Association of Dietary Intake with Chronic Disease and Human Health

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Nutrition and Public Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 25 June 2024 | Viewed by 20027

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Department of Movement and Wellness Sciences, Parthenope University, Naples, Italy
Interests: exercise-induced asthma; nutrition; brain; sport science
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

We are pleased to invite you to contribute to the Special Issue of the journal Nutrients on the subject area of “Association of Dietary Intake with Chronic Disease and Human Health”.

This research topic aims to empirically provide a contribution to the expansive and ever-growing literature about the potential value of dietary interventions in managing chronic conditions. In fact, a balanced diet is recognized as an effective way of reducing the risk of chronic metabolic diseases.

The prevalence of chronic diseases around the world is incredibly high and not sustainable for most health care systems. While the etiology is complex, many chronic diseases are preventable through the adoption of healthy life-long practices. Strategies for managing these chronic conditions are usually multidimensional, and at the center of these approaches are dietary interventions, engaging in regular physical activity, and lifestyle modifications. The role of nutrition in chronic disease management is particularly crucial as diet is a modifiable risk factor for most chronic conditions that exist either as single conditions or in comorbid states.

This Special Issue is aimed at providing selected contributions to address this topic with a particular emphasis on how to transfer experimental interventions and findings to practical on-field applications.

Potential topics include but are not limited to:

-    Nutrition, chronic disease, and health promotion;
-    Physical activity and health nutrition as essential elements to prevent chronic diseases;
-    Chronic disease self-management education programs;
-    Disability and physical activity in people with chronic disease;
-    Nutrition transition and its relationship to the development of chronic diseases;
-    Health and nutrition education.

Prof. Dr. Domenico Tafuri
Dr. Francesca Latino
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Nutrients is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2900 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • nutrition
  • human health
  • education
  • chronic disease
  • physical activity
  • disability

