Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems

Dear Colleagues,

Technology today is evolving at such a rapid pace, enabling faster change and progress, causing an acceleration of the rate of change. The materials, methods and technologies recognized several years ago as new ones, today, often seem to be not efficient enough when compared to the market and industrial requirements. Accordingly, in the past several years, research on the development of modern conceptions of manufacturing systems has revolved around new concepts that are able to meet the assumptions of focused flexibility and the challenges of the Industry 4.0 philosophy. In this context, new practical and scientific results are of great interest and importance to mechanical engineering. Special attention is continuously given to the problems of new manufacturing technologies and modern conceptions of manufacturing systems that allow us to make high-quality products with a high level of effectiveness and a proper level of flexibility. Therefore, we would like to invite you to submit your research paper to the Topic “Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems”.

This Topic seeks high-quality works focusing on the following topics:

  • Modern methods of machining;
  • Metal-forming technologies;
  • Joining technologies;
  • Additive manufacturing technology;
  • Laser machining technology;
  • Industrial assembly technologies;
  • Manufacturing engineering of composite materials;
  • Manufacturing systems design for industrial applications;
  • Paradigms of modern manufacturing system designs;
  • Flexible and focused manufacturing systems;
  • Reconfigurable manufacturing systems and other manufacturing concepts of the future;
  • Advanced industrial engineering;
  • Manufacturing system capacity balancing;
  • Sustainable material-handling systems.

Deadline for abstract submissions: 31 December 2021.
Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 March 2022.

Topic Board

Prof. Dr. Arkadiusz Gola
E-Mail Website
Topic Editor-in-Chief
Department of Production Computerisation and Robotisation, Lublin University of Technology, 20-618 Lublin, Poland
Interests: manufacturing systems design; operations management; production logistics; lean manufacturing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Izabela Nielsen
E-Mail
Topic Associate Editor-in-Chief
Department of Materials and Production, Aalborg University, 9220 Aalborg Øst, Denmark
Interests: operations research; heuristics; lean manufacturing
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Patrik Grznár
E-Mail Website
Topic Associate Editor-in-Chief
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Žilina, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina, Slovakia
Interests: advanced industrial engineering; modeling and simulation; manufacturing concepts of the future; factory of the future; smart factory
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Keywords

  • technology;
  • machining;
  • metal forming;
  • additive technology;
  • laser machining;
  • joining and assembly technologies;
  • manufacturing systems;
  • production automation and robotization;
  • Industry 4.0;
  • advanced industrial engineering;
  • factory of the future

Relevant Journals List

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Materials
materials
3.623 4.2 2008 13.56 Days 2000 CHF Submit
Processes
processes
2.847 2.4 2013 11.6 Days 2000 CHF Submit
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.679 3.0 2011 13.8 Days 2000 CHF Submit
Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
jmmp
- 2.0 2017 11.97 Days 1400 CHF Submit

Published Papers (34 papers)

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Article
FE-Simulation Based Design of Wear-Optimized Cutting Edge Roundings
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5040126 (registering DOI) - 25 Nov 2021
Abstract
The performance of cutting tools can be significantly enhanced by matching the cutting edge rounding to the process and material properties. However, the conventional cutting edge rounding design is characterized by a significant number of experimental machining studies, which involve considerable cost, time, [...] Read more.
The performance of cutting tools can be significantly enhanced by matching the cutting edge rounding to the process and material properties. However, the conventional cutting edge rounding design is characterized by a significant number of experimental machining studies, which involve considerable cost, time, and resources. In this study, a novel approach to cutting edge rounding design using FEM-based chip formation simulations is presented. Based on a parameterized simulation model, tool temperatures, stresses and relative velocities can be calculated as a function of tool microgeometry. It can be shown that the external tool loads can be simulated with high agreement. With the help of these loads and the use of wear models, the resulting tool wear and the optimum cutting edge rounding can be determined. The final experimental investigations show a qualitatively high agreement to the simulation, which will enable a reduced effort design of the cutting edge in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Research and Implementation of Lean Production Mode in Shipbuilding
Processes 2021, 9(11), 2071; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9112071 - 18 Nov 2021
Abstract
This paper studies the production process of a shipbuilding enterprise. The company suffers from long manufacturing cycle, low utilization rate of personnel and an unbalanced production line. To solve these problems, the lean shipbuilding mode, mainly divided into shipbuilding work breakdown, production plan [...] Read more.
This paper studies the production process of a shipbuilding enterprise. The company suffers from long manufacturing cycle, low utilization rate of personnel and an unbalanced production line. To solve these problems, the lean shipbuilding mode, mainly divided into shipbuilding work breakdown, production plan and virtual flow operation in this paper, is put forward, which combines the lean production and modern information management technology with shipbuilding. Supported by the theory of work breakdown structure and task package scheduling, the shipbuilding task package is reasonably divided. The priority of task package manufacturing is determined by calculating the task package manufacturing sequence coefficient, and a reasonable number of operators is calculated to ensure the continuity of segmented manufacturing. After determining the manufacturing priority of the task pack and the number of allocable personnel, the corresponding work can be scheduled. Production planning drives all production activities of the shipbuilding enterprise, and just-in-time production is achieved through the reasonable arrangement of these production plans, thus reducing the waste of personnel and time. Then, the virtual flow operation is carried out, which can achieve high efficiency of flow production and high flexibility of fixed workstation production during the production process of large-scale and heavy-duty products. The virtual assembly production system of the workshop is established according to the characteristics of shipbuilding operation and the actual production situation. On this basis, a lean shipbuilding manufacturing execution system for small and medium-sized shipbuilding enterprises is developed to achieve lean production in a shipbuilding workshop. Through the implementation of the lean shipbuilding mode based on task package scheduling and its manufacturing execution system, compared with the original data, the ship production cycle is reduced to 76.7%, the number of workers is reduced by 16.7% and the production balance rate is up to 81%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Experimental Study on Single Corner Cold Bending Mechanical Response of Laminated of PVB Interlayer Tempered Glass Panes and the Coupling Effect with Load
Materials 2021, 14(22), 6914; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14226914 - 16 Nov 2021
Abstract
The cold bending method is a type of curved glass curtain wall construction method that has been used in practical engineering for a short time. It has the advantages of simple operation, high efficiency and low cost. However, the mechanical response and properties [...] Read more.
