Special Issue "Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility"

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2019.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Habil. Anişoara Cîmpean
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology,Universitatea din Bucuresti,Bucuresti,Romania
Interests: biomaterials and biocompatibility; tissue engineering; stem cells and regenerative medicine; cell biology; clinical biochemistry
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Habil. Florin Miculescu
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Politehnica University of Bucharest, Department of Metallic Materials Science and Physical Metallurgy
Interests: synthesis and characterization of biomaterials; design and development of biomedical devices for bone reconstruction; membrane and thin film materials
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The scientific advances in life sciences and engineering constantly challenge, expand and redefine the concepts related to biocompatibility and safety of medical devices. New biomaterials, new products and new testing regimes are introduced in the scientific research practices. In order to provide clinically predictive results and to ensure a high benefit-risk ratio for the patients we need to optimize the material and implant characteristics, and to adapt the performance and safety evaluation practices for these innovative medical devices.

Various characteristics related to materials and implant development such as raw materials composition, implants surface morphology, design, geometry, porosity and mechanical properties need to be thoroughly characterized before the evaluation of implants biological performance. Furthermore, with the increase of regulatory demands, biological evaluation needs to ensure appropriate models and methods for each implant development stage.

This Special Issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944) on "Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility” aims to focus on the recent progress in development, material testing, and biocompatibility and bioactivity evaluation of various materials including, but not limited to, bioceramics, biopolymers, biometals, composite materials, biomimetic materials, hybrid biomaterials and drug/device combinations for implants and prostheses with medical applications spanning from soft to hard tissue regeneration. Submitted manuscripts may cover all aspects, ranging from investigations into material characterization to in vitro and in vivo testing for the assessment of biological performance of advanced, novel biomaterials and implants.

We invite all colleagues to submit manuscripts (full papers, reviews or notes) in open access to this Special Issue. We encourage you to disseminate this invitation to any colleagues who may be interested.

Prof. Anişoara Cîmpean
Prof. Florin Miculescu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • biocompatibility
  • bioactivity
  • bioceramics
  • biometals
  • biopolymers
  • composite materials 
  • hybrid material
  • drug-releasing implants
  • in vitro testing
  • in vivo testing

Published Papers (19 papers)

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Open AccessArticle
Protein-Polymer Matrices with Embedded Carbon Nanotubes for Tissue Engineering: Regularities of Formation and Features of Interaction with Cell Membranes
Materials 2019, 12(19), 3083; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12193083 - 21 Sep 2019
Abstract
This paper reveals the mechanism of nanowelding a branched network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) used as a framework for the formation of protein–polymer matrices with albumin, collagen, and chitosan. It is shown that the introduction of certain point defects into the structure [...] Read more.
This paper reveals the mechanism of nanowelding a branched network of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) used as a framework for the formation of protein–polymer matrices with albumin, collagen, and chitosan. It is shown that the introduction of certain point defects into the structure of SWCNTs (single vacancy, double vacancy, Stone–Wales defect, and a mixed defect) allows us to obtain strong heating in defective regions as compared to ideal SWCNTs. The wavelengths at which absorption reaches 50% are determined. Non-uniform absorption of laser radiation along with inefficient heat removal in defective regions determines the formation of hot spots, in which nanowelding of SWCNTs is observed even at 0.36 nm between contacting surfaces. The regularities of formation of layered protein–polymer matrices and the features of their interaction with cell membrane are revealed. All studies are carried out in silico using high-precision quantum approaches. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
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Open AccessArticle
Lateral Spacing of TiO2 Nanotubes Modulates Osteoblast Behavior
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2956; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182956 - 12 Sep 2019
Abstract
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube coated substrates have revolutionized the concept of implant in a number of ways, being endowed with superior osseointegration properties and local drug delivery capacity. While accumulating reports describe the influence of nanotube diameter on cell behavior, little [...] Read more.
Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotube coated substrates have revolutionized the concept of implant in a number of ways, being endowed with superior osseointegration properties and local drug delivery capacity. While accumulating reports describe the influence of nanotube diameter on cell behavior, little is known about the effects of nanotube lateral spacing on cells involved in bone regeneration. In this context, in the present study the MC3T3-E1 murine pre-osteoblast cells behavior has been investigated by using TiO2 nanotubes of ~78 nm diameter and lateral spacing of 18 nm and 80 nm, respectively. Both nanostructured surfaces supported cell viability and proliferation in approximately equal extent. However, obvious differences in the cell spreading areas, morphologies, the organization of the actin cytoskeleton and the pattern of the focal adhesions were noticed. Furthermore, investigation of the pre-osteoblast differentiation potential indicated a higher capacity of larger spacing nanostructure to enhance the expression of the alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin osteoblast specific markers inducing osteogenic differentiation. These findings provide the proof that lateral spacing of the TiO2 nanotube coated titanium (Ti) surfaces has to be considered in designing bone implants with improved biological performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Fabrication and Biocompatibility Evaluation of Nanodiamonds-Gelatin Electrospun Materials Designed for Prospective Tissue Regeneration Applications
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2933; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182933 - 11 Sep 2019
Abstract
Due to the reduced ability of most harmed tissues to self-regenerate, new strategies are being developed in order to promote self-repair assisted or not by biomaterials, among these tissue engineering (TE). Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) currently represent a promising tool for [...] Read more.
Due to the reduced ability of most harmed tissues to self-regenerate, new strategies are being developed in order to promote self-repair assisted or not by biomaterials, among these tissue engineering (TE). Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) currently represent a promising tool for tissue reconstruction, due to their low immunogenicity, high differentiation potential to multiple cell types and easy harvesting. Gelatin is a natural biocompatible polymer used for regenerative applications, while nanodiamond particles (NDs) are used as reinforcing nanomaterial that might modulate cell behavior, namely cell adhesion, viability, and proliferation. The development of electrospun microfibers loaded with NDs is expected to allow nanomechanical sensing due to local modifications of both nanostructure and stiffness. Two aqueous suspensions with 0.5 and 1% w/v NDs in gelatin from cold water fish skin (FG) were used to generate electrospun meshes. Advanced morpho- and micro-structural characterization revealed homogeneous microfibers. Nanoindentation tests confirmed the reinforcing effect of NDs. Biocompatibility assays showed an increased viability and proliferation profile of hASCs in contact with FG_NDs, correlated with very low cytotoxic effects of the materials. Moreover, hASCs developed an elongated cytoskeleton, suggesting that NDs addition to FG materials encouraged cell adhesion. This study showed the FG_NDs fibrous scaffolds potential for advanced TE applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
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Open AccessArticle
Co-Culture of Osteoblasts and Endothelial Cells on a Microfiber Scaffold to Construct Bone-Like Tissue with Vascular Networks
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2869; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182869 - 05 Sep 2019
Abstract
Bone is based on an elaborate system of mineralization and vascularization. In hard tissue engineering, diverse biomaterials compatible with osteogenesis and angiogenesis have been developed. In the present study, to examine the processes of osteogenesis and angiogenesis, osteoblast-like MG-63 cells were co-cultured with [...] Read more.
Bone is based on an elaborate system of mineralization and vascularization. In hard tissue engineering, diverse biomaterials compatible with osteogenesis and angiogenesis have been developed. In the present study, to examine the processes of osteogenesis and angiogenesis, osteoblast-like MG-63 cells were co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on a microfiber scaffold. The percentage of adherent cells on the scaffold was more than 60% compared to the culture plate, regardless of the cell type and culture conditions. Cell viability under both monoculture and co-culture conditions was constantly sustained. During the culture periods, the cells were spread along the fibers and extended pseudopodium-like structures on the microfibers three-dimensionally. Compared to the monoculture results, the alkaline phosphatase activity of the co-culture increased 3–6 fold, whereas the vascular endothelial cell growth factor secretion significantly decreased. Immunofluorescent staining of CD31 showed that HUVECs were well spread along the fibers and formed microcapillary-structures. These results suggest that the activation of HUVECs by co-culture with MG-63 could enhance osteoblastic differentiation in the microfiber scaffold, which mimics the microenvironment of the extracellular matrix. This approach can be effective for the construction of tissue-engineered bone with vascular networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
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Open AccessArticle
3D Superparamagnetic Scaffolds for Bone Mineralization under Static Magnetic Field Stimulation
Materials 2019, 12(17), 2834; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12172834 - 03 Sep 2019
Abstract
We reported on three-dimensional (3D) superparamagnetic scaffolds that enhanced the mineralization of magnetic nanoparticle-free osteoblast cells. The scaffolds were fabricated with submicronic resolution by laser direct writing via two photons polymerization of Ormocore/magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) composites and possessed complex and reproducible architectures. MNPs [...] Read more.