Published Papers (10 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 294 KiB  
Article
Food-Related Behavioral Patterns in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: The Role of Food Involvement and Health Engagement
by Lorenzo Palamenghi, Dilara Usta, Salvo Leone and Guendalina Graffigna
Nutrients 2024, 16(8), 1185; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16081185 - 16 Apr 2024
Viewed by 286
Abstract
Nutrition has been acknowledged as crucial in IBD and is relevant to patients’ motives behind food choices, which are affected by health engagement (HE) and food involvement (FI). This study aimed to profile IBD patients according to their levels of health engagement and [...] Read more.
Nutrition has been acknowledged as crucial in IBD and is relevant to patients’ motives behind food choices, which are affected by health engagement (HE) and food involvement (FI). This study aimed to profile IBD patients according to their levels of health engagement and food involvement to identify patterns of different motives behind food choices, particularly regarding the use of food to regulate mood. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 890 Italian IBD patients who completed an online survey in April 2021. We measured health engagement, food involvement, motives behind food choices, emotional states, and food-related quality of life (Fr-QoL). K-means cluster analysis was performed to identify participants with similar levels of health engagement and food involvement. Four clusters were identified: “Health-conscious (high HE, low FI)”, “Balanced (high HE, high FI)”, “Hedonist (high FI, low HE)”, and “Careless (low FI, low HE)”. Clusters with high FI are inclined toward seeking pleasurable food, but when supported with high health engagement, individuals were less prone to use food to manage mood. Groups with higher health engagement demonstrated lower hospitalization rates and relapses and better Fr-QoL. Profiling IBD patients regarding FI and HE could aid clinicians in identifying individuals at greater risk of maladaptive food-related behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Association of Dietary Intake with Chronic Disease and Human Health)
18 pages, 4702 KiB  
Article
Microbial Fermentation Enhances the Effect of Black Tea on Hyperlipidemia by Mediating Bile Acid Metabolism and Remodeling Intestinal Microbes
by Lingli Sun, Lianghua Wen, Qiuhua Li, Ruohong Chen, Shuai Wen, Xingfei Lai, Zhaoxiang Lai, Junxi Cao, Zhenbiao Zhang, Mengjiao Hao, Fanrong Cao and Shili Sun
Nutrients 2024, 16(7), 998; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu16070998 - 28 Mar 2024
Viewed by 492
Abstract
Black tea (BT), the most consumed tea worldwide, can alleviate hyperlipidemia which is a serious threat to human health. However, the quality of summer BT is poor. It was improved by microbial fermentation in a previous study, but whether it affects hypolipidemic activity [...] Read more.
Black tea (BT), the most consumed tea worldwide, can alleviate hyperlipidemia which is a serious threat to human health. However, the quality of summer BT is poor. It was improved by microbial fermentation in a previous study, but whether it affects hypolipidemic activity is unknown. Therefore, we compared the hypolipidemic activity of BT and microbially fermented black tea (EFT). The results demonstrated that BT inhibited weight gain and improved lipid and total bile acid (TBA) levels, and microbial fermentation reinforced this activity. Mechanistically, both BT and EFT mediate bile acid circulation to relieve hyperlipidemia. In addition, BT and EFT improve dyslipidemia by modifying the gut microbiota. Specifically, the increase in Lactobacillus johnsonii by BT, and the increase in Mucispirillum and Colidextribacter by EFT may also be potential causes for alleviation of hyperlipidemia. In summary, we demonstrated that microbial fermentation strengthened the hypolipidemic activity of BT and increased the added value of BT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Association of Dietary Intake with Chronic Disease and Human Health)
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15 pages, 1372 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Dietary and Alcohol Drinking Patterns in Patients with Excess Body Weight in a Spanish Cohort: Impact on Cardiometabolic Risk Factors
by Maite Aguas-Ayesa, Patricia Yárnoz-Esquiroz, Laura Olazarán, Carolina M. Perdomo, Marta García-Goñi, Patricia Andrada, Javier Escalada, Camilo Silva, Ascensión Marcos and Gema Frühbeck
Nutrients 2023, 15(22), 4824; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15224824 - 17 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1354
Abstract
Unhealthy dietary habits and sedentarism coexist with a rising incidence of excess weight and associated comorbidities. We aimed to analyze the dietary and drinking patterns of patients with excess weight, their main characteristics, plausible gender differences and impact on cardiometabolic risk factors, with [...] Read more.
Unhealthy dietary habits and sedentarism coexist with a rising incidence of excess weight and associated comorbidities. We aimed to analyze the dietary and drinking patterns of patients with excess weight, their main characteristics, plausible gender differences and impact on cardiometabolic risk factors, with a particular focus on the potential contribution of beer consumption. Data from 200 consecutive volunteers (38 ± 12 years; 72% females) living with overweight or class I obesity attending the obesity unit to lose weight were studied. Food frequency questionnaires and 24 h recalls were used. Reduced-rank regression (RRR) analysis was applied to identify dietary patterns (DPs). Anthropometry, total and visceral fat, indirect calorimetry, physical activity level, comorbidities and circulating cardiometabolic risk factors were assessed. Study participants showed high waist circumference, adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, pro-inflammatory adipokines and low anti-inflammatory factors like adiponectin and interleukin-4. A low-fiber, high-fat, energy-dense DP was observed. BMI showed a statistically significant (p < 0.05) correlation with energy density (r = 0.80) as well as percentage of energy derived from fat (r = 0.61). Excess weight was associated with a DP low in vegetables, legumes and whole grains at the same time as being high in sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, fat spreads, and processed meats. RRR analysis identified a DP characterized by high energy density and saturated fat exhibiting negative loadings (>−0.30) for green leafy vegetables, legumes, and fruits at the same time as showing positive factor loadings (>0.30) for processed foods, fat spreads, sugar-sweetened beverages, and sweets. Interestingly, for both women and men, wine represented globally the main source of total alcohol intake (p < 0.05) as compared to beer and distillates. Beer consumption cannot be blamed as the main culprit of excess weight. Capturing the DP provides more clinically relevant and useful information. The focus on consumption of single nutrients does not resemble real-world intake behaviors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Association of Dietary Intake with Chronic Disease and Human Health)
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17 pages, 315 KiB  
Article
Examining the Nutrition of Cardiological Patients in Hospitals: Evaluating the Discrepancy between Received Diets and Reference Diet Based on ESC 2021 Guidelines—Hospital Diet Medical Investigation) (HDMI) Study