The cold bending method is a type of curved glass curtain wall construction method that has been used in practical engineering for a short time. It has the advantages of simple operation, high efficiency and low cost. However, the mechanical response and properties of glass panes caused by cold bending have not been solved effectively. To study the mechanical response and the properties of cold formed laminated tempered glass panes after applying with a wind load, cold bending and load tests of 9 laminated tempered glass panes were conducted by the orthogonal experimental design method. The effects of cold bending curvature, glass pane thickness and interlayer thickness were considered. In this paper, the response law of cold bending stress to the curvature and the relationship among the influencing factors were analyzed. The variation process of stress, the deflection of cold-formed glass panes under uniform load and the characteristics affected by cold-formed stress and deformation were studied. The results show that the cold bending stress is distributed in a saddle shape, and the curvature has the greatest influence on the cold bending stress, followed by the thickness of the glass panes. The influence of the interlayer thickness is small. The maximum stress appears near the corner of the short side direction adjacent to the cold bending corner. The cold bending stress increases linearly with increasing cold bending curvature. The cold bending stress and deformation have little effect on the change process of the later stage load effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Investigation of the Process of Simple Distillation in Irrigated Pipe Elements
Processes 2021, 9(11), 2047; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9112047 - 16 Nov 2021
Abstract
In modern chemical and oil refining complexes, separation processes are among the most popular and energy-intensive. Installations for their implementation should be equipped with nodes for creating vapor (evaporators) and liquid (deflegmators) irrigation. Evaporators of any type (film, thermosiphon, gas lift, cubic) belong [...] Read more.
In modern chemical and oil refining complexes, separation processes are among the most popular and energy-intensive. Installations for their implementation should be equipped with nodes for creating vapor (evaporators) and liquid (deflegmators) irrigation. Evaporators of any type (film, thermosiphon, gas lift, cubic) belong to this class of devices. For example, in cubic evaporators, the gas flow is completely formed from flux bubbles that originate on the heat-conducting surface and float in the volume of the cubic liquid located in the apparatus. Due to the accompanying mass exchange, the bubbles are enriched with volatile components during ascent and noticeably increase in volume, and the growth of the bubble is determined, among other things, by the total flow. At the same time, in real bubbling-type equipment, the total mass transfer surface exceeds the cross-section of the device itself by more than two orders of magnitude. Thus, according to, the ratio of the internal cross-sectional area of the apparatus to the developed mass transfer surface is 0.0015–0.002. Based on the analysis of the integral equation of the diffusion boundary layer, it is shown that the presence of a resultant flow of substance through the phase interface (non-equimolarity of the process) in a two-phase gas (vapor)–liquid system leads to the transformation of the structure of the traditional mass transfer equation itself. The use of a new structure obtained for both binary and multicomponent mixtures makes it possible to significantly simplify the approach to the description and generalization of arbitrary mass transfer processes. The innovativeness of the proposed approach lies in its universality for non-equimolar processes. This simplifies the creation of models of any mass transfer devices and entire production lines. In addition, the proposed approach is a good auxiliary tool for various researchers and experimenters. It should also be noted that the separation processes of many products of organic origin during heating are characterized by the appearance of undesirable side reactions (thermal decomposition, condensation, polycondensation, formation of harmful impurities, etc.), which occur most intensively in the heating zones. At the same time, the evaporation and distillation units are subject to requirements for the minimum hydraulic resistance of the structure, the maximum separation capacity (efficiency), and the minimum residence time of the product in the apparatus (equivalent to the minimum holding capacity of the structure). It was noted that the specified requirements are most fully met by film-type devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Development Approach Model for Automotive Headlights with Mixed Delivery Methodologies over APQP Backbone
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10581; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210581 - 10 Nov 2021
Abstract
Headlights’ development for the automotive industry is gaining a lot of volatility due to frequent changes in features, styling and design, hardware interfaces, and software upgrades required by the OEM, supplier, or new trends in regulations. Standard development models based on V-cycle compliant [...] Read more.
Headlights’ development for the automotive industry is gaining a lot of volatility due to frequent changes in features, styling and design, hardware interfaces, and software upgrades required by the OEM, supplier, or new trends in regulations. Standard development models based on V-cycle compliant with CMMI are not responding with reactivity on constant changes. The article proposes an approach based on mixed development strategies over the different core domains with Lean, Scrum, Feature-Driven Development, and VDI to satisfy the APQP milestones, with a proposal of a canvas-type model, the rapid delivery of headlights is portrayed. The efficiency and effectiveness of the model are assessed based on the assumed number of changes for new high-end headlights, based on experience and real cases. A delivery baseline LED-based Headlight development—planned versus actual—chart is presented and explained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Review
Preparation of Smart Materials by Additive Manufacturing Technologies: A Review
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216442 - 27 Oct 2021
Abstract
Over the last few decades, advanced manufacturing and additive printing technologies have made incredible inroads into the fields of engineering, transportation, and healthcare. Among additive manufacturing technologies, 3D printing is gradually emerging as a powerful technique owing to a combination of attractive features, [...] Read more.
Over the last few decades, advanced manufacturing and additive printing technologies have made incredible inroads into the fields of engineering, transportation, and healthcare. Among additive manufacturing technologies, 3D printing is gradually emerging as a powerful technique owing to a combination of attractive features, such as fast prototyping, fabrication of complex designs/structures, minimization of waste generation, and easy mass customization. Of late, 4D printing has also been initiated, which is the sophisticated version of the 3D printing. It has an extra advantageous feature: retaining shape memory and being able to provide instructions to the printed parts on how to move or adapt under some environmental conditions, such as, water, wind, light, temperature, or other environmental stimuli. This advanced printing utilizes the response of smart manufactured materials, which offer the capability of changing shapes postproduction over application of any forms of energy. The potential application of 4D printing in the biomedical field is huge. Here, the technology could be applied to tissue engineering, medicine, and configuration of smart biomedical devices. Various characteristics of next generation additive printings, namely 3D and 4D printings, and their use in enhancing the manufacturing domain, their development, and some of the applications have been discussed. Special materials with piezoelectric properties and shape-changing characteristics have also been discussed in comparison with conventional material options for additive printing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Technology Recommendations for an Innovative Agricultural Robot Design Based on Technology Knowledge Graphs
Processes 2021, 9(11), 1905; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9111905 - 26 Oct 2021
Abstract
The process of agricultural robot design is a complex system requiring the cooperation and integration of agricultural, machinery, automation, and information technology. These demands create great challenges for the innovative design of agricultural robots. Meanwhile, more than 95% of the latest inventions and [...] Read more.
