Dec1 Deficiency Suppresses Cardiac Perivascular Fibrosis Induced by Transverse Aortic Constriction
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4967; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194967 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 265
Abstract
Cardiac fibrosis is a major cause of cardiac dysfunction in hypertrophic hearts. Differentiated embryonic chondrocyte gene 1 (Dec1), a basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor, has circadian expression in the heart; however, its role in cardiac diseases remains unknown. Therefore, using Dec1 knock-out [...] Read more.
Cardiac fibrosis is a major cause of cardiac dysfunction in hypertrophic hearts. Differentiated embryonic chondrocyte gene 1 (Dec1), a basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor, has circadian expression in the heart; however, its role in cardiac diseases remains unknown. Therefore, using Dec1 knock-out (Dec1KO) and wild-type (WT) mice, we evaluated cardiac function and morphology at one and four weeks after transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or sham surgery. We found that Dec1KO mice retained cardiac function until four weeks after TAC. Dec1KO mice also revealed more severely hypertrophic hearts than WT mice at four weeks after TAC, whereas no significant change was observed at one week. An increase in Dec1 expression was found in myocardial and stromal cells of TAC-treated WT mice. In addition, Dec1 circadian expression was disrupted in the heart of TAC-treated WT mice. Cardiac perivascular fibrosis was suppressed in TAC-treated Dec1KO mice, with positive immunostaining of S100 calcium binding protein A4 (S100A4), alpha smooth muscle actin (αSMA), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1), phosphorylation of Smad family member 3 (pSmad3), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), and cyclin-interacting protein 1 (p21). Furthermore, Dec1 expression was increased in myocardial hypertrophy and myocardial infarction of autopsy cases. Taken together, our results indicate that Dec1 deficiency suppresses cardiac fibrosis, preserving cardiac function in hypertrophic hearts. We suggest that Dec1 could be a new therapeutic target in cardiac fibrosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Crosstalk between Circadian Rhythm and Diseases)
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Open AccessArticle
Mitochondrial Calcium Uptake Is Instrumental to Alternative Macrophage Polarization and Phagocytic Activity
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4966; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194966 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 280
Abstract
Macrophages are highly plastic and dynamic cells that exert much of their function through phagocytosis. Phagocytosis depends on a coordinated, finely tuned, and compartmentalized regulation of calcium concentrations. We examined the role of mitochondrial calcium uptake and mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) in macrophage [...] Read more.
Macrophages are highly plastic and dynamic cells that exert much of their function through phagocytosis. Phagocytosis depends on a coordinated, finely tuned, and compartmentalized regulation of calcium concentrations. We examined the role of mitochondrial calcium uptake and mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) in macrophage polarization and function. In primary cultures of human monocyte-derived macrophages, calcium uptake in mitochondria was instrumental for alternative (M2) macrophage polarization. Mitochondrial calcium uniporter inhibition with KB-R7943 or MCU knockdown, which prevented mitochondrial calcium uptake, reduced M2 polarization, while not affecting classical (M1) polarization. Challenging macrophages with E. coli fragments induced spikes of mitochondrial calcium concentrations, which were prevented by MCU inhibition or silencing. In addition, mitochondria remodelled in M2 macrophages during phagocytosis, especially close to sites of E. coli internalization. Remarkably, inhibition or knockdown of MCU significantly reduced the phagocytic capacity of M2 macrophages. KB-R7943, which also inhibits the membrane sodium/calcium exchanger and Complex I, reduced mitochondria energization and cellular ATP levels, but such effects were not observed with MCU silencing. Therefore, phagocytosis inhibition by MCU knockdown depended on the impaired mitochondrial calcium buffering rather than changes in mitochondrial and cellular energy status. These data uncover a new role for MCU in alternative macrophage polarization and phagocytic activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Pathology, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics)
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Open AccessArticle
A Novel Paclitaxel Conjugate with Higher Efficiency and Lower Toxicity: A New Drug Candidate for Cancer Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4965; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194965 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 253
Abstract
Paclitaxel-lipoate (IDD-1040) is a conjugate formed by the chemical joining of the two compounds, by condensing a lipoic acid moiety to the C2′ of paclitaxel. IDD-1040 was evaluated for its anti-tumor activity and potential druggability, using an in vivo non-small-cell, lung cancer (NSCLC) [...] Read more.
Paclitaxel-lipoate (IDD-1040) is a conjugate formed by the chemical joining of the two compounds, by condensing a lipoic acid moiety to the C2′ of paclitaxel. IDD-1040 was evaluated for its anti-tumor activity and potential druggability, using an in vivo non-small-cell, lung cancer (NSCLC) xenograft mouse model. In the in vivo studies, IDD-1040 showed a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of 250 mg/kg compared to paclitaxel (PTX), with an MTD of 20 mg/kg. Most interesting, IDD-1040 demonstrated higher anti-tumor activity, and its inhibitory activity on tumor volume (cell growth) was dose-dependent. That anti-tumor activity persisted for two weeks after cessation of IDD-1040 treatment, as opposed to PTX cessation, after which the tumor relapsed, confirming that IDD-1040 exhibits superior tumor inhibition. Similar to PTX treatment, no marked body weight decrease was observed during IDD-1040 treatment, indicating a low toxicity profile. The increase in animal body weight noted over time was due to the increasing weight of tumors, recorded in all the mouse test groups. The results also showed that mortality rate of mice was reduced by treatment with IDD-1040, more so than with PTX. Furthermore, in a preliminary study on the ex vivo distribution of IDD-1040, neutropenia was primarily concentrated in the liver 1 h after injection, and most of the drug was metabolized by the liver in 24 h. All of these results demonstrate IDD-1040’s great potential as a candidate drug for cancer treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bioactive Phytochemicals for Cancer Prevention and Treatment)
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Open AccessReview
FcεRI-HDAC3-MCP1 Signaling Axis Promotes Passive Anaphylaxis Mediated by Cellular Interactions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4964; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194964 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 246
Abstract
Anaphylaxis is an acute and life-threatening systemic reaction. Food, drug, aero-allergen and insect sting are known to induce anaphylaxis. Mast cells and basophils are known to mediate Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent anaphylaxis, while macrophages, neutrophils and basophils mediate non IgE-dependent anaphylaxis. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) [...] Read more.