We reported on three-dimensional (3D) superparamagnetic scaffolds that enhanced the mineralization of magnetic nanoparticle-free osteoblast cells. The scaffolds were fabricated with submicronic resolution by laser direct writing via two photons polymerization of Ormocore/magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) composites and possessed complex and reproducible architectures. MNPs with a diameter of 4.9 ± 1.5 nm and saturation magnetization of 30 emu/g were added to Ormocore, in concentrations of 0, 2 and 4 mg/mL. The homogenous distribution and the concentration of the MNPs from the unpolymerized Ormocore/MNPs composite were preserved after the photopolymerization process. The MNPs in the scaffolds retained their superparamagnetic behavior. The specific magnetizations of the scaffolds with 2 and 4 mg/mL MNPs concentrations were of 14 emu/g and 17 emu/g, respectively. The MNPs reduced the shrinkage of the structures from 80.2 ± 5.3% for scaffolds without MNPs to 20.7 ± 4.7% for scaffolds with 4 mg/mL MNPs. Osteoblast cells seeded on scaffolds exposed to static magnetic field of 1.3 T deformed the regular architecture of the scaffolds and evoked faster mineralization in comparison to unstimulated samples. Scaffolds deformation and extracellular matrix mineralization under static magnetic field (SMF) exposure increased with increasing MNPs concentration. The results are discussed in the frame of gradient magnetic fields of ~3 × 10−4 T/m generated by MNPs over the cells bodies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
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Open AccessArticle
Real-Time Live-Cell Imaging Technology Enables High-Throughput Screening to Verify in Vitro Biocompatibility of 3D Printed Materials
Materials 2019, 12(13), 2125; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12132125 - 02 Jul 2019
Abstract
With growing advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing technology, the availability and diversity of printing materials has rapidly increased over the last years. 3D printing has quickly become a useful tool for biomedical and various laboratory applications, offering a tremendous potential for efficiently fabricating [...] Read more.
With growing advances in three-dimensional (3D) printing technology, the availability and diversity of printing materials has rapidly increased over the last years. 3D printing has quickly become a useful tool for biomedical and various laboratory applications, offering a tremendous potential for efficiently fabricating complex devices in a short period of time. However, there still remains a lack of information regarding the impact of printing materials and post-processing techniques on cell behavior. This study introduces real-time live-cell imaging technology as a fast, user-friendly, and high-throughput screening strategy to verify the in vitro biocompatibility of 3D printed materials. Polyacrylate-based photopolymer material was printed using high-resolution 3D printing techniques, post-processed using three different procedures, and then analyzed with respect to its effects on cell viability, apoptosis, and necrosis of adipogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). When using ethanol for the post-processing procedure and disinfection, no significant effects on MSCs could be detected. For the analyses a novel image-based live-cell analysis system was compared against a biochemical-based standard plate reader assay and traditional flow cytometry. This comparison illustrates the superiority of using image-based detection of in vitro biocompatibility with respect to analysis time, usability, and scientific outcome. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
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Open AccessArticle
Preparing Sodium Alginate/Polyethyleneimine Spheres for Potential Application of Killing Tumor Cells by Reducing the Concentration of Copper Ions in the Lesions of Colon Cancer
Materials 2019, 12(9), 1570; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12091570 - 13 May 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Inhibition of residual malignant tumors in patients with colon cancer after operation is one of the difficulties in rehabilitation treatment. At present, using biocompatible materials to remove the copper ion which is the growth dependence of malignant tumors in the lesion site is [...] Read more.
Inhibition of residual malignant tumors in patients with colon cancer after operation is one of the difficulties in rehabilitation treatment. At present, using biocompatible materials to remove the copper ion which is the growth dependence of malignant tumors in the lesion site is considered to be the frontier means to solve this problem. In this work, we developed a sodium alginate (SA)/polyethyleneimine (PEI) hydrogel sphere via cross-linking method (SA/SP/SA; SP = SA/PEI) as an oral biomaterial for adsorbing and removing copper ions from colon cancer lesions. The evaluated results showed that the SA/PEI/SA (SPS) hydrogel sphere obtained the largest swelling rate at pH 8.3 which was the acid-base value of colon microenvironment and absorbed more copper ions compared with the SA control. The cell experiment presented that the SPS hydrogel sphere owned better compatibility on normal fibroblasts and promoted higher death of colon cancer cells compared with SA/PEI (SP) and SA control. Our data suggested that the SA/PEI hydrogel sphere had the potentiality as an oral biomaterial for inhibiting colon cancer cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
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Open AccessArticle
Impact of Gentamicin-Loaded Bone Graft on Defect Healing in a Sheep Model
Materials 2019, 12(7), 1116; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12071116 - 04 Apr 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Infections of bone are severe complications, and an optimization of grafting material with antimicrobial drugs might be useful for prevention and treatment. This study aimed to investigate the influence of gentamicin-loaded bone graft on the healing of bone defects in a sheep model. [...] Read more.
