Topic Editors

Department of Production Computerisation and Robotisation, Lublin University of Technology, Nadbystrzycka 36, 20-618 Lublin, Poland
Department of Materials and Production, Aalborg University, Fibigerstræde 16, 4105, 9220 Aalborg, Denmark
Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Žilina, Univerzitná 8215/1, 010 26 Žilina, Slovakia

Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 December 2021)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 March 2022)
Viewed by
195652

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Technology today is evolving at such a rapid pace, enabling faster change and progress, causing an acceleration of the rate of change. The materials, methods and technologies recognized several years ago as new ones, today, often seem to be not efficient enough when compared to the market and industrial requirements. Accordingly, in the past several years, research on the development of modern conceptions of manufacturing systems has revolved around new concepts that are able to meet the assumptions of focused flexibility and the challenges of the Industry 4.0 philosophy. In this context, new practical and scientific results are of great interest and importance to mechanical engineering. Special attention is continuously given to the problems of new manufacturing technologies and modern conceptions of manufacturing systems that allow us to make high-quality products with a high level of effectiveness and a proper level of flexibility. Therefore, we would like to invite you to submit your research paper to the Topic “Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems”.

This Topic seeks high-quality works focusing on the following topics:

  • Modern methods of machining;
  • Metal-forming technologies;
  • Joining technologies;
  • Additive manufacturing technology;
  • Laser machining technology;
  • Industrial assembly technologies;
  • Manufacturing engineering of composite materials;
  • Manufacturing systems design for industrial applications;
  • Paradigms of modern manufacturing system designs;
  • Flexible and focused manufacturing systems;
  • Reconfigurable manufacturing systems and other manufacturing concepts of the future;
  • Advanced industrial engineering;
  • Manufacturing system capacity balancing;
  • Sustainable material-handling systems.

Prof. Dr. Arkadiusz Gola
Prof. Dr. Izabela Nielsen
Prof. Dr. Patrik Grznár
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • technology
  • machining
  • metal forming
  • additive technology
  • laser machining
  • joining and assembly technologies
  • manufacturing systems
  • production automation and robotization
  • Industry 4.0
  • advanced industrial engineering
  • factory of the future

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Materials
materials
3.1 5.8 2008 15.5 Days CHF 2600
Processes
processes
2.8 5.1 2013 14.4 Days CHF 2400
Applied Sciences
applsci
2.5 5.3 2011 17.8 Days CHF 2400
Journal of Manufacturing and Materials Processing
jmmp
3.3 5.1 2017 14.7 Days CHF 1800

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Published Papers (68 papers)

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12 pages, 3889 KiB  
Communication
High-Speed Micro-Particle Motion Monitoring Based on Continuous Single-Frame Multi-Exposure Technology
by Wei Wang, Weiwei Xue, Shufan Wu, Zhongcheng Mu, Jiyuan Yi and Andrew J. Tang
Materials 2022, 15(11), 3871; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15113871 - 29 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1701
Abstract
The impact phenomena of solid micro-particles have gathered increasing interest across a wide range of fields, including space debris protection and cold-spray additive manufacturing of large, complicated structures. Effective motion monitoring is essential to understanding the impact behaviors of micro-particles. Consequently, a convenient [...] Read more.
The impact phenomena of solid micro-particles have gathered increasing interest across a wide range of fields, including space debris protection and cold-spray additive manufacturing of large, complicated structures. Effective motion monitoring is essential to understanding the impact behaviors of micro-particles. Consequently, a convenient and efficient micro-particle motion monitoring solution is proposed based on continuous single-frame multiple-exposure imaging technology. This method adopts a camera with excellent low-light performance coupled with high-frequency light-emitting diode (LED) flashes to generate short interval illumination. This technology can, in theory, achieve 1 million effective frames per second (fps) and monitor particles as small as 10 microns with speeds up to 12 km/s. The capabilities of the proposed method were validated by a series of micro-particle motion monitoring experiments with different particles sizes and materials under varying camera configurations. The study provides a feasible and economical solution for the velocity measurement and motion monitoring of high-speed micro-particles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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17 pages, 3271 KiB  
Article
An Application of a Magnetic Impulse for the Bending of Metal Sheet Specimens
by Ján Moravec, Miroslav Blatnický and Ján Dižo
Materials 2022, 15(10), 3558; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15103558 - 16 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1705
Abstract
Currently, classical methods for the creation of various shapes and bending angles of metal sheet parts are applied. They are represented by the so-called all-metal forming tools. Non-standard methods, which in some cases exceed conventional technical solutions, are used in the practice to [...] Read more.
Currently, classical methods for the creation of various shapes and bending angles of metal sheet parts are applied. They are represented by the so-called all-metal forming tools. Non-standard methods, which in some cases exceed conventional technical solutions, are used in the practice to a minor extent. This is an area of interest from the point of view of ecology, because the shaping process performed in this way does not burden the environment in any considerable way. The knowledge presented in this work is obtained based on experiments in laboratory conditions. The list of literature contains mainly works from the recent period. The research represents a contribution to the great mosaic of magnetism. The aim of the current paper is to also verify the possibilities of the suitability of a special tool in the formation of metal sheet specimens using the application of the so-called forming with a free core. Additional benefits of the experimental work and their results are anticipated. The contribution is complemented by detailed calculations and diagrams. The practical contribution and research is that the device used for forming has been successfully tested. It turns out that the presented method is suitable for further development. The method has proven that is it suitable for industrial applications where simple shapes are produced. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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10 pages, 1228 KiB  
Article
Cotton Textile with Antimicrobial Activity and Enhanced Durability Produced by L-Cysteine-Capped Silver Nanoparticles
by Carla Cisternas Novoa, Gonzalo Tortella, Amedea B. Seabra, María Cristina Diez and Olga Rubilar
Processes 2022, 10(5), 958; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10050958 - 11 May 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2262
Abstract
Background: In this study, L-cysteine-capped silver nanoparticles (Cys-AgNPs) were successfully linked in a cotton textile, being attached in a covalent way to the cotton fibers via esterification with the hydroxyl groups from the cellulose. The AgNPs were strongly adhered to the fiber surface [...] Read more.
Background: In this study, L-cysteine-capped silver nanoparticles (Cys-AgNPs) were successfully linked in a cotton textile, being attached in a covalent way to the cotton fibers via esterification with the hydroxyl groups from the cellulose. The AgNPs were strongly adhered to the fiber surface through coordination bonds with the thiol groups from the L-cys. In addition, they were compared with biogenic silver nanoparticles produced from fungi (bio-AgNPs). Materials and methods: The characterization of the Cys-AgNP and the bio-AgNP solutions were accomplished by UV−visible (UV−Vis), Z-potential, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). After the attachment of the Cys-AgNPs and the bio-AgNPs to the raw cotton, the textile surface was characterized by variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The antibacterial activity was performed by disk diffusion analysis. Results: The results of the UV−Vis analysis showed the presence of AgNPs in the Cys-AgNPs and the bio-AgNPs solutions, showing the Surface Plasmon resonance (SPR) for the AgNPs among 380–420 nm. In addition, they exhibited a Z-potential of −27 and −24 mV, respectively, with the presence of elemental silver shown by the XRD analysis. The VP-SEM images from the cotton fabrics covered in Cys-AgNPs and bio-AgNPs showed the presence of spherical AgNPs on their surface, and EDX analysis revealed the presence of peaks associated with the presence of Ag, C, and O. Furthermore, FT-IR analysis exhibited peaks associated with the presence of L-cysteine (SH-) and carboxylic acid arising from the esterification reaction among the cellulose from cotton and the carboxylic acid in the L-Cys molecules. Finally, the cotton textile exhibited antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the ability of Cys-AgNPs to bind to the cellulose from cotton fabric so as to produce antibacterial fabrics with enhanced durability, opening a wide range of options to be further used in healthcare and other industries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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16 pages, 1896 KiB  
Article
Design and Multiobjective Optimization of Green Closed-Loop Manufacturing-Recycling Network Considering Raw Material Attribute
by Chen Chen, Yue Wang, Shan Lu and Xinchao Li
Processes 2022, 10(5), 904; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10050904 - 3 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1792
Abstract
Regarding decision planning in the electronic manufacturing industry, this paper designs a green closed-loop manufacturing-recycling network for multiperiod production planning for multiple products. The network considers the tradeoff between production costs and environmental pollution induced by production scraps. Therefore, a mixed integer programming [...] Read more.
Regarding decision planning in the electronic manufacturing industry, this paper designs a green closed-loop manufacturing-recycling network for multiperiod production planning for multiple products. The network considers the tradeoff between production costs and environmental pollution induced by production scraps. Therefore, a mixed integer programming model with a dual objective is designed to achieve environmental protection and reduce production costs through resource recovery and utilization. At the same time, the recycled materials are considered to be treated, not entirely new, which could affect the manufacturing qualified rate. Thus, material attributes are proposed to distinguish new raw materials from recycled (second-hand) ones through the closed-loop manufacturing-recycling process to enhance the manufacturing qualified rate. In order to solve the dual-objective optimization model and realize optimal decisions, an epsilon constraint is designed to generate a nonextreme solution set by changing the original feasible region. The results show its ability to obtain a more balanced solution in terms of cost and environmental factors compared with the fuzzy-weighted method. Meanwhile, the analysis proves that the dual-objective optimization model with distinguishing material attributes can improve the efficiency of the manufacturing qualified rate and achieve a win-win situation for production and environmental protection during enterprise production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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20 pages, 4693 KiB  
Article
Effect of Conical Spiral Flow Channel and Impeller Parameters on Flow Field and Hemolysis Performance of an Axial Magnetic Blood Pump
by Wei-Bo Yang, Jian Zhou, Wei-Hu Xiao, Si-Jie Peng, Ye-Fa Hu, Ming Li and Hua-Chun Wu
Processes 2022, 10(5), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10050853 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1939
Abstract
For a blood pump, the blood flow channel and impeller parameters directly affect the performance of the pump and the resulting blood circulation. The flow channel in particular has a great impact on the hydraulic performance of the pump (e.g., flow and pressure), [...] Read more.