Anaphylaxis is an acute and life-threatening systemic reaction. Food, drug, aero-allergen and insect sting are known to induce anaphylaxis. Mast cells and basophils are known to mediate Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-dependent anaphylaxis, while macrophages, neutrophils and basophils mediate non IgE-dependent anaphylaxis. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play various roles in biological processes by deacetylating histones and non-histones proteins. HDAC inhibitors can increase the acetylation of target proteins and affect various inflammatory diseases such as cancers and allergic diseases. HDAC3, a class I HDAC, is known to act as epigenetic and transcriptional regulators. It has been shown that HDAC3 can interact with the high-affinity Immunoglobulin E receptor (FcεRI), to mediate passive anaphylaxis and cellular interactions during passive anaphylaxis. Effects of HDAC3 on anaphylaxis, cellular interactions involving mast cells and macrophages during anaphylaxis, and any tumorigenic potential of cancer cells enhanced by mast cells will be discussed in this review. Roles of microRNAs that form negative feedback loops with hallmarks of anaphylaxis such as HDAC3 in anaphylaxis and cellular interactions will also be discussed. The roles of MCP1 regulated by HDAC3 in cellular interactions during anaphylaxis are discussed. Roles of exosomes in cellular interactions mediated by HDAC3 during anaphylaxis are also discussed. Thus, review might provide clues for development of drugs targeting passive anaphylaxis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors in Health and Disease II)
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Open AccessReview
Ultrafast Processes Occurring in Radiolysis of Highly Concentrated Solutions of Nucleosides/Tides
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4963; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194963 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 200
Abstract
Among the radicals (hydroxyl radical (OH), hydrogen atom (H), and solvated electron (esol)) that are generated via water radiolysis, OH has been shown to be the main transient species responsible for radiation damage to DNA [...] Read more.
Among the radicals (hydroxyl radical (OH), hydrogen atom (H), and solvated electron (esol)) that are generated via water radiolysis, OH has been shown to be the main transient species responsible for radiation damage to DNA via the indirect effect. Reactions of these radicals with DNA-model systems (bases, nucleosides, nucleotides, polynucleotides of defined sequences, single stranded (ss) and double stranded (ds) highly polymeric DNA, nucleohistones) were extensively investigated. The timescale of the reactions of these radicals with DNA-models range from nanoseconds (ns) to microseconds (µs) at ambient temperature and are controlled by diffusion or activation. However, those studies carried out in dilute solutions that model radiation damage to DNA via indirect action do not turn out to be valid in dense biological medium, where solute and water molecules are in close contact (e.g., in cellular environment). In that case, the initial species formed from water radiolysis are two radicals that are ultrashort-lived and charged: the water cation radical (H2O•+) and prethermalized electron. These species are captured by target biomolecules (e.g., DNA, proteins, etc.) in competition with their inherent pathways of proton transfer and relaxation occurring in less than 1 picosecond. In addition, the direct-type effects of radiation, i.e., ionization of macromolecule plus excitations proximate to ionizations, become important. The holes (i.e., unpaired spin or cation radical sites) created by ionization undergo fast spin transfer across DNA subunits. The exploration of the above-mentioned ultrafast processes is crucial to elucidate our understanding of the mechanisms that are involved in causing DNA damage via direct-type effects of radiation. Only recently, investigations of these ultrafast processes have been attempted by studying concentrated solutions of nucleosides/tides under ambient conditions. Recent advancements of laser-driven picosecond electron accelerators have provided an opportunity to address some long-term puzzling questions in the context of direct-type and indirect effects of DNA damage. In this review, we have presented key findings that are important to elucidate mechanisms of complex processes including excess electron-mediated bond breakage and hole transfer, occurring at the single nucleoside/tide level. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation-Induced Damage to DNA)
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Open AccessReview
Pharmacological Targeting of GLUT1 to Control Autoreactive T Cell Responses
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4962; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194962 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 225
Abstract
An increasing body of evidence indicates that bio-energetic metabolism of T cells can be manipulated to control T cell responses. This potentially finds a field of application in the control of the T cell responses in autoimmune diseases, including in type 1 diabetes [...] Read more.
An increasing body of evidence indicates that bio-energetic metabolism of T cells can be manipulated to control T cell responses. This potentially finds a field of application in the control of the T cell responses in autoimmune diseases, including in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Of the possible metabolic targets, Glut1 gained considerable interest because of its pivotal role in glucose uptake to fuel glycolysis in activated T cells, and the recent development of a novel class of small molecules that act as selective inhibitor of Glut1. We believe we can foresee a possible application of pharmacological Glut1 blockade approach to control autoreactive T cells that destroy insulin producing beta cells. However, Glut1 is expressed in a broad range of cells in the body and off-target and side effect are possible complications. Moreover, the duration of the treatment and the age of patients are critical aspects that need to be addressed to reduce toxicity. In this paper, we will review recent literature to determine whether it is possible to design a pharmacological Glut1 blocking strategy and how to apply this to autoimmunity in T1D. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Immunotherapeutic Approaches to Type 1 Diabetes)
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Open AccessArticle
Quercetin, a Promising Clinical Candidate for The Prevention of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4961; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194961 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 278
Abstract
Iodinated contrast media (CM) are the leading cause of acute renal failure of toxic origin. Between 21% and 50% of patients that receive them develop contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). All prophylactic measures used so far have failed to provide effective prevention. Since oxidative stress [...] Read more.
Iodinated contrast media (CM) are the leading cause of acute renal failure of toxic origin. Between 21% and 50% of patients that receive them develop contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). All prophylactic measures used so far have failed to provide effective prevention. Since oxidative stress is involved in the damage, a possible preventive strategy could be the administration of antioxidant substances, such as quercetin. This compound has shown renoprotective effects in experimental studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether quercetin may be helpful in preventing CIN in patients undergoing coronary catheterization. A clinical phase II study was conducted. Patients were distributed in two groups, namely, CM (patients who only received contrast media) and CM+Q (patients who were pretreated with quercetin orally for 3–5 days). Results showed less incidence of CIN in the CM+Q group, possibly due to glomerular protection, evidenced by a lower increase in serum creatinine and albuminuria; and a lower decrease in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Furthermore, in this group, the relative risk of developing CIN observed in patients that received a high dose of contrast media was inferior. In conclusion, this is the first study that demonstrates that quercetin is a promising safe candidate in preventing CIN. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
PIEZO1 and TRPV4, which Are Distinct Mechano-Sensors in the Osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 Cells, Modify Cell-Proliferation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4960; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194960 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 246
Abstract
Mechanical-loading and unloading can modify osteoblast functioning. Ca2+ signaling is one of the earliest events in osteoblasts to induce a mechanical stimulus, thereby demonstrating the importance of the underlying mechanical sensors for the sensation. Here, we examined the mechano-sensitive channels PIEZO1 and [...] Read more.