by Daniel Śliż, Alicja Monika Jodczyk, Klaudia Łakoma, Alicja Kucharska, Mariusz Panczyk, Olga Maria Rostkowska, Karolina Turlej, Agnieszka Młynarska, Jarosław Drożdż, Milena Jarzębska-Wódka, Piotr Wierzbiński, Marcin Grabowski, Anna Ukleja, Natalia Adamczyk, Alicja Baska, Szczepan Wiecha, Marcin Barylski, Adam Rafał Poliwczak and Artur Mamcarz
Nutrients 2023, 15(21), 4606; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15214606 - 30 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1127
Abstract
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading causes of death worldwide. CVDs have become the dominant cause of death and have been a significant health challenge since the second half of the 20th century in the Polish population. The aim of our HDMI (hospital [...] Read more.
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading causes of death worldwide. CVDs have become the dominant cause of death and have been a significant health challenge since the second half of the 20th century in the Polish population. The aim of our HDMI (hospital diet medical investigation) study was to examine the quality of the hospital diets given to cardiac patients and assess how much they adhere to the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) 2021 guidelines. By comparing the diets received by patients with the recommended dietary patterns outlined in the ESC 2021 guidelines, we sought to identify discrepancies. The study was conducted in two steps: creating a 7-day model menu and comparing it with the received diets and then making comparisons with ESC 2021 guidelines. Additionally, we designed a survey to obtain the characteristics of the hospitals. The results show that the nutrition in hospitals remains substandard. None of the diets had an appropriate salt supply or predominance of plant-based food patterns. Only 1/7 diets avoided sweetened beverages, and 2/7 diets had an appropriate amount of fiber. This underscores a gap in the healthcare system to improve patients’ health by implementing dietary interventions that foster the development of healthy eating habits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Association of Dietary Intake with Chronic Disease and Human Health)
14 pages, 4014 KiB  
Article
Causal Associations between Dietary Habits and Chronic Pain: A Two-Sample Mendelian Randomization Study
by Ren Zhou, Lei Zhang, Yu Sun, Jia Yan and Hong Jiang
Nutrients 2023, 15(17), 3709; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15173709 - 24 Aug 2023
Viewed by 2167
Abstract
Chronic pain is a prevalent and debilitating condition with significant impacts on individuals and society. While the role of diet in chronic pain is well-known, the relationship between special dietary choices and chronic pain remains unclear. This study investigates the causal associations between [...] Read more.
Chronic pain is a prevalent and debilitating condition with significant impacts on individuals and society. While the role of diet in chronic pain is well-known, the relationship between special dietary choices and chronic pain remains unclear. This study investigates the causal associations between 20 dietary habits and chronic pain using a Mendelian randomization (MR) approach. Publicly available genome-wide association study data from the UK Biobank dataset were utilized for secondary analysis, and genetic instrumental variables strongly correlated with 20 different dietary habits were selected. Multisite chronic pain (MCP) scores were used as the primary outcome, with site-specific chronic pain (SSCP) including back pain, headache, knee pain, neck pain, and hip pain as secondary outcomes. The inverse-variance-weighted (IVW) method was the primary method used in the MR. The weighted median (WM) and Mendelian randomization pleiotropy residual sum and outlier test (MR-PRESSO) methods were used as sensitivity analyses. This study identified causal associations between specific dietary habits and chronic pain. A high intake of cheese, cereal, dried fruits, and fresh fruits was associated with lower MCP scores. Conversely, high alcohol, salt, pork, and poultry intakes were associated with higher MCP scores. Similar associations between special dietary habits and some types of SSCP, such as back and neck pain, were also observed. The findings were consistent across different statistical methods, and sensitivity analyses confirmed the reliability of the results. In conclusion, our study provides evidence of a causal relationship between various dietary habits and different types of chronic pain based on secondary analysis of the UK Biobank dataset. Adhering to an anti-inflammatory diet, including increased consumption of fruits and cereal while reducing salt and pork intake, may potentially alleviate chronic pain symptoms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Association of Dietary Intake with Chronic Disease and Human Health)
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13 pages, 2010 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Lifestyle, Eating Habits and the Effect of Nutritional Education among Undergraduate Students in Southern Italy
by Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Antonella De Maria, Luigi Antonio Marinaccio, Vincenzo Monda, Antonietta Messina, Domenico Monacis, Giusi Toto, Pierpaolo Limone, Marcellino Monda, Giovanni Messina, Antonietta Monda and Rita Polito
Nutrients 2023, 15(13), 2894; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15132894 - 26 Jun 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2525
Abstract
Background: The years spent at university represent a critical period that can influence both the quality of lifestyle and the eating habits of subsequent adulthood, and also, in the long term, the health of the individual. The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
Background: The years spent at university represent a critical period that can influence both the quality of lifestyle and the eating habits of subsequent adulthood, and also, in the long term, the health of the individual. The aim of this study was to investigate the lifestyle of university students living away from home. Methods: Each subject recruited for the study was given a questionnaire to obtain general information, eating habits and physical activity levels before (T0) and after six month of training seminars (T1). Blood pressure, body composition and questionnaire responses were investigated. Results: The main findings of this study are a significant decrement in blood pressure; an increment in physical activity practice; an increased number of subjects who pay attention to the calorific value of food and also an improvement in BIA parameters. Conclusions: In conclusion, this study demonstrated the challenges that university students face in leading a healthy lifestyle and caring for their nutritional needs, particularly when they are away from their families. No intervention specifically targets young adults, even though much emphasis is placed on the promotion of a healthy lifestyle based on a varied and balanced diet and sufficient exercise. Our study showed that it is possible to improve lifestyle through educational events aimed at making students aware of the health risks deriving from unhealthy lifestyles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Association of Dietary Intake with Chronic Disease and Human Health)
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14 pages, 1620 KiB  
Article
Phytanic Acid Intake and Lifestyle Modifications on Quality of Life in Individuals with Adult Refsum Disease: A Retrospective Survey Analysis
by Jeffrey J. Li, Jane J. Kim and Fauzia Nausheen