For a blood pump, the blood flow channel and impeller parameters directly affect the performance of the pump and the resulting blood circulation. The flow channel in particular has a great impact on the hydraulic performance of the pump (e.g., flow and pressure), which directly determines the overall performance of the blood pump. Traditional bearing-supported blood pumps can cause mechanical damage to blood cells, leading to hemolysis and thrombosis. In this study, therefore, we designed a conical spiral axial blood pump with magnetic levitation. The blood pump was supported by electrodynamic bearings in the radial direction and electromagnetic bearings in the axial direction. The impeller and the front and rear hubs were integrated to minimize blood stagnation and reduce the formation of thrombosis. The hub had a conical spiral flow channel design, which not only reduced the size of the impeller but also increased blood flow and pressure while meeting the design requirements. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was used to analyze the flow field of the axial blood pump, a power function model was used to establish a hemolysis prediction model, and the particle tracking method was used to obtain the flow trajectories of individual blood cells, thereby predicting hemolysis-related performance of the blood pump. The simulation results showed that the main high shear stress area in the blood pump was located in the impeller inlet and the clearance between the top of the impeller and the inner chamber of the blood pump. When the hub taper angle of the blood pump was 0.72° and the clearance was 0.3 mm, the average hemolysis prediction value was 0.00216. This prediction value was smaller than that of traditional axial blood pumps. These findings can provide an important reference for the structural design of axial blood pumps and for reducing the hemolysis prediction value. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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14 pages, 3840 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Selected Properties of Microporous PLA as a Result of Abiotic Degradation
by Aneta Tor-Świątek, Tomasz Garbacz and Petr Stloukal
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3133; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093133 - 26 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1908
Abstract
In the study, an investigation was made into the hydrolytic degradation behavior of the microporous polylactide (PLA) in the initial stage in three biological buffer solutions with various pH-simulating body fluids in comparison with pure PLA. Studies also include the analysis of selected [...] Read more.
In the study, an investigation was made into the hydrolytic degradation behavior of the microporous polylactide (PLA) in the initial stage in three biological buffer solutions with various pH-simulating body fluids in comparison with pure PLA. Studies also include the analysis of selected mechanical properties and physical structures. A microporous PLA was obtained by melt extrusion using a chemical blowing agent. The rate of Mw decrease induced by hydrolysis over 35 days of microporous PLA was roughly comparable to the pure material. The rate of depolymerization was slightly accelerated at an acid pH due to acid-catalyzed hydrolysis at the end of the observed period. The mechanical analysis showed the influence of various pH on the obtained results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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18 pages, 7941 KiB  
Article
Characterization of the Interaction of Metalworking Fluids with Grinding Wheels
by Lukas Schumski, Nikolai Guba, Björn Espenhahn, Dirk Stöbener, Andreas Fischer and Daniel Meyer
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2022, 6(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp6030051 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2761
Abstract
The thermal load that occurs during grinding can be reduced with the aid of an optimized metalworking fluid (MWF) supply. In previous work, mainly the free jet was considered for the determination of the conditions required for an optimized MWF supply. An investigation [...] Read more.
The thermal load that occurs during grinding can be reduced with the aid of an optimized metalworking fluid (MWF) supply. In previous work, mainly the free jet was considered for the determination of the conditions required for an optimized MWF supply. An investigation of the interaction area between the MWF and the grinding wheel has not yet been carried out due to the lack of suitable measurement techniques. In the presented work, both the free jet and the interaction area are analyzed with the aid of new metrological analysis and evaluation methods based on high-speed records (shadowgraphy and shadogram imaging velocimetry) in order to assess the free jet geometry and velocities, as well as the velocity distribution and the MWF amount in the interaction area. Using this approach, the following main results were derived: (1) The free jet velocity remains approximately constant in a defined free jet cross-section even at high distances from the nozzle outlet. (2) The velocity distribution in the interaction area is mainly influenced by the flow rate. (3) A new image parameter (black pixel fraction) was derived for the evaluation of the MWF supply to the contact zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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20 pages, 6111 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Bottleneck Identification of Manufacturing Resources in Complex Manufacturing System
by Xuan Su, Jingyu Lu, Chen Chen, Junjie Yu and Weixi Ji
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(9), 4195; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12094195 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3518
Abstract
Bottleneck identification is of great interest in discrete manufacturing fields, as they limit the system’s throughput. However, the bottlenecks are difficult to accurately identify due to the instability and complexity of discrete manufacturing systems. This paper proposes a dynamic bottleneck identification method (DBI-BS) [...] Read more.
Bottleneck identification is of great interest in discrete manufacturing fields, as they limit the system’s throughput. However, the bottlenecks are difficult to accurately identify due to the instability and complexity of discrete manufacturing systems. This paper proposes a dynamic bottleneck identification method (DBI-BS) that is based on effective buffers and fine-grained machine states to identify bottlenecks accurately. First, the complex manufacturing system (CMS) with strong coupling between elements is decoupled into several independent parts under the guidance of the effective buffer theory. Then, the machine activity duration method is improved through further fine-grained division, and the machine states are described by the timing flow model. The method to quantify the degree of bottleneck that restricts the system throughput (TH) is proposed on the basis of the turning point theory, and the one-to-one mapping relationship between the simulated and authentic complex manufacturing systems is also studied. Simulation results show that the DBI-BS can effectively identify dynamic bottlenecks in complex manufacturing processes, and the decoupling of complex systems can effectively improve the accuracy of dynamic bottleneck identification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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23 pages, 16597 KiB  
Article
Development of In-Process Temperature Measurement of Grinding Surface with an Infrared Thermometer
by Yukio Ito, Yoshiyuki Kita, Yoshiya Fukuhara, Mamoru Nomura and Hiroyuki Sasahara
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2022, 6(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp6020044 - 8 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2809
Abstract
Heat generation is a critical issue in grinding. If the grinding point generates significant heat, dimensional and shape accuracy may decrease due to thermal deformation, and the machined surface may deteriorate due to grinding burn. Therefore, monitoring the temperature during grinding is important [...] Read more.
Heat generation is a critical issue in grinding. If the grinding point generates significant heat, dimensional and shape accuracy may decrease due to thermal deformation, and the machined surface may deteriorate due to grinding burn. Therefore, monitoring the temperature during grinding is important to obtain ideal machining results. In this research, we develop a new method to measure the grinding surface and grinding wheel surface temperature during in-process machining. The proposed method measures the temperature of the grinding surface through small holes in a rotating grinding wheel. Using this method, we measured the temperature of the grinding surface during the dry grinding of carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP). Temperature of the grinding surface was measured every 1/4 rotation of the grinding wheel at any depth of cut, assuming precision grinding, rough grinding, and high-efficiency grinding. The measurement value changed depending on the temperature measurement position of the infrared thermometer from numerical analysis of the grinding surface temperature. We also found that when the cut depth was small, the temperature, including the surface of the workpiece before machining, was measured at a specific temperature measurement position. The newly developed temperature measurement method was capable of in-process measurement of the grinding surface temperature and of detecting temperature rise when the grinding wheel was clogged. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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17 pages, 1712 KiB  
Article
Setting MRP Parameters and Optimizing the Production Planning Process
by Marcela Malindzakova, Patrik Garaj, Jarmila Trpčevská and Dusan Malindzak
Processes 2022, 10(4), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10040690 - 1 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 5717
Abstract
This article describes a methodical framework that combines two specific methods of Lean management, namely the ABC method and the MRP planning method. The article further argues that combining the ABC inventory method with subsequent MRP planning is beneficial if the combination is [...] Read more.
This article describes a methodical framework that combines two specific methods of Lean management, namely the ABC method and the MRP planning method. The article further argues that combining the ABC inventory method with subsequent MRP planning is beneficial if the combination is implemented in practice. To demonstrate the benefits, the framework is tested using a case study company. The presented case-study problem is to reduce the number of changeover downtimes in the environment of an engineering production company. The researched company deals with the problem of setting up production lines in a way to minimize the number of downtimes within one work shift. Within the solution, four possible variants of the production plan are presented. By combining the ABC and MRP methods, up to four changeovers can be saved, which in financial terms represents a saving of about EUR 450,000 per year. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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25 pages, 7602 KiB  
Article
Design of a System for Verification of Automatic Guided Vehicle Routes Using Computer Emulation
by Milan Gregor, Róbert Hodoň, Patrik Grznár and Štefan Mozol
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3397; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073397 - 27 Mar 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2430
Abstract
A frequent change in the manufacturing program caused by a change in customer requirements requires a logistics system in the company that can respond flexibly to these changes. In order for business logistics to respond flexibly and optimally to the tasks created, a [...] Read more.
A frequent change in the manufacturing program caused by a change in customer requirements requires a logistics system in the company that can respond flexibly to these changes. In order for business logistics to respond flexibly and optimally to the tasks created, a tool is needed to verify the functionality of the entire process. This article, at its core, deals with the use of emulation in a mixed environment of the real and virtual worlds as a tool for optimising automatic guided vehicle (AGV) routes. The main objective of the article is the design of a system that allows verification of AGV routes using computer emulation. The solution was created and programmed in the Tecnomatix Plant Simulation program, in cooperation with AGV logistics supply tractors, and tested on a logistic test circuit. The results show that the main area of application of such a solution is mainly in the area of the capacity utilisation of the AGVs that are used in internal logistics processes. This solution helps to cut down on the time it takes to design and optimise logistics operations as well as on the time it takes to test logistics systems at full capacity before commencing production. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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21 pages, 66142 KiB  
Article
Low-Cost and High-Efficiency Electromechanical Integration for Smart Factories of IoT with CNN and FOPID Controller Design under the Impact of COVID-19
by Chang-Hung Hsu, Shan-Jen Cheng, Te-Jen Chang, Yi-Mei Huang, Chin-Ping Fung and Shih-Feng Chen
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 3231; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12073231 - 22 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2976
Abstract
This study proposes a design for unmanned chemical factories and implementation based on ultra-low-cost Internet of Things technology, to combat the impact of COVID-19 on industrial factories. A safety and private blockchain network architecture was established, including a three-layer network structure comprising edge, [...] Read more.
