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Health Protection and Health Promotion in Prison

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Global Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 June 2021) | Viewed by 10984

Special Issue Editor


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Guest Editor
Department of Movement and Wellness Sciences, Parthenope University, Naples, Italy
Interests: exercise-induced asthma; nutrition; brain; sport science
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

This Special Issue aims to outline a framework for the level of attention that is currently being paid in penitentiary institutes to the protection of prisoners’ health. Recognizing and ensuring the protection of health takes on an eminently preventive significance, binding social agencies to perform a preventive function, in particular for minors. The theoretical model of reference is an ecological one that complements and expands the definition of health. Health, in this sense, is considered to be a dynamic process that requires the activation of the person as a static condition. According to the "ecological model", health coincides with the ability to cope with the complex problems that emerge in the relationship between the individual and the environment. Health is therefore considered to be the ability to cope and solve problems that belong to different levels, physical-somatic, mental-psychological, and environmental-social. The pedagogical reflection linked to the prison context is tied to the crossroads between a psycho-pedagogical sensibility, a legal-normative attention, and a political-environmental variable. The framework is represented by a corpus of sources that become pedagogical when they are applied to interventions related to the observation, re-educational treatment, and social reintegration of the inmate.

Prof. Domenico Tafuri
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • prison
  • health promotion
  • health protection
  • legal pedagogy

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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13 pages, 313 KiB  
Article
Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Individuals Incarcerated in an Arizona County Jail
by Ricky Camplain, Monica R. Lininger, Julie A. Baldwin and Robert T. Trotter II
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(13), 7007; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18137007 - 30 Jun 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2551
Abstract
We aimed to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and obesity among a sample of individuals incarcerated in an Arizona county jail and compare prevalence estimates to a matched non-institutionalized population. From 2017–2018, [...] Read more.
We aimed to estimate the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and obesity among a sample of individuals incarcerated in an Arizona county jail and compare prevalence estimates to a matched non-institutionalized population. From 2017–2018, individuals housed at a county jail completed a cross-sectional health survey. We estimated the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol, overweight/obesity, cigarette smoking, binge drinking, and self-reported health among individuals incarcerated. We compared prevalence estimates of cardiovascular risk factors to a matched sample of 2017–2018 NHANES participants. Overall, 35.9%, 7.7%, and 17.8% of individuals incarcerated in jail self-reported hypertension, diabetes, and high cholesterol, respectively. Of individuals incarcerated, 59.6% were overweight or obese and 36.8% self-reported fair or poor general health. Over half of individuals incarcerated reported ever smoking cigarettes (72.3%) and binge drinking (60.7%). Compared to a matched sample of NHANES participants, individuals incarcerated in jail had a statistically higher prevalence of cigarette smoking and binge drinking. Screening of cardiovascular risk factors and providing preventive measures and interventions, such as healthy eating, physical activity, or pharmacological adherence interventions, while individuals are incarcerated may contribute to the prevention and management of cardiovascular risk factors and, eventually, cardiovascular disease. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Protection and Health Promotion in Prison)
11 pages, 566 KiB  
Article
Evaluations of Muscular Strength, Ability to Balance and Health Status in Prisoners during COVID-19
by Stefano Moffa, Angelica Perna, Alessandro Cattolico, Carmine Sellitto, Antonio Ascione, Domenico Tafuri, Germano Guerra and Angela Lucariello
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(8), 4316; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084316 - 19 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2823
Abstract
Recent events in prisons during the COVID-19 pandemic showed how the health situation and overcrowding in prisons are a source of high risk to the health and physical and mental well-being of the prison population and how this has become an important medical [...] Read more.
Recent events in prisons during the COVID-19 pandemic showed how the health situation and overcrowding in prisons are a source of high risk to the health and physical and mental well-being of the prison population and how this has become an important medical problem. The original purpose of this study, which was initially planned to last 6 months, was to examine the effects of a training program on cardio-respiratory capacity, resistance to dynamic strength of the upper and lower body and muscle mass. Following the COVID-19 pandemic, the purpose was subsequently modified by highlighting whether and which deficiencies occurred as a result of the absence of physical activity. Forty adult men between 35 and 55 years of age with more than 1 year of detention were selected and randomly divided into two groups: the experimental group and control group. The fitness training protocol of the experimental group consisted of three weekly sessions lasting 90 min, while control group subjects followed a walk of 30–60 min three days a week without running or resistance training. The unpaired and paired t-tests revealed significant effects of both health status and fitness level (p < 0.05; p < 0.01) on group training. The results of this research show that prisoners can improve their fitness and health through participation in physical education programs. This conclusion is especially important for prisoners who have to serve very long prison sentences and who are at great risk of showing poor physical condition levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Protection and Health Promotion in Prison)
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15 pages, 1090 KiB  
Article
Using Structural Equations to Model the Relationships between Procedural Justice, Risky Lifestyles, and Violent Inmate Misconduct
by Jaeyong Choi, Glen A. Ishoy and Julak Lee
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7927; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217927 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1883
Abstract
Prior research has consistently shown that perceptions of procedural justice promote individuals’ compliance with the law. Several studies have also identified mechanisms that explain the association between perceptions of procedural justice and compliance (e.g., social identity). However, the potential role of risky behaviors [...] Read more.
Prior research has consistently shown that perceptions of procedural justice promote individuals’ compliance with the law. Several studies have also identified mechanisms that explain the association between perceptions of procedural justice and compliance (e.g., social identity). However, the potential role of risky behaviors as a mediator of the association between procedural justice and compliance remains unexplored. This study examined whether risky behaviors can mediate the relationship between procedural justice and violent inmate misconduct. Data for this study were derived from a sample of 986 incarcerated felons in South Korea. The present study employed structural equation modeling to test how risky lifestyles mediate the association between procedural justice and violent misconduct. The results showed that procedural justice reduced violent inmate misconduct. Additionally, the mediation hypothesis received partial support: the direct effect of procedural justice on violent misconduct was partially mediated by involvement in risky activities. Taken together, the results highlight the importance of the interrelationship between procedural justice, risky lifestyles, and violent misconduct in a prison setting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Protection and Health Promotion in Prison)
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Review