Mechanical-loading and unloading can modify osteoblast functioning. Ca2+ signaling is one of the earliest events in osteoblasts to induce a mechanical stimulus, thereby demonstrating the importance of the underlying mechanical sensors for the sensation. Here, we examined the mechano-sensitive channels PIEZO1 and TRPV4 were involved in the process of mechano-sensation in the osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. The analysis of mRNA expression revealed a high expression of Piezo1 and Trpv4 in these cells. We also found that a PIEZO1 agonist, Yoda1, induced Ca2+ response and activated cationic currents in these cells. Ca2+ response was elicited when mechanical stimulation (MS), with shear stress, was induced by fluid flow in the MC3T3-E1 cells. Gene knockdown of Piezo1 in the MC3T3-E1 cells, by transfection with siPiezo1, inhibited the Yoda1-induced response, but failed to inhibit the MS-induced response. When MC3T3-E1 cells were transfected with siTrpv4, the MS-induced response was abolished and Yoda1 response was attenuated. Moreover, the MS-induced response was inhibited by a TRPV4 antagonist HC-067047 (HC). Yoda1 response was also inhibited by HC in MC3T3-E1 cells and HEK cells, expressing both PIEZO1 and TRPV4. Meanwhile, the activation of PIEZO1 and TRPV4 reduced the proliferation of MC3T3-E1, which was reversed by knockdown of PIEZO1, and TRPV4, respectively. In conclusion, TRPV4 and PIEZO1 are distinct mechano-sensors in the MC3T3-E1 cells. However, PIEZO1 and TRPV4 modify the proliferation of these cells, implying that PIEZO1 and TRPV4 may be functional in the osteoblastic mechano-transduction. Notably, it is also found that Yoda1 can induce TRPV4-dependent Ca2+ response, when both PIEZO1 and TRPV4 are highly expressed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ion Channel and Ion-Related Signaling 2019)
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Open AccessReview
Replication Stress at Telomeric and Mitochondrial DNA: Common Origins and Consequences on Ageing
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4959; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194959 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 354
Abstract
Senescence is defined as a stress-induced durable cell cycle arrest. We herein revisit the origin of two of these stresses, namely mitochondrial metabolic compromise, associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and replicative senescence, activated by extreme telomere shortening. We discuss how replication [...] Read more.
Senescence is defined as a stress-induced durable cell cycle arrest. We herein revisit the origin of two of these stresses, namely mitochondrial metabolic compromise, associated with reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and replicative senescence, activated by extreme telomere shortening. We discuss how replication stress-induced DNA damage of telomeric DNA (telDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) can be considered a common origin of senescence in vitro, with consequences on ageing in vivo. Unexpectedly, mtDNA and telDNA share common features indicative of a high degree of replicative stress, such as G-quadruplexes, D-loops, RNA:DNA heteroduplexes, epigenetic marks, or supercoiling. To avoid these stresses, both compartments use similar enzymatic strategies involving, for instance, endonucleases, topoisomerases, helicases, or primases. Surprisingly, many of these replication helpers are active at both telDNA and mtDNA (e.g., RNAse H1, FEN1, DNA2, RecQ helicases, Top2α, Top2β, TOP3A, DNMT1/3a/3b, SIRT1). In addition, specialized telomeric proteins, such as TERT (telomerase reverse transcriptase) and TERC (telomerase RNA component), or TIN2 (shelterin complex), shuttle from telomeres to mitochondria, and, by doing so, modulate mitochondrial metabolism and the production of ROS, in a feedback manner. Hence, mitochondria and telomeres use common weapons and cooperate to resist/prevent replication stresses, otherwise producing common consequences, namely senescence and ageing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Telomeres and Telomerase in Cancer and Aging 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
Answer to Controversy: miR-10a Replacement Approaches Do Not Offer Protection against Chemotherapy-Induced Gonadotoxicity in Mouse Model
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4958; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194958 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 305
Abstract
It is well known that chemotherapeutic agents may lead to premature ovarian failure and infertility. Therefore, fertility preservation is highly recommended for female cancer survivors. Despite the currently available techniques, new, non-invasive methods need to be developed to protect the ovarian follicles during [...] Read more.
It is well known that chemotherapeutic agents may lead to premature ovarian failure and infertility. Therefore, fertility preservation is highly recommended for female cancer survivors. Despite the currently available techniques, new, non-invasive methods need to be developed to protect the ovarian follicles during oncological treatments. MicroRNAs can be effective tools in this field, as they alter their expression during chemotherapy exposure, and hence they can be useful to minimize the off-target toxicity. Previously, we identified several miRNAs with an important role in newborn mouse ovaries exposed to chemotherapy; among them, the miR-10a was one of the most downregulated miRNAs. Given the controversial role of miR-10a in the ovarian function, we decided to investigate its implication in chemotherapy-induced gonadotoxicity. The downregulated levels of miR-10a were restored by a liposome system conjugated with a mimic miR-10a, and the overexpressed miR-10a prevented the upregulation of the targeted gene, phosphatase and tensin homolog (Pten). The apoptosis was evaluated by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) Assay and Bax expression quantification, while histological studies were also performed to evaluate the follicle count and development. Our results showed that the miR-10a replacement could not protect the ovaries from chemotherapy-induced apoptosis, whereas the targeting of Pten may affect the follicle activation via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/PTEN/protein kinase B (AKT) pathway. Consequently, the application of miR-10a in fertility preservation is not recommended, and the role of miR-10a needs to be further elucidated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Molecular Basis of Fertility Preservation and Restoration)
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Open AccessReview
Targeting Inflammation by Flavonoids: Novel Therapeutic Strategy for Metabolic Disorders
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4957; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194957 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 359
Abstract
A balanced metabolic profile is essential for normal human physiological activities. Disproportions in nutrition give rise to imbalances in metabolism that are associated with aberrant immune function and an elevated risk for inflammatory-associated disorders. Inflammation is a complex process, and numerous mediators affect [...] Read more.