This study proposes a design for unmanned chemical factories and implementation based on ultra-low-cost Internet of Things technology, to combat the impact of COVID-19 on industrial factories. A safety and private blockchain network architecture was established, including a three-layer network structure comprising edge, fog, and cloud calculators. Edge computing uses a programmable logic controller and a single-chip microcomputer to transmit and control the motion path of a four-axis robotic arm motor. The fog computing architecture is implemented using Python software. The structure is integrated and applied using a convolutional neural network (CNN) and a fractional-order proportional-integral-derivative controller (FOPID). In addition, edge computing and fog computing signals are transmitted through the blockchain, and can be directly uploaded to the cloud computing controller for signal integration. The integrated application of the production line sensor and image recognition based on the network layer was addressed. We verified the image recognition of the CNN and the robot motor signal control of the FOPID. This study proposes that a CNN + FOPID method can improve the efficiency of the factory by more than 50% compared with traditional manual operators. The low-cost, high-efficiency equipment of the new method has substantial contribution and application potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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19 pages, 2620 KiB  
Article
Possibilities to Increase Assembly Line Productivity Using Different Management Approaches
by Jaroslava Kádárová, Jaroslava Janeková and Alžbeta Suhányiová
Processes 2022, 10(3), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10030553 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2737
Abstract
A number of scientific methods are used to support productivity growth in companies, aimed at reducing waste, balancing assembly lines and supporting the introduction of automation into assembly processes. Their use in industrial practice is widespread, especially in large and medium-sized enterprises, and [...] Read more.
A number of scientific methods are used to support productivity growth in companies, aimed at reducing waste, balancing assembly lines and supporting the introduction of automation into assembly processes. Their use in industrial practice is widespread, especially in large and medium-sized enterprises, and small businesses that use scientific methods to a limited extent. The aim of the research is to show the assembly process of throttle valves implemented in a small company, the effects of balancing the current assembly line and the effects of proposals of variant solutions on the automated assembly line and on the amount of hourly assembly production and costs per product. Within costs, two cost types are monitored: namely the hourly labor costs, and hourly machine costs. The sum of the hourly assembly line costs is determined by their sum. In the results section, the main sources of waste in the assembly process are identified, and eight proposals leading to the elimination of waste are processed. In the discussion, the individual proposals are evaluated in terms of the cost of one product, the hourly production of assembly and the tact times of assembly lines. The proposal that is evaluated as the best process is compared with the current state. The purpose of this article is to point out the advantages of the implementation of scientific methods in industrial practice, the achieved savings in the solved problem, and thus, to support those scientific methods in the management of assembly processes which are beginning to be used in greater extents by small businesses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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10 pages, 5343 KiB  
Article
Nozzle Condition Monitoring System Using Root Mean Square of Acoustic Emissions during Abrasive Waterjet Machining
by Jeong-Uk Kim, Roh-Won Kim, Sung-Ryul Kim, Hyun-Hee Kim and Kyung-Chang Lee
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2022, 6(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp6020031 - 7 Mar 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3264
Abstract
Machining of difficult-to-cut materials such as titanium alloys, stainless steel, Inconel, ceramic, glass, and carbon fiber-reinforced plastics used in the aerospace, automobile, and medical industries is being actively researched. One non-traditional machining method involves the use of an abrasive waterjet, in which ultra-high-pressure [...] Read more.
Machining of difficult-to-cut materials such as titanium alloys, stainless steel, Inconel, ceramic, glass, and carbon fiber-reinforced plastics used in the aerospace, automobile, and medical industries is being actively researched. One non-traditional machining method involves the use of an abrasive waterjet, in which ultra-high-pressure water and abrasive particles are mixed and then ejected through a nozzle, and the thin jet stream cuts materials. The nozzle greatly affects the machining quality, as does the cutting tool of general machining, so it is very important to monitor the nozzle condition. If the nozzle is damaged or worn, or if the bore size increases or the bore becomes clogged with abrasive, the material may not be cut, or the surface quality of the cut may deteriorate. Here, we develop a nozzle monitoring system employing an acoustic emission sensor that detects the nozzle condition in real time. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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15 pages, 5443 KiB  
Article
Stress Concentration Factors in Excavation Repairs of Surface Defects in Forgings and Castings
by Alessandro Rebora, Giorgio Torre and Gianluca Vernassa
Materials 2022, 15(5), 1705; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15051705 - 24 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1452
Abstract
This paper provides an analytical formula for the theoretical stress concentration factor in a common type of excavation repair for large forgings and castings. Mechanical components obtained with these processes are often subjected to superficial defects. As the rejection of such pieces is [...] Read more.
This paper provides an analytical formula for the theoretical stress concentration factor in a common type of excavation repair for large forgings and castings. Mechanical components obtained with these processes are often subjected to superficial defects. As the rejection of such pieces is out of question, given the relevant size and costs associated with them, usual industrial practice consists in the removal of the defect and a portion of the surrounding material through milling processes. The authors have selected a reference geometry of the excavation to be left on the mechanical pieces, which can be easily controllable in practice by three operating parameters. Then, the domain of existence of such a repair was investigated on a sequence of discrete points, by means of FEA, obtaining for each, the values of the stress concentration factor Kt. Finally, through polynomial regression, the Kt functions have been accurately approximated by a sixth degree polynomial formulation, which, given a triplet of dimensional geometric parameters, is able to compute the stress concentration factor Kt, with an error that never exceeds 8%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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27 pages, 5954 KiB  
Article
Designing of Machine Backups in Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems
by Vladimír Vavrík, Miroslav Fusko, Monika Bučková, Martin Gašo, Beáta Furmannová and Katarína Štaffenová
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(5), 2338; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12052338 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1564
Abstract
The article presents the results of machine backup designing in reconfigurable industrial processes. The development of manufacturing systems is moving towards intelligent, automated, autonomous, and reconfigurable manufacturing systems. Factories that want to ensure long-term sustainable and competitive manufacturing processes must be designing their [...] Read more.
The article presents the results of machine backup designing in reconfigurable industrial processes. The development of manufacturing systems is moving towards intelligent, automated, autonomous, and reconfigurable manufacturing systems. Factories that want to ensure long-term sustainable and competitive manufacturing processes must be designing their processes to respond flexibly to changing changes in customer requirements. The article’s introduction characterizes concepts such as cold backup and warm backup machines and indicators relationship as the time between faults and repairs. The materials and methods describes prerequisites as the creation of the product family creation and resource availability with many formulas, simulation models, and its verification for the creation of the family products in the results of this article. The results describes the results from the calculations of the backups and family products of their use in reconfigurable manufacturing systems. The developed methodology for line design uses the principles of reconfiguration in designing configurations regarding advanced approaches in factories. A significant milestone will be the rapid integration of disruptive technologies and approaches into manufacturing systems. The complexity of future manufacturing systems in the Factories of the Future will only be possible with new innovative factory technologies using the digital twin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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10 pages, 2833 KiB  
Article
Hidden Information in Uniform Design for Visual and Near-Infrared Spectrum and for Inkjet Printing of Clothing on Canvas to Enhance Urban Security
by Jana Žiljak Gršić, Denis Jurečić, Lidija Tepeš Golubić and Vilko Žiljak
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(4), 2152; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12042152 - 18 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1949
Abstract
In this paper, we publish the algorithm to create a dual image manifested in the infrared and visible spectrum. To distinguish the information in the two light spectra, twin dyes are introduced for the inkjet plotter and printing realization for garment and canvas [...] Read more.
In this paper, we publish the algorithm to create a dual image manifested in the infrared and visible spectrum. To distinguish the information in the two light spectra, twin dyes are introduced for the inkjet plotter and printing realization for garment and canvas items. The graphics, invisible to the naked eye, are designed for the near infrared (NIR) spectrum and are suitable for urban security where surveillance cameras with IR detectors are installed. The duality of dyes is presented in tables, and the analysis is a basis for programming and developing new algorithms for the application of “Infrared Dyeing” on different materials and printing technologies. Through spectroscopy, this innovative solution demonstrates twin colorants by printing in one pass through the plotter such that one image remains visible, while the other one is hidden to the bare eye. The uniform and the school bag cover presented in this paper are kept simple in design because they incorporate information hidden to the naked eye but visible with surveillance cameras and all the other infrared detectors. The article provides mathematical models of duality coloring as a basis for programming the graphic prepress that merges both of the images, the visual one and the infrared one. A topic is the fusion of two images with colors that represent two graphs, with independent contents for the visual and near-infrared spectrum. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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11 pages, 73907 KiB  
Article
Rheological Properties of Soft Waste Granulates Produced in the Fabrication Process of Ceramic Tiles and the Possibility of Their Reuse
by Łukasz Wójcik, Marcin Gajek, Alicja Rapacz-Kmita, Joanna Mastalska-Popławska, Robert Pacan, Izabela Puchyrska, Piotr Sacha and Dawid Cegłowski
Materials 2022, 15(4), 1366; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15041366 - 12 Feb 2022
Viewed by 1327
Abstract
The paper presents the results of research on the influence of the granulometric composition on the rheological properties of granulates from soft waste produced in the manufacturing of ceramic tiles using the Lamgea and Continua methods in terms of the possibility of their [...] Read more.
The paper presents the results of research on the influence of the granulometric composition on the rheological properties of granulates from soft waste produced in the manufacturing of ceramic tiles using the Lamgea and Continua methods in terms of the possibility of their reuse. The composition of the granulates was modified by removing individual grain fractions in three measurement series. Comparatively, the measurement samples for the production granulates were prepared in the same way. Microscopic observations and granulometric analysis showed significant differences in the grain shape and grain size distribution of granulates. The soft waste granulates also showed much worse flow ability than the production granulates. It was shown that the removal of the smallest fractions significantly improved the rheological properties of soft waste granulates. This tendency was also observed in the case of measurements of changes in the bulk density. A Brookfield powder analyzer was used for rheological tests, and a flow analysis was performed using the numerical Jenike classification. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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16 pages, 6543 KiB  
Article
The Technology of Using Liquid Glass Mixture Waste for Reducing the Harmful Environmental Impact
by Viktor Alekseevich Kukartsev, Vladislav Viktorovich Kukartsev, Vadim Sergeevich Tynchenko, Vladimir Viktorovich Bukhtoyarov, Valeriya Valerievna Tynchenko, Roman Borisovich Sergienko, Kirill Aleksandrovich Bashmur and Aleksey Vasilyevich Lysyannikov
Materials 2022, 15(3), 1220; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15031220 - 6 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2057
Abstract
The spent liquid glass mixture, which is widely used in foundries as a binder after knocking out of moldings, contains pieces of different sizes and strengths, and there is a strong silicate film on the sand grains themselves. The proposed regeneration plants, which [...] Read more.