Infections of bone are severe complications, and an optimization of grafting material with antimicrobial drugs might be useful for prevention and treatment. This study aimed to investigate the influence of gentamicin-loaded bone graft on the healing of bone defects in a sheep model. Metaphyseal and diaphyseal drill hole defects (diameter: 6 mm, depth: 15 mm) were filled with graft or gentamicin-loaded graft (50 mg/g graft) or were left untreated. Analysis of regeneration after three and nine weeks, micro-computed tomography (μCT), and histology revealed a significant increase in bone formation in the drill hole defects, which began at the edges of the holes and grew over time into the defect center. The amount of graft decreased over time due to active resorption by osteoclasts, while osteoblasts formed new bone. No difference between the groups was seen after three weeks. After nine weeks, significantly less mineralized tissue was formed in the gentamicin-loaded graft group. Signs of inflammatory reactions were seen in all three groups. Even though the applied gentamicin concentration was based on the concentration of gentamicin mixed with cement, the healing process was impaired. When using local gentamicin, a dose-dependent, compromising effect on bone healing should be considered. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
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Open AccessArticle
Bactericidal and Biocompatible Properties of Plasma Chemical Oxidized Titanium (TiOB®) with Antimicrobial Surface Functionalization
Materials 2019, 12(6), 866; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12060866 - 15 Mar 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
Coating of plasma chemical oxidized titanium (TiOB®) with gentamicin-tannic acid (TiOB® gta) has proven to be efficient in preventing bacterial colonization of implants. However, in times of increasing antibiotic resistance, the development of alternative antimicrobial functionalization strategies is of major [...] Read more.
Coating of plasma chemical oxidized titanium (TiOB®) with gentamicin-tannic acid (TiOB® gta) has proven to be efficient in preventing bacterial colonization of implants. However, in times of increasing antibiotic resistance, the development of alternative antimicrobial functionalization strategies is of major interest. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to evaluate the antibacterial and biocompatible properties of TiOB® functionalized with silver nanoparticles (TiOB® SiOx Ag) and ionic zinc (TiOB® Zn). Antibacterial efficiency was determined by agar diffusion and proliferation test on Staphylocuccus aureus. Cytocompatibility was analyzed by direct cultivation of MC3T3-E1 cells on top of the functionalized surfaces for 2 and 4 d. All functionalized surfaces showed significant bactericidal effects expressed by extended lag phases (TiOB® gta for 5 h, TiOB® SiOx Ag for 8 h, TiOB® Zn for 10 h). While TiOB® gta (positive control) and TiOB® Zn remained bactericidal for 48 h, TiOB® SiOx Ag was active for only 4 h. After direct cultivation for 4 d, viable MC3T3-E1 cells were found on all surfaces tested with the highest biocompatibility recorded for TiOB® SiOx Ag. The present study revealed that functionalization of TiOB® with ionic zinc shows bactericidal properties that are comparable to those of a gentamicin-containing coating. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
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Open AccessArticle
Naturally-Derived Biphasic Calcium Phosphates through Increased Phosphorus-Based Reagent Amounts for Biomedical Applications
Materials 2019, 12(3), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030381 - 25 Jan 2019
Cited by 3
Abstract
Calcium carbonate from marble and seashells is an eco-friendly, sustainable, and largely available bioresource for producing natural bone-like calcium phosphates (CaPs). Based on three main objectives, this research targeted the: (i) adaptation of an indirect synthesis route by modulating the amount of phosphorus [...] Read more.