The process of agricultural robot design is a complex system requiring the cooperation and integration of agricultural, machinery, automation, and information technology. These demands create great challenges for the innovative design of agricultural robots. Meanwhile, more than 95% of the latest inventions and creations in the world are recorded in the patent literature. In order to make effective use of the information and data resources of patents, shorten the design cycle, and provide knowledge for the designers, according to the operation’s objectives, an agricultural robot technology knowledge graph (TKG) was established for innovative designs. By analyzing the patent information, a patent IPC co-classification network (IPCNet) for adaptive design process recognition was put forward to meet the requirements of the different operation objectives and operation links. Through the extraction of the technology keywords and efficacy keywords, based on the word co-occurrence network (WCONet), a technology–efficacy map (TEM) was constructed. Through the integration of the adaptive design process and the TEM, the agricultural robot design TKG was constructed for determining technological recommendations for agricultural robot design. The case of the citrus picking robot design was realized to implement the design process. With the technology recommendation results, the moving system, body, and end-effector for the citrus picking robot were designed to verify the results of the recommendation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Optimal Design of Accumulator Parameters for an Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator at Low Speed
Processes 2021, 9(11), 1903; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9111903 - 26 Oct 2021
Abstract
The electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA) is a type of highly integrated, compact, closed pump control drive system composed of a servo motor, a metering pump, a hydraulic cylinder and other components. Compared with the traditional valve control system, the electro-hydrostatic actuator has the advantages [...] Read more.
The electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA) is a type of highly integrated, compact, closed pump control drive system composed of a servo motor, a metering pump, a hydraulic cylinder and other components. Compared with the traditional valve control system, the electro-hydrostatic actuator has the advantages of a high power-to-weight ratio, high integration, environmental friendliness, and superior efficiency and energy saving. However, due to the complex mechanical–hydraulic coupling mechanism of the system and the existence of non-linear multi-source disturbances, the dynamic and static performance of the system is limited, particularly the pressure pulsation phenomenon under low-speed conditions, which seriously affects the high precision control requirements of the system. In order to address the low-speed pressure pulsation problem of the electro-hydrostatic actuator, first, the mathematical models of the servo motor, metering pump and hydraulic cylinder are established, and the simulation model of the EHA system is created based on MATLAB/Simulink. Second, from aspects of the servo motor and the quantitative piston pump, the causes of the pressure pulsation under low-speed working conditions are analyzed, and the parameter selection method of the accumulator is proposed to eliminate the pressure pulsation based on ωn and ζ of the EHA system. Finally, the optimal charging pressure of the accumulator is simulated and experimentally analyzed. The simulation and experimental results show that the charging pressure range of the accumulator calculated with this method can effectively improve the pressure pulsation phenomenon of the EHA system under low-speed working conditions, and it plays a positive role in the engineering popularization and application of the EHA system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Transfer and Optimisation of Injection Moulding Manufacture of Medical Devices Using Scientific Moulding Principles
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5040113 - 25 Oct 2021
Abstract
Scientific moulding, also known as decoupled injection moulding, is a production methodology used to develop and determine robust moulding processes resilient to fluctuations caused by variation in temperature and viscosity. Scientific moulding relies on the meticulous collection of data from the manufacturing process, [...] Read more.
Scientific moulding, also known as decoupled injection moulding, is a production methodology used to develop and determine robust moulding processes resilient to fluctuations caused by variation in temperature and viscosity. Scientific moulding relies on the meticulous collection of data from the manufacturing process, especially inputs of time (fill, pack/hold), temperature (melt, barrel, tool), and pressure (injection, hold, etc.). This publication presents a use case where scientific moulding was used to enable the transfer and optimisation of an injection moulding process from an Arburg 221M injection moulding machine to an Arburg 375 V model. The part was an endovascular aneurysm repair dilator device where a polypropylene hub was moulded over a high-density polyethylene dilator insert. Upon transfer, multiple studies were carried out, including material rheology study during injection, gate freeze study, cavity balance of the moulding tool, and pressure loss analysis. A design of experiments was developed and carried out on the process with a variety of effects and responses. The developed process cycle time was compared to that achieved theoretically using mathematical modelling and the original process cycle time. The studies resulted in the identification of optimum parameters for injection speed, holding time, holding pressure, cooling time, and mould temperature. The process was verified by completing a 32-shot study and recording part weights and dimensional measurements to confirm repeatability and consistency of the process. The output from the study was a reduction in cycle time by 12.05 s from the original process. A cycle time of 47.28 s was theoretically calculated for the process, which is within 6.6% of the practical experiment results (44.15 s). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Mini-Refinery Vacuum Unit: Functional Analysis and Improvement of Vacuum Overhead System
Processes 2021, 9(11), 1865; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9111865 - 20 Oct 2021
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze the functioning of the vacuum distillation unit of a mini-refinery and to develop recommendations for improving the vacuum overhead system with the aim to reduce the cost of creating and maintaining a vacuum in the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the functioning of the vacuum distillation unit of a mini-refinery and to develop recommendations for improving the vacuum overhead system with the aim to reduce the cost of creating and maintaining a vacuum in the fuel oil separation column. A calculation model of the vacuum unit was developed in the Unisim Design R451 software package, which was identified by comparing the calculated data with the data from an industrial study for two operating modes of the installation. Replacing the existing steam-ejector pump with a liquid-ring vacuum pump was proposed. A numerical experiment was carried out on the developed model, the purpose of which was to determine the “bottlenecks” of the scheme. The peculiarity of the experiment was that the vacuum column and the vacuum overhead system were considered as a single whole. As a result, it was determined that the “bottleneck” is the condenser, which was proposed to be replaced. During the technical and economic analysis, two possible vacuum overhead system schemes were considered; according to the results, it was determined that the vacuum overhead system scheme based on a liquid-ring vacuum pump will help reduce operating costs by 78%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Uniform Pressing Mechanism in Large-Area Roll-to-Roll Nanoimprint Lithography Process
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(20), 9571; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209571 - 14 Oct 2021
Abstract
We aimed to increase the processing area of the roll-to-roll (R2R) nanoimprint lithography (NIL) process for high productivity, using a long roller. It is common for a long roller to have bending deformation, geometric errors and misalignment. This causes the non-uniformity of contact [...] Read more.
We aimed to increase the processing area of the roll-to-roll (R2R) nanoimprint lithography (NIL) process for high productivity, using a long roller. It is common for a long roller to have bending deformation, geometric errors and misalignment. This causes the non-uniformity of contact pressure between the rollers, which leads to defects such as non-uniform patterning. The non-uniformity of the contact pressure of the conventional R2R NIL system was investigated through finite element (FE) analysis and experiments in the conventional system. To solve the problem, a new large-area R2R NIL uniform pressing system with five multi-backup rollers was proposed and manufactured instead of the conventional system. As a preliminary experiment, the possibility of uniform contact pressure was confirmed by using only the pressure at both ends and one backup roller in the center. A more even contact pressure was achieved by using all five backup rollers and applying an appropriate pushing force to each backup roller. Machine learning techniques were applied to find the optimal combination of the pushing forces. In the conventional pressing process, it was confirmed that pressure deviation of the contact area occurred at a level of 44%; when the improved system was applied, pressure deviation dropped to 5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Influence of Process Parameters and Initial Surface on Magnetic Abrasive Finishing of Flat Surfaces on CNC Machine Tools
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5040108 - 14 Oct 2021
Abstract
Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) shows a high potential for use on computerized numerical control (CNC) machine tools as a standard tool to polish workpieces directly after the milling process. This paper presents a new MAF tool with a single, large permanent magnet and [...] Read more.
Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) shows a high potential for use on computerized numerical control (CNC) machine tools as a standard tool to polish workpieces directly after the milling process. This paper presents a new MAF tool with a single, large permanent magnet and a novel top cover structure for finishing the plain ferromagnetic workpieces. The top cover structure of the MAF tool, combined with an optimized working gap, ensures the effect of mechanical powder compaction, which leads to a significant increase in process capability and surface roughness reduction. The influence of the process parameters such as feed rate, equivalent cutting speed, working gap (including for three grain sizes) and the gap to the magnet was investigated. In addition, the influence of the initial surface after face milling, end milling, ball end milling and grinding on the surface quality after MAF was investigated. Furthermore, three typical surfaces after milling and MAF were analyzed. By magnetic abrasive finishing, a significant surface quality improvement of the initial milled surfaces to roughness values up to Ra = 0.02 µm and Rz = 0.12 µm in one processing step could be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Penetration Depth Prediction of Infinity Shaped Laser Scanning Welding Based on Latin Hypercube Sampling and the Neuroevolution of Augmenting Topologies
Materials 2021, 14(20), 5984; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14205984 - 12 Oct 2021
Abstract
This paper builds an infinity shaped (“∞”-shaped) laser scanning welding test platform based on a self-developed motion controller and galvanometer scanner control gateway, takes the autogenous bead-on-plate welding of 304SS with 3 mm thick specimens as the experimental objects, designs the experimental parameters [...] Read more.
This paper builds an infinity shaped (“∞”-shaped) laser scanning welding test platform based on a self-developed motion controller and galvanometer scanner control gateway, takes the autogenous bead-on-plate welding of 304SS with 3 mm thick specimens as the experimental objects, designs the experimental parameters by the Latin hypercube sampling method for obtaining different penetration depth welded joints, and presents a methodology based on the neuroevolution of augmenting topologies for predicting the penetration depth of “∞”-shaped laser scanning welding. Laser power, welding speed, scanning frequency, and scanning amplitude are set as the input parameters of the model, and welding depth (WD) as the output parameter of the model. The model can accurately reflect the nonlinear relationship between the main welding parameters and WD by validation. Moreover, the normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of the welding depth is about 6.2%. On the whole, the proposed methodology and model can be employed for guiding the actual work in the main process parameters’ preliminary selection and lay the foundation for the study of penetration morphology control of “∞”-shaped laser scanning welding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Influence of Moulding Pressure on the Burst Pressure of Reverse-Acting Rupture Discs
Processes 2021, 9(10), 1775; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9101775 - 04 Oct 2021
Abstract
Rupture discs, also called bursting discs, are widely used in pressure vessels, pressure equipment, and pressure piping in process industries, such as nuclear power, fire protection, and petrochemical industries. To explore the relationship between the burst pressure of reverse-acting rupture discs and their [...] Read more.
Rupture discs, also called bursting discs, are widely used in pressure vessels, pressure equipment, and pressure piping in process industries, such as nuclear power, fire protection, and petrochemical industries. To explore the relationship between the burst pressure of reverse-acting rupture discs and their production, two common manufacturing methods, air pressure moulding and hydraulic moulding, were compared in this study. Reverse-acting rupture discs that complied with the form recommended by API 520-2014 were prepared with four release diameters, and burst pressure tests were carried out. These results showed an obvious negative correlation between the forming pressure of rupture discs and their actual burst pressure for all experimental samples. Further study showed that the main reason for this correlation was a reduction in thickness at the top of the rupture disc caused by large plastic deformation during compression moulding. To explore the relationship between the thickness reduction effect and moulding method, this study defined the “relative ratio of thickness reduction” and concluded that the effect of decreasing the thickness of the rupture disc was more obvious for rupture disc substrates with less flexural rigidity. The above conclusions have important significance for guiding the control of the burst pressure of rupture discs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Communication
Machine Learning of Surface Layer Property Prediction for Milling Operations
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5040104 - 30 Sep 2021
Abstract
Tool wear and cutting parameters have a significant effect on the surface layer properties in milling. Since the relation between tool wear, cutting parameters, and surface layer properties is mostly unknown, the latter cannot be controlled during production and may vary from part [...] Read more.
Tool wear and cutting parameters have a significant effect on the surface layer properties in milling. Since the relation between tool wear, cutting parameters, and surface layer properties is mostly unknown, the latter cannot be controlled during production and may vary from part to part as tool wear progresses. To account for this uncertainty and to prevent premature failure, components often need to be oversized or surface layer properties need to be adjusted in subsequent manufacturing processes. Several approaches have been made to obtain models that predict the surface layer properties induced by manufacturing processes. However, those approaches need to be calibrated with a considerable number of experimental trials. As trials are time-consuming and surface layer measurements are laborious, no industrial applications have been realized. Complex models have one major drawback. They have to be re-parameterized as soon as process characteristics change. Therefore, manual experimental parameterization does not appear to be a feasible approach for industrial application. A highly automated approach for the machine learning of the relation between tool wear, cutting parameters and surface layer properties is presented in this paper. The amount of obtained measurement data allows a fundamental analysis of the approach, which paves the way for further developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
A New Perspective for Solving Manufacturing Scheduling Based Problems Respecting New Data Considerations
Processes 2021, 9(10), 1700; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9101700 - 23 Sep 2021
Abstract
In order to attain high manufacturing productivity, industry 4.0 merges all the available system and environment data that can empower the enabled-intelligent techniques. The use of data provokes the manufacturing self-awareness, reconfiguring the traditional manufacturing challenges. The current piece of research renders attention [...] Read more.