The spent liquid glass mixture, which is widely used in foundries as a binder after knocking out of moldings, contains pieces of different sizes and strengths, and there is a strong silicate film on the sand grains themselves. The proposed regeneration plants, which provide for the removal of the silicate film by scrubbing, have low productivity and lead to abrasion of the grains themselves. For this reason, the knocked-out mixture is taken to the dump. As a result of the study of the state of the spent liquid glass mixture in the dump, it was found that, in the spent mixture that had lain for 8–10 years, under prolonged exposure to atmospheric precipitation at plus and minus temperatures, part of the silicate film dissolves and almost all monolithic pieces are destroyed. Further use of hydraulic regeneration allows us to reduce the film thickness and thereby reduce the percentage of liquid glass from 5–5.5% to 0.8–1.2%. This made it possible to select the composition of the molding sand for an automatic line, using the AlpHaset-process, which consists of 22–29% of liquid glass mixture from a dump, 65–72% of liquid glass, 5.5% of liquid glass, and a hardener in the amount of 0.55%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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11 pages, 3731 KiB  
Article
Noninvasive Magnetic-Marking-Based Flow Metering with Optically Pumped Magnetometers
by Leonhard Schmieder, Peter A. Koss, Armin Lambrecht and Frank Kühnemann
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(3), 1275; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12031275 - 25 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2743
Abstract
We present a noninvasive procedure that measures the flow velocity of a fluid by using polarized hydrogen nuclei in the fluid. The measurement procedure is based on a time-of-flight method where magnetic information is applied on the fluid with a permanent magnet and [...] Read more.
We present a noninvasive procedure that measures the flow velocity of a fluid by using polarized hydrogen nuclei in the fluid. The measurement procedure is based on a time-of-flight method where magnetic information is applied on the fluid with a permanent magnet and an RF-pulse. In contrast to other methods, this magnetic-marking method works without tracers. The read-out of the magnetic information is performed by optically pumped magnetometers downstream. In order to function, the magnetometers have to be operated in a magnetic shield with magnetic field strengths lower than 100 nT, i.e., in the zero-to-ultra-low-field regime. In this regime, the magnetometers are capable of detecting induced magnetic signals of 10 pT or less with an inline-flow setup. The results presented in this paper demonstrate the viability of optically pumped magnetometers for flow metering. The first metering results yielded an average accuracy of 3% at flow velocities between 13 cm/s and 22.4 cm/s. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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18 pages, 5294 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Cutting Parameters on Plastic Deformation and Chip Compression during the Turning of C45 Medium Carbon Steel and 62SiMnCr4 Tool Steel
by Marcel Kuruc, Tomáš Vopát, Jozef Peterka, Martin Necpal, Vladimír Šimna, Ján Milde and František Jurina
Materials 2022, 15(2), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15020585 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2273
Abstract
The paper deals with the issue of cutting zone and chip compression. The aim was to analyse the microstructure transverse section of the cutting zone on a metallographic cut, due to determined values of chip compression and plastic deformation, which affect the cutting [...] Read more.
The paper deals with the issue of cutting zone and chip compression. The aim was to analyse the microstructure transverse section of the cutting zone on a metallographic cut, due to determined values of chip compression and plastic deformation, which affect the cutting process efficiency. The tested cutting tool material was coated with cemented carbide. The selected workpiece materials were C45 medium carbon steel of ISO grade and 62SiMnCr4 tool steel of ISO (W.Nr. 1.2101) grade. In the experiments, a DMG CTX alpha 500 turning centre was used. The cutting speed and feed were varied, and the depth of the cut was kept constant during the turning. The plastic deformation and chip compression determine the efficiency of the cutting process. The higher compression requires more work to perform the process and, therefore, it requires more energy for doing so. With the increase of the cutting speed, the deformation for C45 steel is decreased. The rapid deformation reduction was observed when the cutting speed was increased from 145 m/min to 180 m/min. Generally, deformation is decreasing with the increase of the feed. Only at a cutting speed of 145 m/min was the deformation elevation observed, when the feed was increased from 0.4 mm to 0.6 mm. During the turning of the 62SiMnCr4 tool steel we observed an error value at a cutting speed of 145 m/min and a feed of 0.4 mm was the middle cutting parameter. However, feed dependence was clear: With an increase of the feed, the plastic deformation was decreasing. This decreasing was more rapid with the increasing of the cutting speed. Besides plastic deformation, there was analysed chip compression as well. With the increasing of the cutting speed, there was a decrease of the chip compression. Due to a lack of information in the area of the chip compression and the plastic deformation in the cutting process, we decided to investigate the cutting zone for the turning of tool steels 62SiMnCr4, which was compared with the reference steel C45. The results could be applied to increase the efficiency of the process and improvement of the surface integrity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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14 pages, 7420 KiB  
Article
Integrated Machine Vision System for Evaluating Hole Expansion Ratio of Advanced High-Strength Steels
by Jaehoon Park, Chanhee Won, Hye-Jin Lee and Jonghun Yoon
Materials 2022, 15(2), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15020553 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2077
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a new method to estimate the hole expansion ratio (HER) using an integrated analysis system. To precisely measure the HER, three kinds of analysis methods (computer vision, punch load, and acoustic emission) were utilized to detect edge cracks [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a new method to estimate the hole expansion ratio (HER) using an integrated analysis system. To precisely measure the HER, three kinds of analysis methods (computer vision, punch load, and acoustic emission) were utilized to detect edge cracks during a hole expansion test. Cracks can be recognized by employing both computer vision and a punch load analysis system to determine the moment of crack initiation. However, the acoustic emission analysis system has difficulty detecting the instant of crack appearance since the magnitude of the audio signal is drowned out by noise from the press, which interrupts the differentiation of crack configuration. To enhance the accuracy for determining the HER, an integrated analysis system that combines computer vision with punch load analysis, and improves on the shortcomings of each analysis system, is newly suggested. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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31 pages, 958 KiB  
Article
Modelling the Heating Process in the Transient and Steady State of an In Situ Tape-Laying Machine Head
by Jhonny de Sá Rodrigues, Paulo Teixeira Gonçalves, Luis Pina and Fernando Gomes de Almeida
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2022, 6(1), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp6010008 - 11 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3201
Abstract
As the use of composite materials increases, the search for suitable automated processes gains relevance for guaranteeing production quality by ensuring the uniformity of the process, minimizing the amount of scrap generated, and reducing the time and energy consumption. Limitations on production by [...] Read more.
As the use of composite materials increases, the search for suitable automated processes gains relevance for guaranteeing production quality by ensuring the uniformity of the process, minimizing the amount of scrap generated, and reducing the time and energy consumption. Limitations on production by traditional means such as hand lay-up, vacuum bagging, and in-autoclave methods tend not to be as efficient when the size and shape complexity of the part being produced increases, motivating the search for alternative processes such as automated tape laying (ATL). This work aims to describe the process of modelling and simulating a composite ATL with in situ consolidation by characterizing the machine elements and using the finite differences method in conjunction with energy balances in order to create a digital twin of the process for further control design. The modelling approach implemented is able to follow the process dynamics when changes are made to the heating element and to predict the composite material temperature response, making it suitable for use as a digital twin of a production process using an ATL machine. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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11 pages, 3202 KiB  
Article
Box Girder Optimization by Orthogonal Experiment Design and GA-BP Algorithm in the Gondola Car Body
by Wenfei Liu, Yuming Wang and Tianyou Wang
Processes 2022, 10(1), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10010074 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2109
Abstract
Box girder is an important bearing and force transmitting component in the gondola car body; the rationality of its structure directly affects the life of the whole car body. In order to solve disadvantage of the traditional box girder optimization method, which mainly [...] Read more.
Box girder is an important bearing and force transmitting component in the gondola car body; the rationality of its structure directly affects the life of the whole car body. In order to solve disadvantage of the traditional box girder optimization method, which mainly depends on design experience, the combined method of orthogonal experimental design and the genetic algorithm-back propagation (GA-BP) algorithm is used for the structural optimization of bolster beam in this paper. Nine groups of parameters were established by orthogonal experiment, which can give typical samples for GA-BP optimization. Then, the bolster beam is optimized by the GA-BP algorithm, and the new gondola car body model is established with the optimized parameters. The finite element analysis results show that the minimum stress is found by using the GA-BP algorithm, which is basically consistent with the simulation results. Finally, the results show that the combined method of orthogonal experimental design and GA-BP algorithm is feasible to the box girder optimization of the gondola car body. Meanwhile, the optimization results of bolster beam will provide a reference for the structural design of the heavy haul wagon body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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15 pages, 5472 KiB  
Article
Numerical Simulation of New Axial Flow Gas-Liquid Separator
by Jie Kou and Zhaoyang Li
Processes 2022, 10(1), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10010064 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3500
Abstract
At present, most of the incoming liquids from the oilfield combined stations are not pre-separated for natural gas, which makes the subsequent process of oil-water separation less effective. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out gas-liquid separation. A new type of axial flow [...] Read more.
At present, most of the incoming liquids from the oilfield combined stations are not pre-separated for natural gas, which makes the subsequent process of oil-water separation less effective. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out gas-liquid separation. A new type of axial flow gas-liquid separator was proposed in this paper. The numerical simulation was carried out by CFD FLUENT software, and the changes of concentration field, velocity field and pressure field in the axial flow gas-liquid separator were analyzed. It was found that there were gas-liquid separation developments and stabilization segments in the inner cylinder of the separator. The axial velocity will form a zero-speed envelope in the inner cylinder, and the direction of the velocity in front of and behind the zero-speed envelope was opposite. The tangential velocity showed a “W” shape distribution in the radial position of the inner cylinder. The pressure on the left wall of the guide vane was higher than that on the right side. Therefore, the left wall was more likely to be damaged than the right wall. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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31 pages, 3828 KiB  
Article
Many-Objective Optimization and Decision-Making Method for Selective Assembly of Complex Mechanical Products Based on Improved NSGA-III and VIKOR
by Rongshun Pan, Jiahao Yu and Yongman Zhao
Processes 2022, 10(1), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10010034 - 24 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2557
Abstract
In Industry 4.0, data are sensed and merged to drive intelligent systems. This research focuses on the optimization of selective assembly of complex mechanical products (CMPs) under intelligent system environment conditions. For the batch assembly of CMPs, it is difficult to obtain the [...] Read more.