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18 pages, 526 KiB  
Review
Could Physical Activity Have any Role in Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Prisoners? A Systematic Review
by Veronica Papa, Domenico Tafuri and Mauro Vaccarezza
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(5), 2307; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18052307 - 26 Feb 2021
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3129
Abstract
More than 10.74 million people are currently held in penal institutions worldwide. Moreover, there is also evidence that the percentage of elder and female prisoners has been consistently growing. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Exercise training and physical activity [...] Read more.
More than 10.74 million people are currently held in penal institutions worldwide. Moreover, there is also evidence that the percentage of elder and female prisoners has been consistently growing. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Exercise training and physical activity help to prevent both primary and secondary cardiovascular events. Data on the influence of physical activity on the well-being in prison population is scarce. Here, we discussed, in a systematic review, the general health conditions and the cardiovascular risk profile in the prisoners compared to the general population and evaluated whether or not exercise could be a valuable tool in preventing these diseases in inmates. We performed a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement: 769 were initially identified, and a total of 24 studies were finally included. Nine studies evaluated the health conditions in prisoners, five studies evaluated the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and coronary heart disease (CHD) in the prison population, and 10 studies evaluated the feasibility and the effectiveness of exercise programs in prisoners. Sports-educational programs can benefit prison inmates. It appears that supervised exercise training is an effective coping strategy to deal with incarceration. Moreover, it seems the sports programs might be a useful tool in improving physical and mental health of prisoners as well as in decreasing cardiovascular risk factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Health Protection and Health Promotion in Prison)
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