Nutrients 2023, 15(11), 2551; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15112551 - 30 May 2023
Viewed by 2723
Abstract
Adult Refsum disease (ARD) is a rare peroxisomal biogenesis disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and is often characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, cerebellar ataxia, and polyneuropathy. Many patients with ARD require diet modification, psychosocial support, and various specialist visits to manage their [...] Read more.
Adult Refsum disease (ARD) is a rare peroxisomal biogenesis disorder inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and is often characterized by retinitis pigmentosa, cerebellar ataxia, and polyneuropathy. Many patients with ARD require diet modification, psychosocial support, and various specialist visits to manage their symptoms. In this study, we explored the quality of life in individuals with ARD by analyzing retrospective survey data collected by the Coordination of Rare Diseases at Sanford (CoRDS) Registry and Global Defeat Adult Refsum Everywhere (DARE) Foundation. Statistical tests used were frequencies, mean, and median. There were 32 respondents, ranging between 11 and 32 responses for each question. The mean age at diagnosis was 35.5 ± 14.5 years (range 6–64) with 36.4% male and 63.6% female respondents. The average age for retinitis pigmentosa diagnosis was 22.8 ± 15.7 years (range 2–61). Dieticians were the most frequently seen (41.7%) for management of low-phytanic-acid diets. Most participants exercise at least once per week (92.5%). Depression symptoms were reported in 86.2% of the participants. Early diagnosis of ARD is important for managing symptoms and preventing progression of visual impairment due to phytanic acid buildup. Interdisciplinary approach should be used for patients to address physical and psychosocial impairments of ARD. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Association of Dietary Intake with Chronic Disease and Human Health)
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15 pages, 645 KiB  
Article
Classroom-Based Physical Activity as a Means to Improve Self-Efficacy and Academic Achievement among Normal-Weight and Overweight Youth
by Francesca Latino, Francesco Tafuri, Emma Saraiello and Domenico Tafuri
Nutrients 2023, 15(9), 2061; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15092061 - 25 Apr 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1890
Abstract
Although physical activity has positive physical and mental health outcomes, particularly among adolescents, a significant percentage of young people maintain a largely sedentary lifestyle. Considering that the youths spend the greater part of the day at school, this is considered an ideal setting [...] Read more.
Although physical activity has positive physical and mental health outcomes, particularly among adolescents, a significant percentage of young people maintain a largely sedentary lifestyle. Considering that the youths spend the greater part of the day at school, this is considered an ideal setting to foster active and healthy living. Consequently, this study is intended to investigate the connection between physical activity, self-efficacy and academic achievement in normal-weight and overweight adolescents. In total, 100 students (aged 14–15) from a public high school placed in the south of Italy were enrolled. They participated either in a 12-week classroom-based physical activity break program performed during science classes (60′/2 days per week) in which a nutritional educational program was carried out or in regular science lessons (60′/2 days per week). At the beginning and end of the intervention programs, a set of standardized motor evaluation tests (standing long jump test, Harvard step test, push up, sit and reach test), the scholastic self-efficacy test and the Amos 8-15 were administered. As a result, a meaningful Time × Group interaction for the self-efficacy variable and Amos 8-15 was observed in the intervention group. Specifically, they reported significant improvement in study skills, motivational factors, concentration and self-efficacy, as well as a decrease in anxiety and BMI (p < 0.001). No significant change was observed in the control group. The conclusions of this research underpin the notion that classroom-based physical activity break is a successful approach for enhancing students’ psycho-physical well-being, as well as academic achievement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Association of Dietary Intake with Chronic Disease and Human Health)
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15 pages, 645 KiB  
Article
Association between Antibiotic Exposure and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Middle-Aged and Older Adults
by Lei Chu, Deqi Su, Hexing Wang, Dilihumaer Aili, Bahegu Yimingniyazi, Qingwu Jiang and Jianghong Dai
Nutrients 2023, 15(5), 1290; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15051290 - 05 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1960
Abstract
Background: Although previous studies have shown an association between clinically used antibiotics and type 2 diabetes, the relationship between antibiotic exposure from food and drinking water and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and older adults is unclear. ObjectivE: This study was aimed at [...] Read more.
Background: Although previous studies have shown an association between clinically used antibiotics and type 2 diabetes, the relationship between antibiotic exposure from food and drinking water and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and older adults is unclear. ObjectivE: This study was aimed at exploring the relationship between antibiotic exposures from different sources and type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and older people, through urinary antibiotic biomonitoring. MethodS: A total of 525 adults who were 45–75 years of age were recruited from Xinjiang in 2019. The total urinary concentrations of 18 antibiotics in five classes (tetracyclines, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, sulfonamides and chloramphenicol) commonly used in daily life were measured via isotope dilution ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The antibiotics included four human antibiotics, four veterinary antibiotics and ten preferred veterinary antibiotics. The hazard quotient (HQ) of each antibiotic and the hazard index (HI) based on the mode of antibiotic use and effect endpoint classification were also calculated. Type 2 diabetes was defined on the basis of international levels. Results: The overall detection rate of the 18 antibiotics in middle-aged and older adults was 51.0%. The concentration, daily exposure dose, HQ, and HI were relatively high in participants with type 2 diabetes. After model adjustment for covariates, participants with HI > 1 for microbial effects (OR = 3.442, 95%CI: 1.423–8.327), HI > 1 for preferred veterinary antibiotic use (OR = 3.348, 95%CI: 1.386–8.083), HQ > 1 for norfloxacin (OR = 10.511, 96%CI: 1.571–70.344) and HQ > 1 for ciprofloxacin (OR = 6.565, 95%CI: 1.676–25.715) had a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus. Conclusions: Certain antibiotic exposures, mainly those from sources associated with food and drinking water, generate health risks and are associated with type 2 diabetes in middle-aged and older adults. Because of this study’s cross-sectional design, additional prospective studies and experimental studies are needed to validate these findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Association of Dietary Intake with Chronic Disease and Human Health)
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Review