In Industry 4.0, data are sensed and merged to drive intelligent systems. This research focuses on the optimization of selective assembly of complex mechanical products (CMPs) under intelligent system environment conditions. For the batch assembly of CMPs, it is difficult to obtain the best combinations of components from combinations for simultaneous optimization of success rate and multiple assembly quality. Hence, the Taguchi quality loss function was used to quantitatively evaluate each assembly quality and the assembly success rate is combined to establish a many-objective optimization model. The crossover and mutation operators were improved to enhance the ability of NSGA-III to obtain high-quality solution set and jump out of a local optimal solution, and the Pareto optimal solution set was obtained accordingly. Finally, considering the production mode of Human–Machine Intelligent System interaction, the optimal compromise solution is obtained by using fuzzy theory, entropy theory and the VIKOR method. The results show that this work has obvious advantages in improving the quality of batch selective assembly of CMPs and assembly success rate and gives a sorting selection strategy for non-dominated selective assembly schemes while taking into account the group benefit and individual regret. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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15 pages, 6151 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on 3D Measurement Accuracy Detection of Low Altitude UAV for Repeated Observation of an Invariant Surface
by Sha Gao, Shu Gan, Xiping Yuan, Rui Bi, Raobo Li, Lin Hu and Weidong Luo
Processes 2022, 10(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr10010004 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2699
Abstract
Low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry combined with structure-from-motion (SFM) algorithms is the latest technological approach to imaging 3D stereo constructions. At present, derivative products have been widely used in landslide monitoring, landscape evolution, glacier movement, volume measurement, and landscape change detection. However, [...] Read more.
Low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry combined with structure-from-motion (SFM) algorithms is the latest technological approach to imaging 3D stereo constructions. At present, derivative products have been widely used in landslide monitoring, landscape evolution, glacier movement, volume measurement, and landscape change detection. However, there is still a lack of research into the accuracy of 3D data positioning based on the structure-from-motion of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-SFM) technology, itself, which can affect the measurable effectiveness of the results in further applications of this technological approach. In this paper, validation work was carried out for the DJI Phantom 4 RTK UAV, for earth observation data related to 3D positioning accuracy. First, a test plot with a relatively stable surface was selected for repeated flight imaging observations. Specifically, three repeated flights were performed on the test plot to obtain three sorties of images; the structure from motion and multi-view stereo (SFM-MVS) key technology was used to process and construct a 3D scene model, and based on this model the digital surface model (DSM) and digital orthophoto map (DOM) data of the same plot with repeated observations were obtained. In order to check the level of 3D measurement accuracy of the UAV technology itself, a window selection-based method was used to sample the point cloud set data from the three-sortie repeat observation 3D model. The DSM and DOM data obtained from three repeated flights over the surface invariant test plots were used to calculate the repeat observation 3D point errors, taking into account the general methodology of redundant observation error analysis for topographic surveys. At the same time, to further analyze the limits of the UAV measurement technique, possible under equivalent observation conditions with the same processing environment, a difference model (DOD) was constructed for the DSM data from three sorties, to deepen the overall characterization of the differences between the DSMs obtained from repeated observations. The results of the experimental study concluded that both the analysis of the 3D point set measurements based on window sampling and the accuracy evaluation using the difference model were generally able to achieve a centimeter level of planimetric accuracy and vertical accuracy. In addition, the accuracy of the surface-stabilized hardened ground was better, overall, than the accuracy of the non-hardened ground. The results of this paper not only probe the measurement limits of this type of UAV, but also provide a quantitative reference for the accurate control and setting of an acquisition scheme of the UAV-based SfM-MVS method for geomorphological data acquisition and 3D reconstruction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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37 pages, 25592 KiB  
Article
Computer-Aided Design of Traditional Jigs and Fixtures
by Abdullah D. Ibrahim, Hussein M. A. Hussein, Ibrahim Ahmed, Emad Abouel Nasr, Ali Kamrani and Sabreen A. Abdelwahab
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(1), 3; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12010003 - 21 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 7410
Abstract
Conventional design of jigs and fixtures has become unsuitable given the requirements of modern technology and complexity and diversity in the production with the rapid update of products. Computer-aided design (CAD) of jigs and fixtures is an effective solution in this direction. The [...] Read more.
Conventional design of jigs and fixtures has become unsuitable given the requirements of modern technology and complexity and diversity in the production with the rapid update of products. Computer-aided design (CAD) of jigs and fixtures is an effective solution in this direction. The current paper focuses on a computer-aided design of the traditional jigs and fixtures and developed a system containing tailor-made software, created using the Visual Basic programming language and installed on it the viewer screen to show the part. The developed system has been built by connecting Visual Basic programming language to the SolidWorks software on which the part is drawn and saved as STEP AP-203 file format, and the system reads and extracts the data from the STEP AP-203 file. Heuristic rules of feature recognition are pre-prepared for checking the extracted geometric data and deciding which data shape will represent the machining feature; then, the system provides the optimum design of the traditional jigs and fixtures for a group of hollow cylindrical parts that contain a group of cross-holes on the cylinder body, whether perpendicular or offset from the cylinder’s axis, (inclined or inclined offset, or blind or through, by applying pre-prepared heuristic rules for the design of traditional jigs and fixtures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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14 pages, 64134 KiB  
Article
Separation Characteristics of an Axial Hydrocyclone Separator
by Jie Kou, Zhaoming Jiang and Yiying Cong
Processes 2021, 9(12), 2288; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9122288 - 20 Dec 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3135
Abstract
An innovative axial hydrocyclone separator was designed in which a guide vane was installed to replace a conventional tangential inlet, potentially aggravating inlet turbulence. The characteristics of velocity distribution, concentration distribution, and pressure distribution inside the separator were obtained through the numerical simulation [...] Read more.
An innovative axial hydrocyclone separator was designed in which a guide vane was installed to replace a conventional tangential inlet, potentially aggravating inlet turbulence. The characteristics of velocity distribution, concentration distribution, and pressure distribution inside the separator were obtained through the numerical simulation of the turbulent flow of oil and water. The results showed that the flow field presented good symmetry, which eliminated the eccentric turbulence phenomenon in the conventional hydrocyclone separators and was beneficial for the oil–water separation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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17 pages, 9734 KiB  
Article
Optimisation of a Side Inlet for H2 Entry into an Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis Device
by Žiga Jelen, Domen Kandare, Luka Lešnik and Rebeka Rudolf
Processes 2021, 9(12), 2256; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9122256 - 14 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2316
Abstract
An ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) device consists of an evaporation and two reaction zones of equal length, into which an aerosol with a precursor compound enters, and where nanoparticles are formed in the final stage. As part of this research, we simulated the [...] Read more.
An ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) device consists of an evaporation and two reaction zones of equal length, into which an aerosol with a precursor compound enters, and where nanoparticles are formed in the final stage. As part of this research, we simulated the geometry of a side inlet, where the reaction gas (H2) enters into the reaction tube of the device by using numerical methods. Mixing with the carrier gas (N2) occurs at the entry of the H2. In the initial part, we performed a theoretical calculation with a numerical simulation using ANSYS CFX, while the geometries of the basic and studied models were prepared with Solidworks. The inlet geometry of the H2 included a study of the position and radius of the inlet with respect to the reaction tube of the USP device, as well as a study of the angle and diameter of the inlet. In the simulation, we chose the typical flows of both gases (N2, H2) in the range of 5 L/min to 15 L/min. The results show that the best geometry is with the H2 side inlet at the bottom, which the existing USP device does not allow for. Subsequently, temperature was included in the numerical simulation of the basic geometry with selected gas flows; 150 °C was considered in the evaporation zone and 400 °C was considered in the other two zones—as is the case for Au nanoparticle synthesis. In the final part, we performed an experiment on a USP device by selecting for the input parameters those that, theoretically, were the most appropriate—a constant flow of H2 5 L/min and three different N2 flows (5 L/min, 10 L/min, and 15 L/min). The results of this study show that numerical simulations are a suitable tool for studying the H2 flow in a UPS device, as the obtained results are comparable to the results of experimental tests that showed that an increased flow of N2 can prevent the backflow of H2 effectively, and that a redesign of the inlet geometry is needed to ensure proper mixing. Thus, numerical simulations using the ANSYS CFX package can be used to evaluate the optimal geometry for an H2 side inlet properly, so as to reconstruct the current and improve future USP devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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15 pages, 2707 KiB  
Article
The Strategy of Universal-Design Thinking in Architecturally Innovative Product Development
by Chenhui Gao, Kai-Chieh Lin and Zheng-Yi Wu
Processes 2021, 9(12), 2254; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9122254 - 14 Dec 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2861
Abstract
Universal design, as an important concept in product development, has been gradually implemented in various industries and firms, but most of the applications are aimed at the incremental innovation of product design. However, considering the differentiation of product types, the design factors are [...] Read more.
Universal design, as an important concept in product development, has been gradually implemented in various industries and firms, but most of the applications are aimed at the incremental innovation of product design. However, considering the differentiation of product types, the design factors are varied and not precise, which makes it difficult to effectively implement the existing universal-design principles in specific product designs when facing architecturally innovative product development, which leads to an increasing amount of time and resources. This study, with an umbrella stand as an example, proposes to design a new universal-design scale by combining the attributes of the umbrella stand, the existing universal-design principles and the usability principles at the beginning of the design. Then, through interviews and user surveys, cluster analysis is used to screen the products and refine the design factors. In addition, with the Quantification Type I, the universal-design principles and design factors are matched effectively in order to obtain the weight differences of the product design factors and eliminate unsuitable design factors, in order to guide product design. Finally, the universal umbrella-stand-design case is completed for verification. The results show that the universal umbrella stand has been significantly improved in the evaluation of universal-design principles. In the future design, architecturally innovative products with inaccurate design factors can also use this process to complete the design and development of the target product, and to significantly enhance the universal-design evaluation of the product. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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11 pages, 6161 KiB  
Article
Ultrahigh Temperature Flash Sintering of Binder-Less Tungsten Carbide within 6 s
by Huaijiu Deng, Mattia Biesuz, Monika Vilémová, Milad Kermani, Jakub Veverka, Václav Tyrpekl, Chunfeng Hu and Salvatore Grasso
Materials 2021, 14(24), 7655; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14247655 - 12 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2683
Abstract
We report on an ultrarapid (6 s) consolidation of binder-less WC using a novel Ultrahigh temperature Flash Sintering (UFS) approach. The UFS technique bridges the gap between electric resistance sintering (≪1 s) and flash spark plasma sintering (20–60 s). Compared to the well-established [...] Read more.