A balanced metabolic profile is essential for normal human physiological activities. Disproportions in nutrition give rise to imbalances in metabolism that are associated with aberrant immune function and an elevated risk for inflammatory-associated disorders. Inflammation is a complex process, and numerous mediators affect inflammation-mediated disorders. The available clinical modalities do not effectively address the underlying diseases but rather relieve the symptoms. Therefore, novel targeted agents have the potential to normalize the metabolic system and, thus, provide meaningful therapy to the underlying disorder. In this connection, polyphenols, the well-known and extensively studied phytochemical moieties, were evaluated for their effective role in the restoration of metabolism via various mechanistic signaling pathways. The various flavonoids that we observed in this comprehensive review interfere with the metabolic events that induce inflammation. The mechanisms via which the polyphenols, in particular flavonoids, act provide a promising treatment option for inflammatory disorders. However, detailed clinical studies of such molecules are required to decide their clinical fate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Anti-Inflammatory Agents 2019)
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Open AccessArticle
OsATG8c-Mediated Increased Autophagy Regulates the Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency in Rice
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4956; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194956 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 214
Abstract
Autophagy, a conserved pathway in eukaryotes, degrades and recycles cellular components, thus playing an important role in nitrogen (N) remobilization. N plays an important role in the growth and development of plants, which also affects plant yield and quality. In this research, it [...] Read more.
Autophagy, a conserved pathway in eukaryotes, degrades and recycles cellular components, thus playing an important role in nitrogen (N) remobilization. N plays an important role in the growth and development of plants, which also affects plant yield and quality. In this research, it was found that the transcriptional level of a core autophagy gene of rice (Oryza sativa), OsATG8c, was increased during N starvation conditions. It was found that the overexpression of OsATG8c significantly enhanced the activity of autophagy and that the number of autophagosomes, dwarfed the plant height and increased the effective tillers’ number and yield. The nitrogen uptake efficiency (NUpE) and nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) significantly increased in the transgenic rice under both optimal and suboptimal N conditions. Based on our results, OsATG8c is considered to be a good candidate gene for increasing NUE, especially under suboptimal field conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Plant Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle
Sabinene Prevents Skeletal Muscle Atrophy by Inhibiting the MAPK–MuRF-1 Pathway in Rats
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4955; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194955 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 210
Abstract
Chrysanthemum boreale Makino essential oil (CBMEO) has diverse biological activities including a skin regenerating effect. However, its role in muscle atrophy remains unknown. This study explored the effects of CBMEO and its active ingredients on skeletal muscle atrophy using in vitro and in [...] Read more.
Chrysanthemum boreale Makino essential oil (CBMEO) has diverse biological activities including a skin regenerating effect. However, its role in muscle atrophy remains unknown. This study explored the effects of CBMEO and its active ingredients on skeletal muscle atrophy using in vitro and in vivo models of muscle atrophy. CBMEO reversed the size decrease of L6 myoblasts under starvation. Among the eight monoterpene compounds of CBMEO without cytotoxicity for L6 cells, sabinene induced predominant recovery of reductions of myotube diameters under starvation. Sabinene diminished the elevated E3 ubiquitin ligase muscle ring-finger protein-1 (MuRF-1) expression and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) phosphorylations in starved myotubes. Moreover, sabinene decreased the increased level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in myotubes under starvation. The ROS inhibitor antagonized expression of MuRF-1 and phosphorylation of MAPKs, which were elevated in starved myotubes. In addition, levels of muscle fiber atrophy and MuRF-1 expression in gastrocnemius from fasted rats were reduced after administration of sabinene. These findings demonstrate that sabinene, a bioactive component from CBMEO, may attenuate skeletal muscle atrophy by regulating the activation mechanism of ROS-mediated MAPK/MuRF-1 pathways in starved myotubes, probably leading to the reverse of reduced muscle fiber size in fasted rats. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular Biology)
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Open AccessReview
Interferon-Inducible Protein 10 and Disease Activity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Lupus Nephritis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4954; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194954 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 234
Abstract
There is increasing evidence of a correlation between interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis (LN). We conducted a comprehensive search on IP-10 using MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane electronic databases from the beginning to the [...] Read more.
There is increasing evidence of a correlation between interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and lupus nephritis (LN). We conducted a comprehensive search on IP-10 using MEDLINE, Scopus, and Cochrane electronic databases from the beginning to the end of December 2017. All studies that compared serum and/or urine IP-10 between active SLE/LN patients and any control groups were identified and included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The mean difference (MD) of IP-10 level among active SLE and LN patients, as well as the correlation of IP-10 with disease activity, were meta-analyzed using a random-effects model. From 23 eligible studies, 15 provided adequate data for meta-analysis. Serum IP-10 was significantly elevated in patients with active SLE compared to non-active SLE patients (MD 356.5 pg/mL, 95% CI 59.6 to 653.4, p = 0.019). On the other hand, the levels of serum IP-10 was not different between active LN and non-active LN. However, serum IP-10 was positively correlated with disease activity like SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) (pooled r = 0.29, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.35, p < 0.001). Furthermore, urine IP-10 tended to be higher in patients with active LN compared to non-active LN patients but this did not reach statistical significance (MD 3.47 pg/mgCr × 100, 95% CI −0.18 to 7.12, p = 0.06). Nevertheless, urine IP-10 was positively correlated with renal SLEDAI (pooled r = 0.29, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.50, p = 0.019). In conclusion, serum and urine IP-10 levels may be useful in monitoring the disease activity of SLE and LN. Serum IP-10 was correlated with systemic disease whereas urine IP-10 was a useful biomarker for detecting active LN. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Map-Based Functional Analysis of the GhNLP Genes Reveals Their Roles in Enhancing Tolerance to N-Deficiency in Cotton
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4953; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194953 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 243
Abstract
Nitrogen is a key macronutrient needed by plants to boost their production, but the development of cotton genotypes through conventional approaches has hit a bottleneck due to the narrow genetic base of the elite cotton cultivars, due to intensive selection and inbreeding. Based [...] Read more.