In order to attain high manufacturing productivity, industry 4.0 merges all the available system and environment data that can empower the enabled-intelligent techniques. The use of data provokes the manufacturing self-awareness, reconfiguring the traditional manufacturing challenges. The current piece of research renders attention to new consideration in the Job Shop Scheduling (JSSP) based problems as a case study. In that field, a great number of previous research papers provided optimization solutions for JSSP, relying on heuristics based algorithms. The current study investigates the main elements of such algorithms to provide a concise anatomy and a review on the previous research papers. Going through the study, a new optimization scope is introduced relying on additional available data of a machine, by which the Flexible Job-Shop Scheduling Problem (FJSP) is converted to a dynamic machine state assignation problem. Deploying two-stages, the study utilizes a combination of discrete Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and a selection based algorithm followed by a modified local search algorithm to attain an optimized case solution. The selection based algorithm is imported to beat the ever-growing randomness combined with the increasing number of data-types. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
The Effect of Plug Rotation Speed on Micro-Structure of Nugget Zone of Friction Plug Repair Welding Joint for 6082 Aluminum Alloy
Materials 2021, 14(18), 5287; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185287 - 14 Sep 2021
Abstract
This paper carried out the friction plug repair welding of 6082 aluminum alloy keyhole defects by using the method of friction heating between shaft shoulder and base material. In addition, a well-formed friction plug welding joint was obtained at different plug rotation speeds. [...] Read more.
This paper carried out the friction plug repair welding of 6082 aluminum alloy keyhole defects by using the method of friction heating between shaft shoulder and base material. In addition, a well-formed friction plug welding joint was obtained at different plug rotation speeds. In order to study the influence mechanism of plug rotation speeds on the microstructure of the weld nugget zone, EBSD technology was used to analyze the grain morphology, grain size and grain boundary characteristics of the weld nugget zone under different rotation speeds of the plug rod. The results show that in the nugget zone, the grain was fine and equated crystals refinement, and there was a preferred orientation. The deformation texture components in the welded nugget zone increased with the plug rotation speed from 1600 to 2000 rpm. However, the grain size first decreased and then increased, while the components in the High-Angle Boundary first increased and then decreased. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Application of a Thermo-Hydrodynamic Model of a Viscous Torsional Vibration Damper to Determining Its Operating Temperature in a Steady State
Materials 2021, 14(18), 5234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185234 - 11 Sep 2021
Abstract
The problem of damping torsional vibrations of the crankshaft of a multi-cylinder engine is very important from the point of view of the durability and operational reliability of the drive unit. Over the years, attempts have been made to eliminate these vibrations and [...] Read more.
The problem of damping torsional vibrations of the crankshaft of a multi-cylinder engine is very important from the point of view of the durability and operational reliability of the drive unit. Over the years, attempts have been made to eliminate these vibrations and the phenomena accompanying them using various methods. One of the methods that effectively increases the durability and reliability of the drive unit is the use of a torsional vibration damper. The torsional vibration damper is designed and selected individually for a given drive system. A well-selected damper reduces the amplitude of the torsional vibrations of the shaft in the entire operating speed range of the engine. This paper proposes a thermo-hydrodynamic model of a viscous torsional vibration damper that enables the determination of the correct operating temperature range of the damper. The input parameters for the model, in particular the angular velocities of the damper elements as well as the geometric and mass dimensions of the damper were determined on a test stand equipped with a six-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a factory torsional vibration damper. The damper surface operating temperatures used in model verification were measured with a laser pyrometer. The presented comparative analysis of the results obtained numerically (theoretically) and the results obtained experimentally allow us to conclude that the proposed damper model gives an appropriate approximation to reality and can be used in the process of selecting a damper for the drive unit. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Alginate Nanohydrogels as a Biocompatible Platform for the Controlled Release of a Hydrophilic Herbicide
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1641; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9091641 - 11 Sep 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
The large-scale application of volatile and highly water-soluble pesticides to guarantee crop production can often have negative impacts on the environment. The main loss pathways are vapor drift, direct volatilization, or leaching of the active substances. Consequently, the pesticide can either accumulate and/or [...] Read more.
The large-scale application of volatile and highly water-soluble pesticides to guarantee crop production can often have negative impacts on the environment. The main loss pathways are vapor drift, direct volatilization, or leaching of the active substances. Consequently, the pesticide can either accumulate and/or undergo physicochemical transformations in the soil. In this scenario, we synthesized alginate nanoparticles using an inverse miniemulsion template in sunflower oil and successfully used them to encapsulate a hydrophilic herbicide, i.e., dicamba. The formulation and process conditions were adjusted to obtain a unimodal size distribution of nanohydrogels of about 20 nm. The loading of the nanoparticles with dicamba did not affect the nanohydrogel size nor the particle stability. The release of dicamba from the nanohydrogels was also tested: the alginate nanoparticles promoted the sustained and prolonged release of dicamba over ten days, demonstrating the potential of our preparation method to be employed for field application. The encapsulation of hydrophilic compounds inside our alginate nanoparticles could enable a more efficient use of pesticides, minimizing losses and thus environmental spreading. The use of biocompatible materials (alginate, sunflower oil) also guarantees the absence of toxic additives in the formulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
The Behavior of Supersonic Jets Generated by Combination Gas in the Steelmaking Process
Materials 2021, 14(17), 5034; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14175034 - 03 Sep 2021
Abstract
In the duplex steelmaking process, the oxygen flow rate is suppressed to reduce the increasing rate of the temperature in the molten bath, resulting in severe dynamic conditions. To improve the mixing effect of the molten bath, a Laval nozzle structure designed for [...] Read more.
In the duplex steelmaking process, the oxygen flow rate is suppressed to reduce the increasing rate of the temperature in the molten bath, resulting in severe dynamic conditions. To improve the mixing effect of the molten bath, a Laval nozzle structure designed for combination gas has been proposed. In this research, five types of Laval nozzle structure have been built based on the combination gas content, and both numerical simulations and experiments are performed to analyze the flow field of the supersonic jet. The axial velocity and oxygen concentration were measured in the experiment, which agreed well with the numerically simulated data. The results show that both initial axial velocity and potential core length increase with the flow rate of combination gas. Further, applying a higher N2 flow rate could improve the oxygen utilization rate at different ambient temperatures, but this issue increases the oxygen utilization rate; however, the latter can be reduced at higher ambient temperatures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Evolution of Precipitated Phases during Creep of G115/Sanicro25 Dissimilar Steel Welded Joints
Materials 2021, 14(17), 5018; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14175018 - 02 Sep 2021
Abstract
This paper studies the evolution of the microstructure and microhardness in the G115 side of the G115/Sanicro25 dissimilar steel welded joint during the creep process. The joints were subjected to creep tests at 675 °C, 140 MPa, 120 MPa and 100 MPa. A [...] Read more.