We report on an ultrarapid (6 s) consolidation of binder-less WC using a novel Ultrahigh temperature Flash Sintering (UFS) approach. The UFS technique bridges the gap between electric resistance sintering (≪1 s) and flash spark plasma sintering (20–60 s). Compared to the well-established spark plasma sintering, the proposed approach results in improved energy efficiency with massive energy and time savings while maintaining a comparable relative density (94.6%) and Vickers hardness of 2124 HV. The novelty of this work relies on (i) multiple steps current discharge profile to suit the rapid change of electrical conductivity experienced by the sintering powder, (ii) upgraded low thermal inertia CFC dies and (iii) ultra-high consolidation temperature approaching 2750 °C. Compared to SPS process, the UFS process is highly energy efficient (≈200 times faster and it consumes ≈95% less energy) and it holds the promise of energy efficient and ultrafast consolidation of several conductive refractory compounds. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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19 pages, 2069 KiB  
Article
In Silico Analysis and Experimental Evaluation of Ester Prodrugs of Ketoprofen for Oral Delivery: With a View to Reduce Toxicity
by Kishor Mazumder, Md. Emran Hossain, Asma Aktar, Mohammad Mohiuddin, Kishore Kumar Sarkar, Biswajit Biswas, Md. Abdullah Aziz, Md. Ahsan Abid and Koichi Fukase
Processes 2021, 9(12), 2221; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9122221 - 9 Dec 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3025
Abstract
The present research aimed to synthesize ketoprofen prodrugs and to demonstrate their potentiality for oral treatment to treat chronic inflammation by reducing its hepatotoxicity and gastrointestinal irritation. Methyl 2-(3-benzoyl phenyl) propanoate, ethyl 2-(3-benzoyl phenyl) propanoate and propyl 2-(3-benzoyl phenyl) propanoate was synthesized by [...] Read more.
The present research aimed to synthesize ketoprofen prodrugs and to demonstrate their potentiality for oral treatment to treat chronic inflammation by reducing its hepatotoxicity and gastrointestinal irritation. Methyl 2-(3-benzoyl phenyl) propanoate, ethyl 2-(3-benzoyl phenyl) propanoate and propyl 2-(3-benzoyl phenyl) propanoate was synthesized by esterification and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (1HNMR) and infrared (IR) spectrometric analysis. In silico SwissADME and ProTox-II analysis stated methyl derivative as ideal candidate for oral absorption, having a >30-fold LD50 value compared to ketoprofen with no hepatotoxicity. Moreover, in vivo hepatotoxicity study demonstrates that these ester prodrugs have significantly lower effects on liver toxicity compared to pure ketoprofen. Furthermore, ex vivo intestinal permeation enhancement ratio was statistically significant (* p < 0.05) compared to ketoprofen. Likewise, the prodrugs were found to exhibit not only remarkable in vitro anti-proteolytic and lysosomal membrane stabilization potentials, but also significant efficiency to alleviate pain induced by inflammation, as well as central and peripheral stimulus in mice model in vivo. These outcomes recommend that ketoprofen ester prodrugs, especially methyl derivative, can be a cost-effective candidate for prolonged treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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26 pages, 10780 KiB  
Article
The Hardness Evolution of Cast and the High-Cycle Fatigue Life Change of Wrought Ni-Base Superalloys after Additional Heat Treatment
by Juraj Belan, Lenka Kuchariková, Eva Tillová, Miloš Matvija and Milan Uhríčik
Materials 2021, 14(23), 7427; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14237427 - 3 Dec 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2198
Abstract
Concerning the use of modern technologies and manufacturing systems in the production of high-stress components from Ni-base superalloys and the optimization of the production process, knowledge of the microstructure–mechanical properties relationship is very important. The microstructure of Ni-base superalloys is very closely related [...] Read more.
Concerning the use of modern technologies and manufacturing systems in the production of high-stress components from Ni-base superalloys and the optimization of the production process, knowledge of the microstructure–mechanical properties relationship is very important. The microstructure of Ni-base superalloys is very closely related to the chemical composition. With the high number of alloying elements, various phases are presented in the structure of Ni-base superalloys, which have a predominantly positive effect on the mechanical properties, but also phases that reduce, in particular, the heat resistance of these materials. The aim of the presented paper is the quantification of structural parameters of two types of cast alloys, ZhS6K and IN738, where the effect of dwell at 10 and 15 h at 800 °C on the change in morphology and volume fraction of the γ′-phase precipitate was studied. The detected changes were verified by the Vickers hardness test. The IN718 superalloy was chosen as a representative of the wrought superalloy. This alloy was also annealed for 72 h at a temperature of 800 °C, and the quantification of structural parameters was performed by EDS mapping and TEM analysis. Another partial goal was to assess the effect of changes in the volume fraction of the γ′-phase and δ-phase on the change in the high-cycle fatigue life of superalloy IN 718. This superalloy was tested by dynamic cyclic loading with cycle asymmetry parameter R = −1 at an ambient temperature of 22 ± 5 °C and at a temperature of 700 ± 5 °C and with cycle asymmetry parameter R < 1 (three-point bending load) after annealing at 700 °C/72 h. The results of the quantitative analyses and fatigue tests will be further used in optimizing the design of Ni-base superalloy components by modern technologies such as additive technologies for the production of turbine blades and implemented within the philosophy of Industry 4.0. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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18 pages, 6913 KiB  
Article
FE-Simulation Based Design of Wear-Optimized Cutting Edge Roundings
by Benjamin Bergmann, Berend Denkena, Sascha Beblein and Tobias Picker
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(4), 126; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5040126 - 25 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2898
Abstract
The performance of cutting tools can be significantly enhanced by matching the cutting edge rounding to the process and material properties. However, the conventional cutting edge rounding design is characterized by a significant number of experimental machining studies, which involve considerable cost, time, [...] Read more.
The performance of cutting tools can be significantly enhanced by matching the cutting edge rounding to the process and material properties. However, the conventional cutting edge rounding design is characterized by a significant number of experimental machining studies, which involve considerable cost, time, and resources. In this study, a novel approach to cutting edge rounding design using FEM-based chip formation simulations is presented. Based on a parameterized simulation model, tool temperatures, stresses and relative velocities can be calculated as a function of tool microgeometry. It can be shown that the external tool loads can be simulated with high agreement. With the help of these loads and the use of wear models, the resulting tool wear and the optimum cutting edge rounding can be determined. The final experimental investigations show a qualitatively high agreement to the simulation, which will enable a reduced effort design of the cutting edge in the future. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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14 pages, 2589 KiB  
Article
Research and Implementation of Lean Production Mode in Shipbuilding
by Tingxin Song and Jincheng Zhou
Processes 2021, 9(11), 2071; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9112071 - 18 Nov 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4226
Abstract
This paper studies the production process of a shipbuilding enterprise. The company suffers from long manufacturing cycle, low utilization rate of personnel and an unbalanced production line. To solve these problems, the lean shipbuilding mode, mainly divided into shipbuilding work breakdown, production plan [...] Read more.
This paper studies the production process of a shipbuilding enterprise. The company suffers from long manufacturing cycle, low utilization rate of personnel and an unbalanced production line. To solve these problems, the lean shipbuilding mode, mainly divided into shipbuilding work breakdown, production plan and virtual flow operation in this paper, is put forward, which combines the lean production and modern information management technology with shipbuilding. Supported by the theory of work breakdown structure and task package scheduling, the shipbuilding task package is reasonably divided. The priority of task package manufacturing is determined by calculating the task package manufacturing sequence coefficient, and a reasonable number of operators is calculated to ensure the continuity of segmented manufacturing. After determining the manufacturing priority of the task pack and the number of allocable personnel, the corresponding work can be scheduled. Production planning drives all production activities of the shipbuilding enterprise, and just-in-time production is achieved through the reasonable arrangement of these production plans, thus reducing the waste of personnel and time. Then, the virtual flow operation is carried out, which can achieve high efficiency of flow production and high flexibility of fixed workstation production during the production process of large-scale and heavy-duty products. The virtual assembly production system of the workshop is established according to the characteristics of shipbuilding operation and the actual production situation. On this basis, a lean shipbuilding manufacturing execution system for small and medium-sized shipbuilding enterprises is developed to achieve lean production in a shipbuilding workshop. Through the implementation of the lean shipbuilding mode based on task package scheduling and its manufacturing execution system, compared with the original data, the ship production cycle is reduced to 76.7%, the number of workers is reduced by 16.7% and the production balance rate is up to 81%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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21 pages, 6635 KiB  
Article
Experimental Study on Single Corner Cold Bending Mechanical Response of Laminated of PVB Interlayer Tempered Glass Panes and the Coupling Effect with Load
by Xide Zhang, Wei Zhou and Mingcai Xu
Materials 2021, 14(22), 6914; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14226914 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1839
Abstract
The cold bending method is a type of curved glass curtain wall construction method that has been used in practical engineering for a short time. It has the advantages of simple operation, high efficiency and low cost. However, the mechanical response and properties [...] Read more.