Calcium carbonate from marble and seashells is an eco-friendly, sustainable, and largely available bioresource for producing natural bone-like calcium phosphates (CaPs). Based on three main objectives, this research targeted the: (i) adaptation of an indirect synthesis route by modulating the amount of phosphorus used in the chemical reaction, (ii) comprehensive structural, morphological, and surface characterization, and (iii) biocompatibility assessment of the synthesized powdered samples. The morphological characterization was performed on digitally processed scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The complementary 3D image augmentation of SEM results also allowed the quantification of roughness parameters. The results revealed that both morphology and roughness were modulated through the induced variation of the synthesis parameters. Structural investigation of the samples was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Depending on the phosphorus amount from the chemical reaction, the structural studies revealed the formation of biphasic CaPs based on hydroxyapatite/brushite or brushite/monetite. The in vitro assessment of the powdered samples demonstrated their capacity to support MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblast viability and proliferation at comparable levels to the negative cytotoxicity control and the reference material (commercial hydroxyapatite). Therefore, these samples hold great promise for biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Particulated, Extracted Human Teeth Characterization by SEM–EDX Evaluation as a Biomaterial for Socket Preservation: An In Vitro Study
Materials 2019, 12(3), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12030380 - 25 Jan 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
The aim of the study was to evaluate the chemical composition of crushed, extracted human teeth and the quantity of biomaterial that can be obtained from this process. A total of 100 human teeth, extracted due to trauma, decay, or periodontal disease, were [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the chemical composition of crushed, extracted human teeth and the quantity of biomaterial that can be obtained from this process. A total of 100 human teeth, extracted due to trauma, decay, or periodontal disease, were analyzed. After extraction, all the teeth were classified, measured, and weighed on a microscale. The human teeth were crushed immediately using the Smart Dentin Grinder machine (KometaBio Inc., Cresskill, NJ, USA), a device specially designed for this procedure. The human tooth particles obtained were of 300–1200 microns, obtained by sieving through a special sorting filter, which divided the material into two compartments. The crushed teeth were weighed on a microscale, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation was performed. After processing, 0.25 gr of human teeth produced 1.0 cc of biomaterial. Significant differences in tooth weight were found between the first and second upper molars compared with the lower molars. The chemical composition of the particulate was clearly similar to natural bone. Scanning electron microscopy–energy dispersive X-ray (SEM–EDX) analysis of the tooth particles obtained mean results of Ca% 23.42 ± 0.34 and P% 9.51 ± 0.11. Pore size distribution curves expressed the interparticle pore range as one small peak at 0.0053 µm. This result is in accordance with helium gas pycnometer findings; the augmented porosity corresponded to interparticle spaces and only 2.533% corresponded to intraparticle porosity. Autogenous tooth particulate biomaterial made from human extracted teeth may be considered a potential material for bone regeneration due to its chemical composition and the quantity obtained. After grinding the teeth, the resulting material increases in quantity by up to three times its original volume, such that two extracted mandibular lateral incisors teeth will provide a sufficient amount of material to fill four empty mandibular alveoli. The tooth particles present intra and extra pores up to 44.48% after pycnometer evaluation in order to increase the blood supply and support slow resorption of the grafted material, which supports healing and replacement resorption to achieve lamellar bone. After SEM–EDX evaluation, it appears that calcium and phosphates are still present within the collagen components even after the particle cleaning procedures that are conducted before use. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
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Open AccessArticle
The Serum Protein Profile and Acute Phase Proteins in the Postoperative Period in Sheep after Induced Articular Cartilage Defect
Materials 2019, 12(1), 142; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010142 - 03 Jan 2019
Abstract
Although several new implants have been developed using animal studies for the treatment of osteochondral and cartilage defects, there is a lack of information on the possible metabolic and biochemical reactions of the body to the implantation of biomaterials and cartilage reconstruction. Therefore, [...] Read more.
Although several new implants have been developed using animal studies for the treatment of osteochondral and cartilage defects, there is a lack of information on the possible metabolic and biochemical reactions of the body to the implantation of biomaterials and cartilage reconstruction. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the serum protein pattern and the alterations in the concentrations of selected acute phase proteins in five clinically healthy female sheep before and after the reconstruction of experimentally induced articular cartilage defects using polyhydroxybutyrate/chitosan based biopolymer material. The concentrations of total serum proteins (TSP), protein fractions, and selected acute phase proteins—serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp), and C-reactive protein (CRP)—were measured before and on days seven, 14, and 30 after the surgical intervention. The TSP concentrations showed no marked differences during the evaluated period. Albumin values decreased on day seven and day 14 after surgery. In the concentrations of α1-, α2-, β-, and γ2-globulins, a gradual significant increase was observed during the postoperative period (p < 0.05). The γ1-globulins decreased slightly seven days after surgery. The concentrations of SAA, Hp, and CRP increased significantly after the surgical intervention with a subsequent decrease on day 30. Presented results suggest marked alterations in the serum protein pattern after surgical intervention. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
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Open AccessArticle
New Biocompatible Mesoporous Silica/Polysaccharide Hybrid Materials as Possible Drug Delivery Systems
Materials 2019, 12(1), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12010015 - 20 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
A high number of studies support the use of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) as carriers for drug delivery systems due to its high biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo, its large surface area, controlled pore size and, more than this, its good [...] Read more.