Nitrogen is a key macronutrient needed by plants to boost their production, but the development of cotton genotypes through conventional approaches has hit a bottleneck due to the narrow genetic base of the elite cotton cultivars, due to intensive selection and inbreeding. Based on our previous research, in which the BC2F2 generations developed from two upland cotton genotypes, an abiotic stress-tolerant genotype, G. tomentosum (donor parent) and a highly-susceptible, and a highly-susceptible, but very productive, G. hirsutum (recurrent parent), were profiled under drought stress conditions. The phenotypic and the genotypic data generated through genotyping by sequencing (GBS) were integrated to map drought-tolerant quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Within the stable QTLs region for the various drought tolerance traits, a nodule-inception-like protein (NLP) gene was identified. We performed a phylogenetic analysis of the NLP proteins, mapped their chromosomal positions, intron-exon structures and conducted ds/dn analysis, which showed that most NLP genes underwent negative or purifying selection. Moreover, the functions of one of the highly upregulated genes, Gh_A05G3286 (Gh NLP5), were evaluated using the virus gene silencing (VIGS) mechanism. A total of 226 proteins encoded by the NLP genes were identified, with 105, 61, and 60 in Gossypium hirsutum, G. raimondii, and G. arboreum, respectively. Comprehensive Insilico analysis revealed that the proteins encoded by the NLP genes had varying molecular weights, protein lengths, isoelectric points (pI), and grand hydropathy values (GRAVY). The GRAVY values ranged from a negative one to zero, showing that proteins were hydrophilic. Moreover, various cis-regulatory elements that are the binding sites for stress-associated transcription factors were found in the promoters of various NLP genes. In addition, many miRNAs were predicted to target NLP genes, notably miR167a, miR167b, miR160, and miR167 that were previously shown to target five NAC genes, including NAC1 and CUC1, under N-limited conditions. The real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis, revealed that five genes, Gh_D02G2018, Gh_A12G0439, Gh_A03G0493, Gh_A03G1178, and Gh_A05G3286 were significantly upregulated and perhaps could be the key NLP genes regulating plant response under N-limited conditions. Furthermore, the knockdown of the Gh_A05G3286 (GhNLP5) gene by virus-induced silencing (VIGS) significantly reduced the ability of these plants to the knockdown of the Gh_A05G3286 (GhNLP5) gene by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) significantly reduced the ability of the VIGS-plants to tolerate N-limited conditions compared to the wild types (WT). The VIGS-plants registered lower chlorophyll content, fresh shoot biomass, and fresh root biomass, addition to higher levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and significantly reduced levels of proline, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared to the WT under N-limited conditions. Subsequently, the expression levels of the Nitrogen-stress responsive genes, GhTap46, GhRPL18A, and GhKLU were shown to be significantly downregulated in VIGS-plants compared to their WT under N-limited conditions. The downregulation of the nitrogen-stress responsive genes provided evidence that the silenced gene had an integral role in enhancing cotton plant tolerance to N-limited conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mapping Abiotic Stress-Tolerance Genes in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Deferoxamine Enhanced Mitochondrial Iron Accumulation and Promoted Cell Migration in Triple-Negative MDA-MB-231 Breast Cancer Cells Via a ROS-Dependent Mechanism
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4952; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194952 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 228
Abstract
In our previous study, Deferoxamine (DFO) increased the iron concentration by upregulating the expression levels of TfR1 and DMT1 and exacerbated the migration of triple-negative breast cancer cells. However, the mechanisms of iron distribution and utilization in triple-negative breast cancer cells with a [...] Read more.
In our previous study, Deferoxamine (DFO) increased the iron concentration by upregulating the expression levels of TfR1 and DMT1 and exacerbated the migration of triple-negative breast cancer cells. However, the mechanisms of iron distribution and utilization in triple-negative breast cancer cells with a DFO-induced iron deficiency are still unclear. In this study, triple-negative MDA-MB-231 and estrogen receptor (ER)-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells were used to investigate the mechanisms of iron distribution and utilization with a DFO-induced iron deficiency. We found that the mitochondrial iron concentration was elevated in MDA-MB-231 cells, while it was decreased in MCF-7 cells after DFO treatment. The cellular and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels increased in both breast cancer cell types under DFO-induced iron-deficient conditions. However, the increased ROS levels had different effects on the different breast cancer cell types: Cell viability was inhibited and apoptosis was enhanced in MCF-7 cells, but cell viability was maintained and cell migration was promoted in MDA-MB-231 cells through the ROS/NF-κB and ROS/TGF-β signaling pathways. Collectively, this study suggests that under DFO-induced iron-deficient conditions, the increased mitochondrial iron levels in triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells would generate large amounts of ROS to activate the NF-κB and TGF-β signaling pathways to promote cell migration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances on Chelation in Medicine)
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Open AccessArticle
Fertility of Pedicellate Spikelets in Sorghum Is Controlled by a Jasmonic Acid Regulatory Module
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4951; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194951 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 247
Abstract
As in other cereal crops, the panicles of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) comprise two types of floral spikelets (grass flowers). Only sessile spikelets (SSs) are capable of producing viable grains, whereas pedicellate spikelets (PSs) cease development after initiation and eventually abort. [...] Read more.
As in other cereal crops, the panicles of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) comprise two types of floral spikelets (grass flowers). Only sessile spikelets (SSs) are capable of producing viable grains, whereas pedicellate spikelets (PSs) cease development after initiation and eventually abort. Consequently, grain number per panicle (GNP) is lower than the total number of flowers produced per panicle. The mechanism underlying this differential fertility is not well understood. To investigate this issue, we isolated a series of ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS)-induced multiseeded (msd) mutants that result in full spikelet fertility, effectively doubling GNP. Previously, we showed that MSD1 is a TCP (Teosinte branched/Cycloidea/PCF) transcription factor that regulates jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis, and ultimately floral sex organ development. Here, we show that MSD2 encodes a lipoxygenase (LOX) that catalyzes the first committed step of JA biosynthesis. Further, we demonstrate that MSD1 binds to the promoters of MSD2 and other JA pathway genes. Together, these results show that a JA-induced module regulates sorghum panicle development and spikelet fertility. The findings advance our understanding of inflorescence development and could lead to new strategies for increasing GNP and grain yield in sorghum and other cereal crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Jasmonic Acid Pathway in Plants)
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Open AccessArticle
Physiological and Metabolomic Responses of Kale to Combined Chilling and UV-A Treatment
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4950; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194950 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 195
Abstract
Short-term abiotic stress treatment before harvest can enhance the quality of horticultural crops cultivated in controlled environments. Here, we investigated the effects of combined chilling and UV-A treatment on the accumulation of phenolic compounds in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). Five-week-old [...] Read more.