The cold bending method is a type of curved glass curtain wall construction method that has been used in practical engineering for a short time. It has the advantages of simple operation, high efficiency and low cost. However, the mechanical response and properties of glass panes caused by cold bending have not been solved effectively. To study the mechanical response and the properties of cold formed laminated tempered glass panes after applying with a wind load, cold bending and load tests of 9 laminated tempered glass panes were conducted by the orthogonal experimental design method. The effects of cold bending curvature, glass pane thickness and interlayer thickness were considered. In this paper, the response law of cold bending stress to the curvature and the relationship among the influencing factors were analyzed. The variation process of stress, the deflection of cold-formed glass panes under uniform load and the characteristics affected by cold-formed stress and deformation were studied. The results show that the cold bending stress is distributed in a saddle shape, and the curvature has the greatest influence on the cold bending stress, followed by the thickness of the glass panes. The influence of the interlayer thickness is small. The maximum stress appears near the corner of the short side direction adjacent to the cold bending corner. The cold bending stress increases linearly with increasing cold bending curvature. The cold bending stress and deformation have little effect on the change process of the later stage load effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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15 pages, 1499 KiB  
Article
Investigation of the Process of Simple Distillation in Irrigated Pipe Elements
by Artem Sergeevich Ponikarov, Sergey Ivanovich Ponikarov and Eduard Vladislavovich Osipov
Processes 2021, 9(11), 2047; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9112047 - 16 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3462
Abstract
In modern chemical and oil refining complexes, separation processes are among the most popular and energy-intensive. Installations for their implementation should be equipped with nodes for creating vapor (evaporators) and liquid (deflegmators) irrigation. Evaporators of any type (film, thermosiphon, gas lift, cubic) belong [...] Read more.
In modern chemical and oil refining complexes, separation processes are among the most popular and energy-intensive. Installations for their implementation should be equipped with nodes for creating vapor (evaporators) and liquid (deflegmators) irrigation. Evaporators of any type (film, thermosiphon, gas lift, cubic) belong to this class of devices. For example, in cubic evaporators, the gas flow is completely formed from flux bubbles that originate on the heat-conducting surface and float in the volume of the cubic liquid located in the apparatus. Due to the accompanying mass exchange, the bubbles are enriched with volatile components during ascent and noticeably increase in volume, and the growth of the bubble is determined, among other things, by the total flow. At the same time, in real bubbling-type equipment, the total mass transfer surface exceeds the cross-section of the device itself by more than two orders of magnitude. Thus, according to, the ratio of the internal cross-sectional area of the apparatus to the developed mass transfer surface is 0.0015–0.002. Based on the analysis of the integral equation of the diffusion boundary layer, it is shown that the presence of a resultant flow of substance through the phase interface (non-equimolarity of the process) in a two-phase gas (vapor)–liquid system leads to the transformation of the structure of the traditional mass transfer equation itself. The use of a new structure obtained for both binary and multicomponent mixtures makes it possible to significantly simplify the approach to the description and generalization of arbitrary mass transfer processes. The innovativeness of the proposed approach lies in its universality for non-equimolar processes. This simplifies the creation of models of any mass transfer devices and entire production lines. In addition, the proposed approach is a good auxiliary tool for various researchers and experimenters. It should also be noted that the separation processes of many products of organic origin during heating are characterized by the appearance of undesirable side reactions (thermal decomposition, condensation, polycondensation, formation of harmful impurities, etc.), which occur most intensively in the heating zones. At the same time, the evaporation and distillation units are subject to requirements for the minimum hydraulic resistance of the structure, the maximum separation capacity (efficiency), and the minimum residence time of the product in the apparatus (equivalent to the minimum holding capacity of the structure). It was noted that the specified requirements are most fully met by film-type devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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12 pages, 2288 KiB  
Article
Development Approach Model for Automotive Headlights with Mixed Delivery Methodologies over APQP Backbone
by Costel-Ciprian Raicu, George-Călin Seriţan, Bogdan-Adrian Enache and Marilena Stănculescu
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10581; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210581 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2756
Abstract
Headlights’ development for the automotive industry is gaining a lot of volatility due to frequent changes in features, styling and design, hardware interfaces, and software upgrades required by the OEM, supplier, or new trends in regulations. Standard development models based on V-cycle compliant [...] Read more.
Headlights’ development for the automotive industry is gaining a lot of volatility due to frequent changes in features, styling and design, hardware interfaces, and software upgrades required by the OEM, supplier, or new trends in regulations. Standard development models based on V-cycle compliant with CMMI are not responding with reactivity on constant changes. The article proposes an approach based on mixed development strategies over the different core domains with Lean, Scrum, Feature-Driven Development, and VDI to satisfy the APQP milestones, with a proposal of a canvas-type model, the rapid delivery of headlights is portrayed. The efficiency and effectiveness of the model are assessed based on the assumed number of changes for new high-end headlights, based on experience and real cases. A delivery baseline LED-based Headlight development—planned versus actual—chart is presented and explained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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24 pages, 110478 KiB  
Review
Preparation of Smart Materials by Additive Manufacturing Technologies: A Review
by Kunal Mondal and Prabhat Kumar Tripathy
Materials 2021, 14(21), 6442; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14216442 - 27 Oct 2021
Cited by 23 | Viewed by 5666
Abstract
Over the last few decades, advanced manufacturing and additive printing technologies have made incredible inroads into the fields of engineering, transportation, and healthcare. Among additive manufacturing technologies, 3D printing is gradually emerging as a powerful technique owing to a combination of attractive features, [...] Read more.
Over the last few decades, advanced manufacturing and additive printing technologies have made incredible inroads into the fields of engineering, transportation, and healthcare. Among additive manufacturing technologies, 3D printing is gradually emerging as a powerful technique owing to a combination of attractive features, such as fast prototyping, fabrication of complex designs/structures, minimization of waste generation, and easy mass customization. Of late, 4D printing has also been initiated, which is the sophisticated version of the 3D printing. It has an extra advantageous feature: retaining shape memory and being able to provide instructions to the printed parts on how to move or adapt under some environmental conditions, such as, water, wind, light, temperature, or other environmental stimuli. This advanced printing utilizes the response of smart manufactured materials, which offer the capability of changing shapes postproduction over application of any forms of energy. The potential application of 4D printing in the biomedical field is huge. Here, the technology could be applied to tissue engineering, medicine, and configuration of smart biomedical devices. Various characteristics of next generation additive printings, namely 3D and 4D printings, and their use in enhancing the manufacturing domain, their development, and some of the applications have been discussed. Special materials with piezoelectric properties and shape-changing characteristics have also been discussed in comparison with conventional material options for additive printing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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21 pages, 9297 KiB  
Article
Technology Recommendations for an Innovative Agricultural Robot Design Based on Technology Knowledge Graphs
by Yucheng Jin, Jizhan Liu, Xiuhong Wang, Pingping Li and Jizhang Wang
Processes 2021, 9(11), 1905; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9111905 - 26 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2912
Abstract
The process of agricultural robot design is a complex system requiring the cooperation and integration of agricultural, machinery, automation, and information technology. These demands create great challenges for the innovative design of agricultural robots. Meanwhile, more than 95% of the latest inventions and [...] Read more.
The process of agricultural robot design is a complex system requiring the cooperation and integration of agricultural, machinery, automation, and information technology. These demands create great challenges for the innovative design of agricultural robots. Meanwhile, more than 95% of the latest inventions and creations in the world are recorded in the patent literature. In order to make effective use of the information and data resources of patents, shorten the design cycle, and provide knowledge for the designers, according to the operation’s objectives, an agricultural robot technology knowledge graph (TKG) was established for innovative designs. By analyzing the patent information, a patent IPC co-classification network (IPCNet) for adaptive design process recognition was put forward to meet the requirements of the different operation objectives and operation links. Through the extraction of the technology keywords and efficacy keywords, based on the word co-occurrence network (WCONet), a technology–efficacy map (TEM) was constructed. Through the integration of the adaptive design process and the TEM, the agricultural robot design TKG was constructed for determining technological recommendations for agricultural robot design. The case of the citrus picking robot design was realized to implement the design process. With the technology recommendation results, the moving system, body, and end-effector for the citrus picking robot were designed to verify the results of the recommendation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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18 pages, 7532 KiB  
Article
Optimal Design of Accumulator Parameters for an Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator at Low Speed
by Gexin Chen, Gengting Qiu, Guishan Yan, Tiangui Zhang, Huilong Liu, Wenbin Chen and Chao Ai
Processes 2021, 9(11), 1903; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9111903 - 26 Oct 2021
Viewed by 2075
Abstract
The electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA) is a type of highly integrated, compact, closed pump control drive system composed of a servo motor, a metering pump, a hydraulic cylinder and other components. Compared with the traditional valve control system, the electro-hydrostatic actuator has the advantages [...] Read more.
The electro-hydrostatic actuator (EHA) is a type of highly integrated, compact, closed pump control drive system composed of a servo motor, a metering pump, a hydraulic cylinder and other components. Compared with the traditional valve control system, the electro-hydrostatic actuator has the advantages of a high power-to-weight ratio, high integration, environmental friendliness, and superior efficiency and energy saving. However, due to the complex mechanical–hydraulic coupling mechanism of the system and the existence of non-linear multi-source disturbances, the dynamic and static performance of the system is limited, particularly the pressure pulsation phenomenon under low-speed conditions, which seriously affects the high precision control requirements of the system. In order to address the low-speed pressure pulsation problem of the electro-hydrostatic actuator, first, the mathematical models of the servo motor, metering pump and hydraulic cylinder are established, and the simulation model of the EHA system is created based on MATLAB/Simulink. Second, from aspects of the servo motor and the quantitative piston pump, the causes of the pressure pulsation under low-speed working conditions are analyzed, and the parameter selection method of the accumulator is proposed to eliminate the pressure pulsation based on ωn and ζ of the EHA system. Finally, the optimal charging pressure of the accumulator is simulated and experimentally analyzed. The simulation and experimental results show that the charging pressure range of the accumulator calculated with this method can effectively improve the pressure pulsation phenomenon of the EHA system under low-speed working conditions, and it plays a positive role in the engineering popularization and application of the EHA system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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16 pages, 2560 KiB  
Article
Transfer and Optimisation of Injection Moulding Manufacture of Medical Devices Using Scientific Moulding Principles
by Aimee Fitzgerald, Paul McDonald, Declan Devine and Evert Fuenmayor
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(4), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5040113 - 25 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3832
Abstract
Scientific moulding, also known as decoupled injection moulding, is a production methodology used to develop and determine robust moulding processes resilient to fluctuations caused by variation in temperature and viscosity. Scientific moulding relies on the meticulous collection of data from the manufacturing process, [...] Read more.