A high number of studies support the use of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) as carriers for drug delivery systems due to its high biocompatibility both in vitro and in vivo, its large surface area, controlled pore size and, more than this, its good excretion capacity from the body. In this work we attempt to establish the optimal encapsulation parameters of benzalkonium chloride (BZC) into MSN and further study its drug release. The influence of different parameters towards the drug loading in MSN such as pH, contact time and temperature were considered. The adsorption mechanism of the drug has been determined by using the equilibrium data. The modification process was proved using several methods such as Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR), ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Since MSN shows a lower drug release amount due to the agglomeration tendency, in order to increase MSN dispersion and drug release amount from MSN, two common biocompatible and biodegradable polymers were used as polymer matrix in which the MSN-BZC can be dispersed. The drug release profile of the MSN-BZC and of the synthesized hybrid materials were studied both in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). Polymer-MSN-BZC hybrid materials exhibit a higher drug release percent than the pure MSN-BZC when a higher dispersion is achieved. The dispersion of MSN into the hybrid materials was pointed out in scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. The release mechanism was determined using four mathematic models including first-order, Higuchi, Korsmeyer–Peppas and Weibull. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
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Open AccessArticle
In Vitro Comparison of the Efficacy of Peri-Implantitis Treatments on the Removal and Recolonization of Streptococcus gordonii Biofilm on Titanium Disks
Materials 2018, 11(12), 2484; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11122484 - 06 Dec 2018
Cited by 2
Abstract
Objective: To compare the efficacy of four commonly used clinical procedures in removing Streptococcus gordonii biofilms from titanium disks, and the recolonization of the treated surfaces. Background: Successful peri-implantitis treatment depends on the removal of the dental biofilm. Biofilm that forms after implant [...] Read more.
Objective: To compare the efficacy of four commonly used clinical procedures in removing Streptococcus gordonii biofilms from titanium disks, and the recolonization of the treated surfaces. Background: Successful peri-implantitis treatment depends on the removal of the dental biofilm. Biofilm that forms after implant debridement may threaten the success of the treatment and the long-term stability of the implants. Methods: S. gordonii biofilms were grown on titanium disks for 48 h and removed using a plastic curette, air-abrasive device (Perio-Flow®), titanium brush (TiBrush®), or implantoplasty. The remaining biofilm and the recolonization of the treated disks were observed using scanning electron microscopy and quantified after staining with crystal violet. Surface roughness (Ra and Rz) was measured using a profilometer. Results: S. gordonii biofilm biomass was reduced after treatment with Perio-Flow®, TiBrush®, and implantoplasty (all p < 0.05), but not plastic curette (p > 0.05), compared to the control group. Recolonization of S. gordonii after treatment was lowest after Perio-Flow®, TiBrush®, and implantoplasty (all p < 0.05 vs. control), but there was no difference between the plastic curette and the control group (p > 0.05). Ra and Rz values ranged from 1–6 µm to 1–2 µm and did not differ statistically between the control, plastic curette, Perio-Flow, and TiBrush groups. However, the implantoplasty group showed a Ra value below 1 µm (p < 0.01, ANOVA, Tukey). Conclusions: Perio-Flow®, TiBrush®, and implantoplasty were more effective than the plastic curette at removing the S. gordonii biofilm and preventing recolonization. These results should influence the surgical management of peri-implantitis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Influence of Implant Neck Design on Peri-Implant Tissue Dimensions: A Comparative Study in Dogs
Materials 2018, 11(10), 2007; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11102007 - 17 Oct 2018
Cited by 1
Abstract
This in vivo study assessed (hard and soft) peri-implant tissue remodeling around implants with micro-ring and open-thread neck designs placed in a dog model. Twenty histological sections corresponding to four different implant designs that were placed in America Foxhound dogs were obtained from [...] Read more.