This paper studies the evolution of the microstructure and microhardness in the G115 side of the G115/Sanicro25 dissimilar steel welded joint during the creep process. The joints were subjected to creep tests at 675 °C, 140 MPa, 120 MPa and 100 MPa. A scanning electron microscope equipped with an electron backscattering diffraction camera was used to observe the microstructure of the cross-section. The fracture position of the joint and the relationship between the cavity and the second phase were analyzed. The microstructure morphology of the fracture, the base metal and the thread end was compared and the composition and size of the Laves phase were statistically analyzed. The results show that the fracture locations are all located in the fine-grain heat-affected zone (FGHAZ) zone, and the microstructure near the fracture is tempered martensite. There are two kinds of cavity in the fracture section. Small cavities sprout adjacent to the Laves phase; while large cavities occupy the entire prior austenite grain, there are more precipitated phases around the cavities. The Laves phase nucleates at the boundary of the M23C6 carbide and gradually grows up by merging the M23C6 carbide. Creep accelerates the coarsening rate of the Laves phase; aging increases the content of W element in the Laves phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Optimization Design of Centrifugal Pump Flow Control System Based on Adaptive Control
Processes 2021, 9(9), 1538; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9091538 - 29 Aug 2021
Abstract
In this paper, in order to improve the control characteristics of the centrifugal pump flow control system, a mathematical model of the centrifugal pump flow control system was established based on an analysis of the basic structures, such as the frequency converter, motor, [...] Read more.
In this paper, in order to improve the control characteristics of the centrifugal pump flow control system, a mathematical model of the centrifugal pump flow control system was established based on an analysis of the basic structures, such as the frequency converter, motor, and centrifugal pump. Based on the adaptive control theory, the recursive least squares algorithm with a forgetting factor was used to estimate the real-time parameters of the centrifugal pump control system, and the self-tuning PID control method was used to optimize the mathematical model of the centrifugal pump flow control system. The simulation results showed that the adjustment time of the optimized system was shortened by 16.58%, and the maximum overshoot was reduced by 83.90%, which improved the rapidity and stability of the transient response of the system. This showed that adaptive control had a significant effect on improving the robustness and anti-interference ability of the centrifugal pump control system. In order to further verify the accuracy of the self-tuning PID control method, a flow adaptive control system test platform was built. The test results showed that under the conditions of constant frequency and variable frequency, the actual flow rate of the centrifugal pump was always kept near the set flow rate, the error was small, and it had better real-time followability. The research results showed that adaptive control could revise the parameters in real-time according to changes to the centrifugal pump control system, which improved the stability and robustness of the system. Therefore, adaptive PID control could effectively improve the adaptability of centrifugal pumps to various complex working conditions and improve the working efficiency of centrifugal pumps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
The Influence of Mesh Granularity on the Accuracy of FEM Modelling of the Resonant State in a Microwave Chamber
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(17), 7932; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11177932 - 27 Aug 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Microwave technology is widely used in different areas of advanced industry when energy must be provided to water-containing and other materials. The main barrier in the development of microwave devices is the possibility of efficient design by modelling a microwave system in a [...] Read more.
Microwave technology is widely used in different areas of advanced industry when energy must be provided to water-containing and other materials. The main barrier in the development of microwave devices is the possibility of efficient design by modelling a microwave system in a resonant state. For technical systems, the finite element method is widely used. However, the convergence process in the microwave finite element solver is sophisticated. The process itself and the influence of mesh granularity on the accuracy of modelling of microwave chambers in resonant states have not been investigated previously. The present paper aims to fill this gap. The resonance conditions of a microwave chamber were tested from the point of view of spatial resolution of the tetrahedral mesh used for open-source ELMER FEM software. The presented results experimentally determine the limits of accuracy of the geometry of microwave resonant chamber finite element method-based models. The determined values of microwave resonant chamber dimension tolerances should be considered for both open-source and commercial software for microwave modelling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Effect of Post-Process Curing and Washing Time on Mechanical Properties of mSLA Printouts
Materials 2021, 14(17), 4856; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14174856 - 26 Aug 2021
Abstract
The article discusses the influence of the post-process on the mechanical properties of elements produced with the use of the mask stereolithography (mSLA) method. Printed samples were subjected to the following post-process steps: Washing and post-curing, at various times. Then, static tensile and [...] Read more.
The article discusses the influence of the post-process on the mechanical properties of elements produced with the use of the mask stereolithography (mSLA) method. Printed samples were subjected to the following post-process steps: Washing and post-curing, at various times. Then, static tensile and static bending tests were carried out, as well as Shore D hardness measurements for the inner and surface part of the sample, as well as profilographometric analysis of the surface. The post-curing time has been found to strongly affect the tensile and bending strength of printouts, and to improve their surface quality. Washing has an ambiguous effect on the strength of the printouts, but, in the end, it was found that extended washing slightly reduces the strength. Washing significantly affects the quality of the printout surface. A washing time that is too short results in a surface that strongly resembles the printing process, with high roughness. Increasing the washing time to 10 min lowers the roughness by one order of magnitude. Post-curing has also been shown to be beneficial for the cured sample with the application of shielding water. This approach results in an improvement in the flexural strength of the printouts. In general, the obtained research results indicate that, for printouts with cross-sectional dimensions of several mm, the optimal washing time is no more than 10 min and the post-curing time is at least 30 min. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
A Versatile Punch Stroke Correction Model for Trial V-Bending of Sheet Metals Based on Data-Driven Method
Materials 2021, 14(17), 4790; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14174790 - 24 Aug 2021
Abstract
During air bending of sheet metals, the correction of punch stroke for springback control is always implemented through repeated trial bending until achieving the forming accuracy of bending parts. In this study, a modelling method for correction of punch stroke is presented for [...] Read more.
During air bending of sheet metals, the correction of punch stroke for springback control is always implemented through repeated trial bending until achieving the forming accuracy of bending parts. In this study, a modelling method for correction of punch stroke is presented for guiding trial bending based on a data-driven technique. Firstly, the big data for the model are mainly generated from a large number of finite element simulations, considering many variables, e.g., material parameters, dimensions of V-dies and blanks, and processing parameters. Based on the big data, two punch stroke correction models are developed via neural network and dimensional analysis, respectively. The analytic comparison shows that the neural network model is more suitable for guiding trial bending of sheet metals than the dimensional analysis model, which has mechanical significance. The actual trial bending tests prove that the neural-network-based punch stroke correction model presents great versatility and accuracy in the guidance of trial bending, leading to a reduction in the number of trial bends and an improvement in the production efficiency of air bending. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Design and Performance Test of the Coffee Bean Classifier
Processes 2021, 9(8), 1462; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9081462 - 21 Aug 2021
Abstract
Currently, some coffee production centers still perform classification manually, which requires a very long time, a lot of labor, and expensive operational costs. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to design and test the performance of a coffee bean classifier that can [...] Read more.