Short-term abiotic stress treatment before harvest can enhance the quality of horticultural crops cultivated in controlled environments. Here, we investigated the effects of combined chilling and UV-A treatment on the accumulation of phenolic compounds in kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). Five-week-old plants were subjected to combined treatments (10 °C plus UV-A LED radiation at 30.3 W/m2) for 3-days, as well as single treatments (4 °C, 10 °C, or UV-A LED radiation). The growth parameters and photosynthetic rates of plants under the combined treatment were similar to those of the control, whereas UV-A treatment alone significantly increased these parameters. Maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) decreased and H2O2 increased in response to UV-A and combined treatments, implying that these treatments induced stress in kale. The total phenolic contents after 2- and 3-days of combined treatment and 1-day of recovery were 40%, 60%, and 50% higher than those of the control, respectively, and the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity also increased. Principal component analysis suggested that stress type and period determine the changes in secondary metabolites. Three days of combined stress treatment followed by 2-days of recovery increased the contents of quercetin derivatives. Therefore, combined chilling and UV-A treatment could improve the phenolic contents of leafy vegetables such as kale, without growth inhibition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antioxidant Metabolic Pathways in Plants)
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Open AccessReview
Targeting Angiogenesis in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Resistance Mechanisms
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4949; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194949 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 212
Abstract
Despite being infrequent tumors, the incidence and prevalence of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (P-NETs) has been rising over the past few decades. In recent years, rigorous phase III clinical trials have been conducted, allowing the approval of several drugs that have become the standard [...] Read more.
Despite being infrequent tumors, the incidence and prevalence of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (P-NETs) has been rising over the past few decades. In recent years, rigorous phase III clinical trials have been conducted, allowing the approval of several drugs that have become the standard of care in these patients. Although various treatments are used in clinical practice, including somatostatin analogues (SSAs), biological therapies like sunitinib or everolimus, peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) or even chemotherapy, a consensus regarding the optimal sequence of treatment has not yet been reached. Notwithstanding, sunitinib is largely used in these patients after the promising results shown in SUN111 phase III clinical trial. However, both prompt progression as well as tumor recurrence after initial response have been reported, suggesting the existence of primary and acquired resistances to this antiangiogenic drug. In this review, we aim to summarize the most relevant mechanisms of angiogenesis resistance that are key contributors of tumor progression and dissemination. Furthermore, several targeted molecules acting selectively against these pathways have shown promising results in preclinical models, and preliminary results from ongoing clinical trials are awaited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kinase Signal Transduction 2020)
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Open AccessReview
Protective Effects of Melatonin on the Skin: Future Perspectives
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4948; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194948 - 08 Oct 2019
Viewed by 386
Abstract
When exposed to hostile environments such as radiation, physical injuries, chemicals, pollution, and microorganisms, the skin requires protective chemical molecules and pathways. Melatonin, a highly conserved ancient molecule, plays a crucial role in the maintenance of skin. As human skin has functional melatonin [...] Read more.
When exposed to hostile environments such as radiation, physical injuries, chemicals, pollution, and microorganisms, the skin requires protective chemical molecules and pathways. Melatonin, a highly conserved ancient molecule, plays a crucial role in the maintenance of skin. As human skin has functional melatonin receptors and also acts as a complete system that is capable of producing and regulating melatonin synthesis, melatonin is a promising candidate for its maintenance and protection. Below, we review the studies of new metabolic pathways involved in the protective functions of melatonin in dermal cells. We also discuss the advantages of the topical use of melatonin for therapeutic purposes and skin protection. In our view, endogenous intracutaneous melatonin production, together with topically-applied exogenous melatonin and its metabolites, represent two of the most potent defense systems against external damage to the skin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biochemistry)
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Open AccessReview
Extracellular Matrix Alterations in Metastatic Processes
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4947; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194947 - 07 Oct 2019
Viewed by 437
Abstract
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex network of extracellular-secreted macromolecules, such as collagen, enzymes and glycoproteins, whose main functions deal with structural scaffolding and biochemical support of cells and tissues. ECM homeostasis is essential for organ development and functioning under physiological conditions, [...] Read more.
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex network of extracellular-secreted macromolecules, such as collagen, enzymes and glycoproteins, whose main functions deal with structural scaffolding and biochemical support of cells and tissues. ECM homeostasis is essential for organ development and functioning under physiological conditions, while its sustained modification or dysregulation can result in pathological conditions. During cancer progression, epithelial tumor cells may undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a morphological and functional remodeling, that deeply alters tumor cell features, leading to loss of epithelial markers (i.e., E-cadherin), changes in cell polarity and intercellular junctions and increase of mesenchymal markers (i.e., N-cadherin, fibronectin and vimentin). This process enhances cancer cell detachment from the original tumor mass and invasiveness, which are necessary for metastasis onset, thus allowing cancer cells to enter the bloodstream or lymphatic flow and colonize distant sites. The mechanisms that lead to development of metastases in specific sites are still largely obscure but modifications occurring in target tissue ECM are being intensively studied. Matrix metalloproteases and several adhesion receptors, among which integrins play a key role, are involved in metastasis-linked ECM modifications. In addition, cells involved in the metastatic niche formation, like cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) and tumor associated macrophages (TAM), have been found to play crucial roles in ECM alterations aimed at promoting cancer cells adhesion and growth. In this review we focus on molecular mechanisms of ECM modifications occurring during cancer progression and metastatic dissemination to distant sites, with special attention to lung, liver and bone. Moreover, the functional role of cells forming the tumor niche will also be reviewed in light of the most recent findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extracellular Matrix in Development and Disease 2.0)
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Open AccessArticle
Transgelin, a p53 and PTEN-Upregulated Gene, Inhibits the Cell Proliferation and Invasion of Human Bladder Carcinoma Cells In Vitro and In Vivo
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4946; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194946 - 07 Oct 2019
Viewed by 275
Abstract
Transgelin (TAGLN/SM22-α) is a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, affecting the survival, migration, and apoptosis of various cancer cells divergently; however, the roles of TAGLN in bladder carcinoma cells remain inconclusive. We compared expressions of TAGLN in human bladder carcinoma cells to the [...] Read more.