This in vivo study assessed (hard and soft) peri-implant tissue remodeling around implants with micro-ring and open-thread neck designs placed in a dog model. Twenty histological sections corresponding to four different implant designs that were placed in America Foxhound dogs were obtained from previous studies. All the implants had been placed under identical conditions and were divided into four groups: Group A, micro-rings on implant neck plus 0.5 mm refined surface; Group B, micro-rings on implant neck; Group C, open-thread neck; and, Group D, double-spiral neck. Eight weeks after surgery, the integrated implants were removed and processed for histological examination. Crestal bone loss and bone-to-implant contact was greater for micro-ring necks than open-thread necks. Soft tissues showed significant differences on both buccal and lingual aspects, so that the distance from peri-implant mucosa to the apical portion of the barrier epithelium was smaller in the micro-ring groups. So, in spite of generating greater bone-to-implant contact, implants with micro rings produced more bone loss than open-thread implants. Moreover, the outcomes that were obtained IPX implants smooth neck design produced less bone loss in the cervical area, following by Facility implants when compared with the other open thread and microthreaded implant designs. Implant thread design can influence on bone remodeling in the cervical area, related to bundle bone preservation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
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Open AccessArticle
Physical and Histological Comparison of Hydroxyapatite, Carbonate Apatite, and β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Substitutes
Materials 2018, 11(10), 1993; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101993 - 16 Oct 2018
Cited by 8
Abstract
Three commercially available artificial bone substitutes with different compositions, hydroxyapatite (HAp; Neobone®), carbonate apatite (CO3Ap; Cytrans®), and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP; Cerasorb®), were compared with respect to their physical properties and tissue response to bone, using [...] Read more.
Three commercially available artificial bone substitutes with different compositions, hydroxyapatite (HAp; Neobone®), carbonate apatite (CO3Ap; Cytrans®), and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP; Cerasorb®), were compared with respect to their physical properties and tissue response to bone, using hybrid dogs. Both Neobone® (HAp) and Cerasorb® (β-TCP) were porous, whereas Cytrans® (CO3Ap) was dense. Crystallite size and specific surface area (SSA) of Neobone® (HAp), Cytrans® (CO3Ap), and Cerasorb® (β-TCP) were 75.4 ± 0.9 nm, 30.8 ± 0.8 nm, and 78.5 ± 7.5 nm, and 0.06 m2/g, 18.2 m2/g, and 1.0 m2/g, respectively. These values are consistent with the fact that both Neobone® (HAp) and Cerasorb® (β-TCP) are sintered ceramics, whereas Cytrans® (CO3Ap) is fabricated in aqueous solution. Dissolution in pH 5.3 solution mimicking Howship’s lacunae was fastest in CO3Ap (Cytrans®), whereas dissolution in pH 7.3 physiological solution was fastest in β-TCP (Cerasorb®). These results indicated that CO3Ap is stable under physiological conditions and is resorbed at Howship’s lacunae. Histological evaluation using hybrid dog mandible bone defect model revealed that new bone was formed from existing bone to the center of the bone defect when reconstructed with CO3Ap (Cytrans®) at week 4. The amount of bone increased at week 12, and resorption of the CO3Ap (Cytrans®) was confirmed. β-TCP (Cerasorb®) showed limited bone formation at week 4. However, a larger amount of bone was observed at week 12. Among these three bone substitutes, CO3Ap (Cytrans®) demonstrated the highest level of new bone formation. These results indicate the possibility that bone substitutes with compositions similar to that of bone may have properties similar to those of bone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview
Biocompatibility and Clinical Application of Porous TiNi Alloys Made by Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis (SHS)
Materials 2019, 12(15), 2405; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12152405 - 28 Jul 2019
Abstract
Porous TiNi alloys fabricated by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) are biomaterials designed for medical application in substituting tissue lesions and they were clinically deployed more than 30 years ago. The SHS process, as a very fast and economically justified route of powder metallurgy, [...] Read more.