Currently, some coffee production centers still perform classification manually, which requires a very long time, a lot of labor, and expensive operational costs. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to design and test the performance of a coffee bean classifier that can accelerate the process of classifying beans. The classifier used consisted of three main parts, namely the frame, the driving force, and sieves. The research parameters included classifier work capacity, power, specific energy, classification distribution and effectiveness, and efficiency. The results showed that the best operating conditions of the coffee bean classifier was a rotational speed of 91.07 rpm and a 16° sieve angle with a classifier working capacity of 38.27 kg/h: the distribution of the seeds retained in the first sieve was 56.77%, the second sieve was 28.12%, and the third sieve was 15.11%. The efficiency of using a classifier was found at a rotating speed of 91.07 rpm and a sieve angle of 16°. This classifier was simple in design, easy to operate, and can sort coffee beans into three classifications, namely small, medium, and large. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Process Behavior and Product Quality in Fertilizer Manufacturing Using Continuous Hopper Transfer Pan Granulation—Experimental Investigations
Processes 2021, 9(8), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9081439 - 19 Aug 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
Fertilizers are commonly used to improve the soil quality in both conventional and organic agriculture. One such fertilizer is dolomite for which soil application in granulated form is advantageous. These granules are commonly produced from ground dolomite powder in continuous pan transfer granulators. [...] Read more.
Fertilizers are commonly used to improve the soil quality in both conventional and organic agriculture. One such fertilizer is dolomite for which soil application in granulated form is advantageous. These granules are commonly produced from ground dolomite powder in continuous pan transfer granulators. During production, the granulator’s operation parameters affect the granules’ properties and thereby also the overall performance of the fertilizer. To ensure product granules of certain specifications and an efficient overall production, process control and intensification approaches based on mathematical models can be applied. However, the latter require high-quality quantitative experimental data describing the effects of process operation parameters on the granule properties. Therefore, in this article, such data is presented for a lab-scale experimental setup. Investigations were carried out into how variations in binder spray rate, binder composition, feed powder flow rate, pan inclination angle, and angular velocity affect particle size distribution, mechanical stability, and humidity. Furthermore, in contrast to existing work samples from both, pan granules and product granules are analyzed. The influence of operation parameter variations on the differences between both, also known as trajectory separation, is described quantitatively. The results obtained indicate an increase in the average particle size with increasing binder flow rate to feed rate and increasing binder concentration and the inclination angle of the pan. Compressive strength varied significantly depending on the operating parameters. Significant differences in properties were observed for the product and the intermediate (pan) samples. In fact, for some operation parameters, e.g., binder feed rate, the magnitude of the separation effect strongly depends on the specific value of the operation parameter. The presented concise data will enable future mathematical modeling of the pan granulation process, e.g., using the framework of population balance equations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Application of Piezoelectric Fast Tool Servo for Turning Non-Circular Shapes Made of 6082 Aluminum Alloy
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(16), 7533; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11167533 - 17 Aug 2021
Abstract
The paper presents the design and testing of a new servo drive for turning non-circular shapes. The presented solution is based on a commercially available piezoelectric drive unit with a stroke equal to 1000 µm and a resonant frequency of 150 Hz. The [...] Read more.
The paper presents the design and testing of a new servo drive for turning non-circular shapes. The presented solution is based on a commercially available piezoelectric drive unit with a stroke equal to 1000 µm and a resonant frequency of 150 Hz. The device was used in a conventional turning lathe and installed in a tool turret. The performance of the proposed tool was tested while turning multiple non-circular contours from a cylindrical shaft made of 6082 aluminum alloy. The machining accuracy was tested online using a laser sensor and offline with a coordinate measuring machine. The additional aim of those tests was also to verify if the application of an online transducer can allow a confident preliminary assessment of as-machined geometry. The drive positioning accuracy was compensated using 6th order polynomial what resulted in the fabrication of non-circular contours with an accuracy of no less than 39.8 µm when operating below the limit frequency of the drive (<9 Hz). It was found out that the deviations of the profile from ideal geometries increase linearly with frequency when turning at higher than the limit frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
An Investigation into the Effect of Electro-Contact Heating in the Machining of Low-Rigidity Thin-Walled Micro-Machine Parts
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164427 - 07 Aug 2021
Abstract
Low-rigidity thin-walled parts are components of many machines and devices, including high precision electric micro-machines used in control and tracking systems. Unfortunately, traditional machining methods used for machining such types of parts cause a significant reduction in efficiency and in many cases do [...] Read more.
Low-rigidity thin-walled parts are components of many machines and devices, including high precision electric micro-machines used in control and tracking systems. Unfortunately, traditional machining methods used for machining such types of parts cause a significant reduction in efficiency and in many cases do not allow obtaining the required accuracy parameters. Moreover, they also fail to meet modern automation requirements and are uneconomical and inefficient. Therefore, the aim of provided studies was to investigate the dependency of cutting forces on cutting parameters and flank wear, as well as changes in cutting forces induced by changes in heating current density and machining parameters during the turning of thin-walled parts. The tests were carried out on a specially designed and constructed turning test stand for measuring cutting forces and temperature at specific cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut values. As part of the experiments, the effect of cutting parameters and flank wear on cutting forces, and the effect of heating current density and turning parameters on changes in cutting forces were analyzed. Moreover, the effect of cutting parameters (depth of cut, feed rate, and cutting speed) on temperature has been determined. Additionally, a system for controlling electro-contact heating and investigated the relationship between changes in cutting forces and machining time in the operations of turning micro-machine casings with and without the use of the control system was developed. The obtained results show that the application of an electro-contact heating control system allows to machine conical parts and semi-finished products at lower cutting forces and it leads to an increase in the deformation of the thin-walled casings caused by runout of the workpiece. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Research for a Non-Standard Kenics Static Mixer with an Eccentricity Factor
Processes 2021, 9(8), 1353; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9081353 - 01 Aug 2021
Abstract
The Kenics static mixer is one of the most widely studied static mixers, whose structure–function relationship has been studied by varying its aspect ratio and modifying the surface. However, the effect of the symmetric structure of the Kenics static mixer itself on twisting [...] Read more.