Transgelin (TAGLN/SM22-α) is a regulator of the actin cytoskeleton, affecting the survival, migration, and apoptosis of various cancer cells divergently; however, the roles of TAGLN in bladder carcinoma cells remain inconclusive. We compared expressions of TAGLN in human bladder carcinoma cells to the normal human bladder tissues to determine the potential biological functions and regulatory mechanisms of TAGLN in bladder carcinoma cells. Results of RT-qPCR and immunoblot assays indicated that TAGLN expressions were higher in bladder smooth muscle cells, fibroblast cells, and normal epithelial cells than in carcinoma cells (RT-4, HT1376, TSGH-8301, and T24) in vitro. Besides, the results of RT-qPCR revealed that TAGLN expressions were higher in normal tissues than the paired tumor tissues. In vitro, TAGLN knockdown enhanced cell proliferation and invasion, while overexpression of TAGLN had the inverse effects in bladder carcinoma cells. Meanwhile, ectopic overexpression of TAGLN attenuated tumorigenesis in vivo. Immunofluorescence and immunoblot assays showed that TAGLN was predominantly in the cytosol and colocalized with F-actin. Ectopic overexpression of either p53 or PTEN induced TAGLN expression, while p53 knockdown downregulated TAGLN expression in bladder carcinoma cells. Our results indicate that TAGLN is a p53 and PTEN-upregulated gene, expressing higher levels in normal bladder epithelial cells than carcinoma cells. Further, TAGLN inhibited cell proliferation and invasion in vitro and blocked tumorigenesis in vivo. Collectively, it can be concluded that TAGLN is an antitumor gene in the human bladder. Full article
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Open AccessReview
Sirtuins and SIRT6 in Carcinogenesis and in Diet
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4945; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194945 - 07 Oct 2019
Viewed by 376
Abstract
Sirtuins are a highly conserved family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent protein lysine modifying enzymes. They are key regulators for a wide variety of cellular and physiological processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, DNA damage and stress response, genome stability, cell survival, metabolism, [...] Read more.
Sirtuins are a highly conserved family of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent protein lysine modifying enzymes. They are key regulators for a wide variety of cellular and physiological processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, DNA damage and stress response, genome stability, cell survival, metabolism, energy homeostasis, organ development and aging. Aging is one of the major risk factors of cancer, as many of the physiological mechanisms and pathologies associated with the aging process also contribute to tumor initiation, growth and/or metastasis. This review focuses on one the mammalian sirtuins, SIRT6, which has emerged as an important regulator of longevity and appears to have multiple biochemical functions that interfere with tumor development and may be useful in cancer prevention and for site-specific treatment. The recent evidence of the role of SIRT6 in carcinogenesis is also discussed, focusing on the potential use of SIRT6 modulators in cancer nanomedicine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sirtuins in Health and Disease)
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Open AccessReview
The Neuropeptide Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP) Is Protective in Inflammation and Oxidative Stress-Induced Damage in the Kidney
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4944; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194944 - 07 Oct 2019
Viewed by 270
Abstract
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide with a widespread distribution throughout the entire body including the urinary system. PACAP exerts protective actions in different injury models related to several organ systems. Its protective effect is mainly based on its antiapoptotic, [...] Read more.
Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a pleiotropic neuropeptide with a widespread distribution throughout the entire body including the urinary system. PACAP exerts protective actions in different injury models related to several organ systems. Its protective effect is mainly based on its antiapoptotic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. The present review aims to summarize the effects of PACAP in pathologies associated with inflammation and oxidative stress-induced damage in the kidney. Both in vitro and in vivo data are available proving its protective actions against oxidative stress, hypoxia, renal ischemia/reperfusion, diabetic nephropathy, myeloma kidney injury, amyloidosis and different types of drug-induced nephropathies. Data showing the nephroprotection by PACAP emphasize the potential of PACAP’s therapeutic use in various renal pathologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Kidney Disease)
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Open AccessArticle
Cyclin D1 is Associated with Radiosensitivity of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells to Proton Beam Irradiation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4943; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194943 - 07 Oct 2019
Viewed by 278
Abstract
Proton therapy offers a distinct physical advantage over conventional X-ray therapy, but its biological advantages remain understudied. In this study, we aimed to identify genetic factors that contribute to proton sensitivity in breast cancer (BC). Therefore, we screened relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of [...] Read more.
Proton therapy offers a distinct physical advantage over conventional X-ray therapy, but its biological advantages remain understudied. In this study, we aimed to identify genetic factors that contribute to proton sensitivity in breast cancer (BC). Therefore, we screened relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 230 MeV protons, compared to 6 MV X-rays, in ten human BC cell lines, including five triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines. Clonogenic survival assays revealed a wide range of proton RBE across the BC cell lines, with one out of ten BC cell lines having an RBE significantly different from the traditional generic RBE of 1.1. An abundance of cyclin D1 was associated with proton RBE. Downregulation of RB1 by siRNA or a CDK4/6 inhibitor increased proton sensitivity but not proton RBE. Instead, the depletion of cyclin D1 increased proton RBE in two TNBC cell lines, including MDA-MB-231 and Hs578T cells. Conversely, overexpression of cyclin D1 decreased the proton RBE in cyclin D1-deficient BT-549 cells. The depletion of cyclin D1 impaired proton-induced RAD51 foci formation in MDA-MB-231 cells. Taken together, this study provides important clues about the cyclin D1-CDK4-RB1 pathway as a potential target for proton beam therapy in TNBC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Radiation-Induced Damage to DNA)
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Open AccessCommunication
L-Alanine Exporter, AlaE, of Escherichia coli Functions as a Safety Valve to Enhance Survival under Feast Conditions
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4942; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194942 - 07 Oct 2019
Viewed by 279
Abstract
The intracellular level of amino acids is determined by the balance between their anabolic and catabolic pathways. L-alanine is anabolized by three L-alanine synthesizing enzymes and catabolized by two racemases and D-amino acid dehydrogenase (DadA). In addition, its level is regulated by L-alanine [...] Read more.