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18 pages, 929 KiB  
Review
The Potential Role of Nutrition in Overtraining Syndrome: A Narrative Review
by Maria Ester la Torre, Antonietta Monda, Antonietta Messina, Maria Ida de Stefano, Vincenzo Monda, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Francesco Tafuri, Emma Saraiello, Francesca Latino, Marcellino Monda, Giovanni Messina, Rita Polito and Domenico Tafuri
Nutrients 2023, 15(23), 4916; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15234916 - 24 Nov 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 4414
Abstract
Competition between athletes and an increase in sporting knowledge have greatly influenced training methods while increasing the number of them more and more. As a result, the number of athletes who have increased the number and intensity of their workouts while decreasing recovery [...] Read more.
Competition between athletes and an increase in sporting knowledge have greatly influenced training methods while increasing the number of them more and more. As a result, the number of athletes who have increased the number and intensity of their workouts while decreasing recovery times is rising. Positive overtraining could be considered a natural and fundamental process when the result is adaptation and improved performance; however, in the absence of adequate recovery, negative overtraining could occur, causing fatigue, maladaptation, and inertia. One of the earliest forms of fatigue is overreaching. It is considered to be an accumulation of training that leads to reduced sports performance, requiring days or weeks to recover. Overreaching, if followed by adequate recovery, can lead to an increase in athletic performance. Nonetheless, if overreaching becomes extreme, combined with additional stressors, it could lead to overtraining syndrome (OTS). OTS, caused by systemic inflammation, leads to central nervous system (CNS) effects, including depressed mood, further inflammation, central fatigue, and ultimately neurohormonal changes. There are therefore not only physiological, biochemical, and immunological but also psychological symptoms or markers that must be considered, independently or together, being intrinsically linked with overtraining, to fully understand OTS. However, to date, there are very few published studies that have analyzed how nutrition in its specific food aspects, if compromised during OTS, can be both etiology and consequence of the syndrome. To date, OTS has not yet been fully studied, and the topic needs further research. The purpose of this narrative review is therefore to study how a correct diet and nutrition can influence OTS in all its aspects, from prevention to treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Association of Dietary Intake with Chronic Disease and Human Health)
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