The Kenics static mixer is one of the most widely studied static mixers, whose structure–function relationship has been studied by varying its aspect ratio and modifying the surface. However, the effect of the symmetric structure of the Kenics static mixer itself on twisting the fluid has been neglected. In order to study how the symmetrical structure of the Kenics static mixer impacts the fluid flow, we changed the center position of elements at twist angle 90° and introduced the eccentricity factor γ. We applied LHS-PLS to study this non-standard Kenics static mixer and obtained the statistical correlations of the aspect ratio, Reynolds number, and eccentricity factor on relative Nusselt number and relative friction factor. We analyzed the results by comparing the PLS model with the univariate analysis, and it was found that the underlying logic of the Kenics static mixer with an asymmetric structure became different. In addition, a non-standard Kenics static mixer with an asymmetric structure was investigated using vortex generation and dissipation through fluid flow simulation. The results demonstrated that the classical symmetric structure has a minor pressure drop, but the backward eccentric one has a higher thermal-hydraulic performance factor. It was found that the nature of the eccentric structure is that two elements with different aspect ratios are being combined at θ=90°, and this articulation leads to non-standard Kenics static mixers with different underlying logic, which finally result in the differences between the PLS model and the univariate analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Slicing Algorithm and Partition Scanning Strategy for 3D Printing Based on GPU Parallel Computing
Materials 2021, 14(15), 4297; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154297 - 31 Jul 2021
Abstract
Aiming at the problems of over stacking, warping deformation and rapid adjustment of layer thickness in electron beam additive manufacturing, the 3D printing slicing algorithm and partition scanning strategy for numerical control systems are studied. The GPU (graphics processing unit) is used to [...] Read more.
Aiming at the problems of over stacking, warping deformation and rapid adjustment of layer thickness in electron beam additive manufacturing, the 3D printing slicing algorithm and partition scanning strategy for numerical control systems are studied. The GPU (graphics processing unit) is used to slice the 3D model, and the STL (stereolithography) file is calculated in parallel according to the normal vector and the vertex coordinates. The voxel information of the specified layer is dynamically obtained by adjusting the projection matrix to the slice height. The MS (marching squares) algorithm is used to extract the coordinate sequence of the binary image, and the ordered contour coordinates are output. In order to avoid shaking of the electron gun when the numerical control system is forming the microsegment straight line, and reduce metal overcrowding in the continuous curve C0, the NURBS (non-uniform rational b-splines) basis function is used to perform curve interpolation on the contour data. Aiming at the deformation problem of large block components in the forming process, a hexagonal partition and parallel line variable angle scanning technology is adopted, and an effective temperature and deformation control strategy is formed according to the European-distance planning scan order of each partition. The results show that the NURBS segmentation fits closer to the original polysurface cut line, and the error is reduced by 34.2% compared with the STL file slice data. As the number of triangular patches increases, the algorithm exhibits higher efficiency, STL files with 1,483,132 facets can be cut into 4488 layers in 89 s. The slicing algorithm involved in this research can be used as a general data processing algorithm for additive manufacturing technology to reduce the waiting time of the contour extraction process. Combined with the partition strategy, it can provide new ideas for the dynamic adjustment of layer thickness and deformation control in the forming process of large parts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
How to Set Up the Pillars of Digital Twins Technology in Our Business: Entities, Challenges and Solutions
Processes 2021, 9(8), 1307; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9081307 - 28 Jul 2021
Abstract
A digitalization of business process through utilizing Digital Twins is an approach that assists companies to align themselves with changes of technology development, and accordingly, improve their outcomes. To take full advantage of implementing Digital Twins, the importance of the creative phase role [...] Read more.
A digitalization of business process through utilizing Digital Twins is an approach that assists companies to align themselves with changes of technology development, and accordingly, improve their outcomes. To take full advantage of implementing Digital Twins, the importance of the creative phase role as pillars of this technology on the performance of the other parts and overall outcome should not be overlooked. This research addresses the lack of an integrated framework for setting up the creative phase of digital twins. To design the proper framework, by relying on a qualitative empirical method, an interview with persons who are experts in the Digital Twin area was organized to collect the information about all obvious and hidden aspects of this phase and manifest what kind of entities participate in this phase, what potential challenges and obstacles exist and what solution is effective to overcome them. The structural feature of the proposed framework continuously prepares the system for changes, aiming to adopt improvement within. The findings of this study can be used as instruction by all companies that want to take the first steps toward the digital representation of physical assets, or for those who deal with Digital Twin and want to improve their systems’ interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Article
Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Al-Mg-Si Similar Alloy Laminates Produced by Accumulative Roll Bonding
Materials 2021, 14(15), 4200; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14154200 - 27 Jul 2021
Cited by 1
Abstract
As the applications of heterogeneous materials expand, aluminum laminates of similar materials have attracted much attention due to their greater bonding strength and easier recycling. In this work, an alloy design strategy was developed based on accumulative roll bonding (ARB) to produce laminates [...] Read more.
As the applications of heterogeneous materials expand, aluminum laminates of similar materials have attracted much attention due to their greater bonding strength and easier recycling. In this work, an alloy design strategy was developed based on accumulative roll bonding (ARB) to produce laminates from similar materials. Twin roll casting (TRC) sheets of the same composition but different cooling rates were used as the starting materials, and they were roll bonded up to three cycles at varying temperatures. EBSD showed that the two TRC sheets deformed in distinct ways during ARB processes at 300 °C. Major recrystallizations were significant after the first cycle on the thin sheet and after the third cycle on the thick sheet. The sheets were subject to subsequent aging for better mechanical properties. TEM observations showed that the size and distribution of nano-precipitations were different between the two sheet sides. These nano-precipitations were found to significantly promote precipitation strengthening, and such a promotive effect was referred to as hetero-deformation induced (HDI) strengthening. Our work provides a new promising method to prepare laminated heterogeneous materials with similar alloy TRC sheets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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Case Report
The Off-Line Simulation on Measuring through Software PC-DMIS CAD++ V4.3
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(14), 6556; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11146556 - 16 Jul 2021
Abstract
The article analyses and evaluates the ever-important topic of assessing geometric deviation of tolerated formations related to bases with the usage of coordinate measuring machines. The basic system for off-line simulation consists of the coordinate planes of a component’s coordinate system. At the [...] Read more.
The article analyses and evaluates the ever-important topic of assessing geometric deviation of tolerated formations related to bases with the usage of coordinate measuring machines. The basic system for off-line simulation consists of the coordinate planes of a component’s coordinate system. At the beginning of the measurement, the coordinate system is created by the “3–2–1” alignment. Due to production deviations in real surfaces of the component, each measurement generates mutually different coordinate systems, which is well proven by the experiment on measuring with a coordinate measuring machine DEA Global Performance 12.22.10. An integral part of the article is also the quantification of geometric deviations of ideal tolerated formations related to bases, the estimate of the uncertainty of measurement arising from the placement of points in defining the base system, and the effect of such uncertainty upon the interval of satisfactory values in conformity with the STN EN ISO 14253-1 technical standard. The article also includes a proposal measure in order to ensure the reproducibility of defining the mutual position of coordinate systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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