The intracellular level of amino acids is determined by the balance between their anabolic and catabolic pathways. L-alanine is anabolized by three L-alanine synthesizing enzymes and catabolized by two racemases and D-amino acid dehydrogenase (DadA). In addition, its level is regulated by L-alanine movement across the inner membrane. We identified the novel gene alaE, encoding an L-alanine exporter. To elucidate the physiological function of L-Alanine exporter, AlaE, we determined the susceptibility of alaE-, dadA-, and alaE/dadA-deficient mutants, derived from the wild-type strain MG1655, to L-alanyl-L-alanine (Ala-Ala), which shows toxicity to the L-alanine-nonmetabolizing variant lacking alaE. The dadA-deficient mutant has a similar minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (>1.25 mg/mL) to that observed in MG1655. However, alaE- and alaE/dadA-deficient mutants had MICs of 0.04 and 0.0025 mg/mL, respectively. The results suggested that the efficacy of AlaE to relieve stress caused by toxic intracellular accumulation of L-alanine was higher than that of DadA. Consistent with this, the intracellular level of alanine in the alaE-mutant was much higher than that in MG1655 and the dadA-mutant. We, therefore, conclude that AlaE functions as a ‘safety-valve’ to prevent the toxic level accumulation of intracellular L-alanine under a peptide-rich environment, such as within the animal intestine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Amino Acids Transport and Metabolism 2.0)
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Open AccessReview
Molecular Mechanisms of the Acute Kidney Injury to Chronic Kidney Disease Transition: An Updated View
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4941; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194941 - 06 Oct 2019
Viewed by 352
Abstract
Increasing evidence has demonstrated the bidirectional link between acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) such that, in the clinical setting, the new concept of a unified syndrome has been proposed. The pathophysiological reasons, along with the cellular and molecular mechanisms, [...] Read more.
Increasing evidence has demonstrated the bidirectional link between acute kidney injury (AKI) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) such that, in the clinical setting, the new concept of a unified syndrome has been proposed. The pathophysiological reasons, along with the cellular and molecular mechanisms, behind the ability of a single, acute, apparently self-limiting event to drive chronic kidney disease progression are yet to be explained. This acute injury could promote progression to chronic disease through different pathways involving the endothelium, the inflammatory response and the development of fibrosis. The interplay among endothelial cells, macrophages and other immune cells, pericytes and fibroblasts often converge in the tubular epithelial cells that play a central role. Recent evidence has strengthened this concept by demonstrating that injured tubules respond to acute tubular necrosis through two main mechanisms: The polyploidization of tubular cells and the proliferation of a small population of self-renewing renal progenitors. This alternative pathophysiological interpretation could better characterize functional recovery after AKI. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Kidney Inflammation, Injury and Regeneration)
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Open AccessReview
The Regulatory Role of MicroRNAs in Breast Cancer
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4940; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194940 - 06 Oct 2019
Viewed by 359
Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules which function as critical post-transcriptional gene regulators of various biological functions. Generally, miRNAs negatively regulate gene expression by binding to their selective messenger RNAs (mRNAs), thereby leading to either mRNA degradation or translational repression, depending on [...] Read more.
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules which function as critical post-transcriptional gene regulators of various biological functions. Generally, miRNAs negatively regulate gene expression by binding to their selective messenger RNAs (mRNAs), thereby leading to either mRNA degradation or translational repression, depending on the degree of complementarity with target mRNA sequences. Aberrant expression of these miRNAs has been linked etiologically with various human diseases including breast cancer. Different cellular pathways of breast cancer development such as cell proliferation, apoptotic response, metastasis, cancer recurrence and chemoresistance are regulated by either the oncogenic miRNA (oncomiR) or tumor suppressor miRNA (tsmiR). In this review, we highlight the current state of research into miRNA involved in breast cancer, with particular attention to articles published between the years 2000 to 2019, using detailed searches of the databases PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus. The post-transcriptional gene regulatory roles of various dysregulated miRNAs in breast cancer and their potential as therapeutic targets are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Regulation by Non-Coding RNAs)
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Open AccessReview
The Effect of Polyphenols on Hypercholesterolemia through Inhibiting the Transport and Expression of Niemann–Pick C1-Like 1
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20(19), 4939; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194939 - 06 Oct 2019
Viewed by 281
Abstract
The Niemann–Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) protein is a cholesterol transporter that is expressed in the small intestine. This report describes the discovery of NPC1L1, its transport properties, and the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on NPC1L1. NPC1L1 was identified in 2004 while searching for [...] Read more.
The Niemann–Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) protein is a cholesterol transporter that is expressed in the small intestine. This report describes the discovery of NPC1L1, its transport properties, and the inhibitory effects of polyphenols on NPC1L1. NPC1L1 was identified in 2004 while searching for ezetimibe molecular targets. Excessive synthesis of cholesterol results in hyperlipidemia, which increases the amount of bile cholesterol excreted into the duodenum. The inhibition of NPC1L1 decreases blood cholesterol because food and bile cholesterol are also absorbed from NPC1L1 in the intestine. Some polyphenols, particularly luteolin, have been reported as NPC1L1-mediated anti-dyslipidemia constituents. Luteolin affects NPC1L1 through two mechanisms. Luteolin directly inhibits NPC1L1 by binding to it, which occurs in a short timeframe similar to that for ezetimibe. The other mechanism is the inhibition of NPC1L1 expression. Luteolin reduced the binding of Sterol-regulatory element-binding protein 2 (SREBP2) in the promoter region of the NPC1L1 gene and decreased mRNA levels of SREBP2 and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α. These data suggest that luteolin decreases the expression of NPC1L1 through regulation of transcription factors. This review also explores the effect of other polyphenols on NPC1L1 and hypercholesterolemia. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Perspectives on the Health Benefits of Flavonoids)
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