Scientific moulding, also known as decoupled injection moulding, is a production methodology used to develop and determine robust moulding processes resilient to fluctuations caused by variation in temperature and viscosity. Scientific moulding relies on the meticulous collection of data from the manufacturing process, especially inputs of time (fill, pack/hold), temperature (melt, barrel, tool), and pressure (injection, hold, etc.). This publication presents a use case where scientific moulding was used to enable the transfer and optimisation of an injection moulding process from an Arburg 221M injection moulding machine to an Arburg 375 V model. The part was an endovascular aneurysm repair dilator device where a polypropylene hub was moulded over a high-density polyethylene dilator insert. Upon transfer, multiple studies were carried out, including material rheology study during injection, gate freeze study, cavity balance of the moulding tool, and pressure loss analysis. A design of experiments was developed and carried out on the process with a variety of effects and responses. The developed process cycle time was compared to that achieved theoretically using mathematical modelling and the original process cycle time. The studies resulted in the identification of optimum parameters for injection speed, holding time, holding pressure, cooling time, and mould temperature. The process was verified by completing a 32-shot study and recording part weights and dimensional measurements to confirm repeatability and consistency of the process. The output from the study was a reduction in cycle time by 12.05 s from the original process. A cycle time of 47.28 s was theoretically calculated for the process, which is within 6.6% of the practical experiment results (44.15 s). Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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31 pages, 4460 KiB  
Article
Mini-Refinery Vacuum Unit: Functional Analysis and Improvement of Vacuum Overhead System
by Eduard Osipov, Eduard Telyakov, Sergey Ponikarov, Daniel Bugembe and Artem Ponikarov
Processes 2021, 9(11), 1865; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9111865 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5147
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to analyze the functioning of the vacuum distillation unit of a mini-refinery and to develop recommendations for improving the vacuum overhead system with the aim to reduce the cost of creating and maintaining a vacuum in the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the functioning of the vacuum distillation unit of a mini-refinery and to develop recommendations for improving the vacuum overhead system with the aim to reduce the cost of creating and maintaining a vacuum in the fuel oil separation column. A calculation model of the vacuum unit was developed in the Unisim Design R451 software package, which was identified by comparing the calculated data with the data from an industrial study for two operating modes of the installation. Replacing the existing steam-ejector pump with a liquid-ring vacuum pump was proposed. A numerical experiment was carried out on the developed model, the purpose of which was to determine the “bottlenecks” of the scheme. The peculiarity of the experiment was that the vacuum column and the vacuum overhead system were considered as a single whole. As a result, it was determined that the “bottleneck” is the condenser, which was proposed to be replaced. During the technical and economic analysis, two possible vacuum overhead system schemes were considered; according to the results, it was determined that the vacuum overhead system scheme based on a liquid-ring vacuum pump will help reduce operating costs by 78%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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13 pages, 5681 KiB  
Article
Uniform Pressing Mechanism in Large-Area Roll-to-Roll Nanoimprint Lithography Process
by Ga Eul Kim, Hyuntae Kim, Kyoohee Woo, Yousung Kang, Seung-Hyun Lee, Yongho Jeon, Moon G. Lee and Sin Kwon
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(20), 9571; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11209571 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2427
Abstract
We aimed to increase the processing area of the roll-to-roll (R2R) nanoimprint lithography (NIL) process for high productivity, using a long roller. It is common for a long roller to have bending deformation, geometric errors and misalignment. This causes the non-uniformity of contact [...] Read more.
We aimed to increase the processing area of the roll-to-roll (R2R) nanoimprint lithography (NIL) process for high productivity, using a long roller. It is common for a long roller to have bending deformation, geometric errors and misalignment. This causes the non-uniformity of contact pressure between the rollers, which leads to defects such as non-uniform patterning. The non-uniformity of the contact pressure of the conventional R2R NIL system was investigated through finite element (FE) analysis and experiments in the conventional system. To solve the problem, a new large-area R2R NIL uniform pressing system with five multi-backup rollers was proposed and manufactured instead of the conventional system. As a preliminary experiment, the possibility of uniform contact pressure was confirmed by using only the pressure at both ends and one backup roller in the center. A more even contact pressure was achieved by using all five backup rollers and applying an appropriate pushing force to each backup roller. Machine learning techniques were applied to find the optimal combination of the pushing forces. In the conventional pressing process, it was confirmed that pressure deviation of the contact area occurred at a level of 44%; when the improved system was applied, pressure deviation dropped to 5%. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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15 pages, 4255 KiB  
Article
Influence of Process Parameters and Initial Surface on Magnetic Abrasive Finishing of Flat Surfaces on CNC Machine Tools
by Andrii Zelinko, Florian Welzel, Dirk Biermann and Viktor Maiboroda
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(4), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5040108 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2327
Abstract
Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) shows a high potential for use on computerized numerical control (CNC) machine tools as a standard tool to polish workpieces directly after the milling process. This paper presents a new MAF tool with a single, large permanent magnet and [...] Read more.
Magnetic abrasive finishing (MAF) shows a high potential for use on computerized numerical control (CNC) machine tools as a standard tool to polish workpieces directly after the milling process. This paper presents a new MAF tool with a single, large permanent magnet and a novel top cover structure for finishing the plain ferromagnetic workpieces. The top cover structure of the MAF tool, combined with an optimized working gap, ensures the effect of mechanical powder compaction, which leads to a significant increase in process capability and surface roughness reduction. The influence of the process parameters such as feed rate, equivalent cutting speed, working gap (including for three grain sizes) and the gap to the magnet was investigated. In addition, the influence of the initial surface after face milling, end milling, ball end milling and grinding on the surface quality after MAF was investigated. Furthermore, three typical surfaces after milling and MAF were analyzed. By magnetic abrasive finishing, a significant surface quality improvement of the initial milled surfaces to roughness values up to Ra = 0.02 µm and Rz = 0.12 µm in one processing step could be achieved. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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16 pages, 6289 KiB  
Article
Penetration Depth Prediction of Infinity Shaped Laser Scanning Welding Based on Latin Hypercube Sampling and the Neuroevolution of Augmenting Topologies
by Yisheng Yin, Chengrui Zhang and Tieshuang Zhu
Materials 2021, 14(20), 5984; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14205984 - 12 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2147
Abstract
This paper builds an infinity shaped (“∞”-shaped) laser scanning welding test platform based on a self-developed motion controller and galvanometer scanner control gateway, takes the autogenous bead-on-plate welding of 304SS with 3 mm thick specimens as the experimental objects, designs the experimental parameters [...] Read more.
This paper builds an infinity shaped (“∞”-shaped) laser scanning welding test platform based on a self-developed motion controller and galvanometer scanner control gateway, takes the autogenous bead-on-plate welding of 304SS with 3 mm thick specimens as the experimental objects, designs the experimental parameters by the Latin hypercube sampling method for obtaining different penetration depth welded joints, and presents a methodology based on the neuroevolution of augmenting topologies for predicting the penetration depth of “∞”-shaped laser scanning welding. Laser power, welding speed, scanning frequency, and scanning amplitude are set as the input parameters of the model, and welding depth (WD) as the output parameter of the model. The model can accurately reflect the nonlinear relationship between the main welding parameters and WD by validation. Moreover, the normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) of the welding depth is about 6.2%. On the whole, the proposed methodology and model can be employed for guiding the actual work in the main process parameters’ preliminary selection and lay the foundation for the study of penetration morphology control of “∞”-shaped laser scanning welding. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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18 pages, 74058 KiB  
Article
Influence of Moulding Pressure on the Burst Pressure of Reverse-Acting Rupture Discs
by Lili Liu, Chenxing Yuan, Wei Li, Beibei Li and Xiumei Liu
Processes 2021, 9(10), 1775; https://doi.org/10.3390/pr9101775 - 4 Oct 2021
Viewed by 3183
Abstract
Rupture discs, also called bursting discs, are widely used in pressure vessels, pressure equipment, and pressure piping in process industries, such as nuclear power, fire protection, and petrochemical industries. To explore the relationship between the burst pressure of reverse-acting rupture discs and their [...] Read more.
Rupture discs, also called bursting discs, are widely used in pressure vessels, pressure equipment, and pressure piping in process industries, such as nuclear power, fire protection, and petrochemical industries. To explore the relationship between the burst pressure of reverse-acting rupture discs and their production, two common manufacturing methods, air pressure moulding and hydraulic moulding, were compared in this study. Reverse-acting rupture discs that complied with the form recommended by API 520-2014 were prepared with four release diameters, and burst pressure tests were carried out. These results showed an obvious negative correlation between the forming pressure of rupture discs and their actual burst pressure for all experimental samples. Further study showed that the main reason for this correlation was a reduction in thickness at the top of the rupture disc caused by large plastic deformation during compression moulding. To explore the relationship between the thickness reduction effect and moulding method, this study defined the “relative ratio of thickness reduction” and concluded that the effect of decreasing the thickness of the rupture disc was more obvious for rupture disc substrates with less flexural rigidity. The above conclusions have important significance for guiding the control of the burst pressure of rupture discs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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11 pages, 1748 KiB  
Communication
Machine Learning of Surface Layer Property Prediction for Milling Operations
by Eckart Uhlmann, Tobias Holznagel, Philipp Schehl and Yannick Bode
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2021, 5(4), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp5040104 - 30 Sep 2021
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2712
Abstract
Tool wear and cutting parameters have a significant effect on the surface layer properties in milling. Since the relation between tool wear, cutting parameters, and surface layer properties is mostly unknown, the latter cannot be controlled during production and may vary from part [...] Read more.
Tool wear and cutting parameters have a significant effect on the surface layer properties in milling. Since the relation between tool wear, cutting parameters, and surface layer properties is mostly unknown, the latter cannot be controlled during production and may vary from part to part as tool wear progresses. To account for this uncertainty and to prevent premature failure, components often need to be oversized or surface layer properties need to be adjusted in subsequent manufacturing processes. Several approaches have been made to obtain models that predict the surface layer properties induced by manufacturing processes. However, those approaches need to be calibrated with a considerable number of experimental trials. As trials are time-consuming and surface layer measurements are laborious, no industrial applications have been realized. Complex models have one major drawback. They have to be re-parameterized as soon as process characteristics change. Therefore, manual experimental parameterization does not appear to be a feasible approach for industrial application. A highly automated approach for the machine learning of the relation between tool wear, cutting parameters and surface layer properties is presented in this paper. The amount of obtained measurement data allows a fundamental analysis of the approach, which paves the way for further developments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Modern Technologies and Manufacturing Systems)
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32 pages, 13295 KiB