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Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities of Selected Medicinal Plants of Himalayas, Pakistan

Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
Department of Mechatronics Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju-si 63243, Korea
National Control Laboratory for Biologicals, Drug Regulatory Authority of Pakistan, Islamabad 44090, Pakistan
Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Medical Sciences, Rawalpindi 46000, Pakistan
Department of Pharmacy, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25120, Pakistan
BioSpero, Inc., Jeju-si 63243, Korea
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Academic Editors: Laura Grațiela Vicaș and Mariana Eugenia Mureșan
Plants 2022, 11(1), 48;
Received: 1 December 2021 / Revised: 20 December 2021 / Accepted: 20 December 2021 / Published: 24 December 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Medicinal Plant Extracts)
Medicinal plants are known for their diverse use in the traditional medicine of the Himalayan region of Pakistan. The present study is designed to investigate the anticancer and antimicrobial activities of Prunus cornuta and Quercus semicarpifolia. The anticancer activity was performed using cancerous human cell lines (HepG2, Caco-2, A549, MDA-MB-231, and NCI-H1437 carcinoma cells), while the antimicrobial activity was conducted with the agar-well diffusion method. Furthermore, toxicity studies were performed on alveolar and renal primary epithelial cells. Initially, different extracts were prepared by maceration techniques using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and methanol. The preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of secondary metabolites such as alkaloids, tannins, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, and quinones. The chloroform extract of P. cornuta (PCC) exhibited significant inhibitory activity against Acinetobacter baumannii (16 mm) and Salmonella enterica (14.5 mm). The A. baumannii and S. enterica strains appeared highly susceptible to n-hexane extract of P. cornuta (PCN) with an antibacterial effect of 15 mm and 15.5 mm, respectively. The results also showed that the methanolic extracts of Quercus semecarpifolia (QSM) exhibited considerable antibacterial inhibitory activity in A. baumannii (18 mm), Escherichia coli (15 mm). The QSN and QSE extracts also showed good inhibition in A. baumannii with a 16 mm zone of inhibition. The Rhizopus oryzae strain has shown remarkable mycelial inhibition by PCM and QSN with 16 mm and 21 mm inhibition, respectively. Furthermore, the extracts of P. cornuta and Q. semicarpifolia exhibited prominent growth inhibition of breast (MDA-MB-231) and lung (A549) carcinoma cells with 19–30% and 22–39% cell viabilities, respectively. The gut cell line survival was also significantly inhibited by Q. semicarpifolia (24–34%). The findings of this study provide valuable information for the future development of new antibacterial and anticancer medicinal agents from P. cornuta and Q. semicarpifolia extracts. View Full-Text
Keywords: Prunus cornuta; Quercus semicarpifolia; antibacterial; antifungal; anti-cancer Prunus cornuta; Quercus semicarpifolia; antibacterial; antifungal; anti-cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kausar, F.; Kim, K.-H.; Farooqi, H.M.U.; Farooqi, M.A.; Kaleem, M.; Waqar, R.; Khalil, A.A.K.; Khuda, F.; Abdul Rahim, C.S.; Hyun, K.; Choi, K.-H.; Mumtaz, A.S. Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities of Selected Medicinal Plants of Himalayas, Pakistan. Plants 2022, 11, 48.

AMA Style

Kausar F, Kim K-H, Farooqi HMU, Farooqi MA, Kaleem M, Waqar R, Khalil AAK, Khuda F, Abdul Rahim CS, Hyun K, Choi K-H, Mumtaz AS. Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities of Selected Medicinal Plants of Himalayas, Pakistan. Plants. 2022; 11(1):48.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kausar, Farzana, Kyung-Hwan Kim, Hafiz M.U. Farooqi, Muhammad A. Farooqi, Muhammad Kaleem, Rooma Waqar, Atif A.K. Khalil, Fazli Khuda, Chethikkattuveli S. Abdul Rahim, Kinam Hyun, Kyung-Hyun Choi, and Abdul S. Mumtaz. 2022. "Evaluation of Antimicrobial and Anticancer Activities of Selected Medicinal Plants of Himalayas, Pakistan" Plants 11, no. 1: 48.

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