Porous TiNi alloys fabricated by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) are biomaterials designed for medical application in substituting tissue lesions and they were clinically deployed more than 30 years ago. The SHS process, as a very fast and economically justified route of powder metallurgy, has distinctive features which impart special attributes to the resultant implant, facilitating its integration in terms of bio-mechanical/chemical compatibility. On the phenomenological level, the fact of high biocompatibility of porous SHS TiNi (PTN) material in vivo has been recognized and is not in dispute presently, but the rationale is somewhat disputable. The features of the SHS TiNi process led to a multifarious intermetallic Ti4Ni2(O,N,C)-based constituents in the amorphous-nanocrystalline superficial layer which entirely conceals the matrix and enhances the corrosion resistance of the unwrought alloy. In the current article, we briefly explore issues of the high biocompatibility level on which additional studies could be carried out, as well as recent progress and key fields of clinical application, yet allowing innovative solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
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Open AccessReview
Coating Techniques for Functional Enhancement of Metal Implants for Bone Replacement: A Review
Materials 2019, 12(11), 1795; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12111795 - 03 Jun 2019
Cited by 2
Abstract
To facilitate patient healing in injuries and bone fractures, metallic implants have been in use for a long time. As metallic biomaterials have offered desirable mechanical strength higher than the stiffness of human bone, they have maintained their place. However, in many case [...] Read more.
To facilitate patient healing in injuries and bone fractures, metallic implants have been in use for a long time. As metallic biomaterials have offered desirable mechanical strength higher than the stiffness of human bone, they have maintained their place. However, in many case studies, it has been observed that these metallic biomaterials undergo a series of corrosion reactions in human body fluid. The products of these reactions are released metallic ions, which are toxic in high dosages. On the other hand, as these metallic implants have different material structures and compositions than that of human bone, the process of healing takes a longer time and bone/implant interface forms slower. To resolve this issue, researchers have proposed depositing coatings, such as hydroxyapatite (HA), polycaprolactone (PCL), metallic oxides (e.g., TiO2, Al2O3), etc., on implant substrates in order to enhance bone/implant interaction while covering the substrate from corrosion. Due to many useful HA characteristics, the outcome of various studies has proved that after coating with HA, the implants enjoy enhanced corrosion resistance and less metallic ion release while the bone ingrowth has been increased. As a result, a significant reduction in patient healing time with less loss of mechanical strength of implants has been achieved. Some of the most reliable coating processes for biomaterials, to date, capable of depositing HA on implant substrate are known as sol-gel, high-velocity oxy-fuel-based deposition, plasma spraying, and electrochemical coatings. In this article, all these coating methods are categorized and investigated, and a comparative study of these techniques is presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview
Contact Lens Materials: A Materials Science Perspective
Materials 2019, 12(2), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12020261 - 14 Jan 2019
Cited by 6
Abstract
More is demanded from ophthalmic treatments using contact lenses, which are currently used by over 125 million people around the world. Improving the material of contact lenses (CLs) is a now rapidly evolving discipline. These materials are developing alongside the advances made in [...] Read more.
More is demanded from ophthalmic treatments using contact lenses, which are currently used by over 125 million people around the world. Improving the material of contact lenses (CLs) is a now rapidly evolving discipline. These materials are developing alongside the advances made in related biomaterials for applications such as drug delivery. Contact lens materials are typically based on polymer- or silicone-hydrogel, with additional manufacturing technologies employed to produce the final lens. These processes are simply not enough to meet the increasing demands from CLs and the ever-increasing number of contact lens (CL) users. This review provides an advanced perspective on contact lens materials, with an emphasis on materials science employed in developing new CLs. The future trends for CL materials are to graft, incapsulate, or modify the classic CL material structure to provide new or improved functionality. In this paper, we discuss some of the fundamental material properties, present an outlook from related emerging biomaterials, and provide viewpoints of precision manufacturing in CL development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
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Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.

Research Article

The serum protein profile and acute phase proteins in the postoperative period in sheep after induced articular cartilage defect

Csilla Tothova 1, Xenia Mihajlovicova 1, Jaroslav Novotny 2, Oskar Nagy 1, Maria Giretova 3,4, Marek Tomco 4, Zdenek Zert 5, Zuzana Vilhanova 5, Maros Varga 6, Lubomir Medvecky 3 and Eva Petrovova 4,*

1   Clinic of Ruminants, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Kosice, Komenskeho 73, 041 81 Kosice, Slovak Republic; [email protected] (C.T.); [email protected] (X.M.); [email protected] (O.N.)

2   Clinic of Swine, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Kosice, Komenskeho 73, 041 81 Kosice, Slovak Republic; Jaroslav [email protected] (J.N.)

3   Institute of Materials Research SAS in Kosice, Watsonova 47, 040 01 Kosice, Slovak Republic; [email protected] (M.G.); [email protected] (L.M.)

4   Institute of Anatomy, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Kosice, Komenskeho 73, 041 81 Kosice, Slovak Republic; [email protected] (M.G.); [email protected] (M.T.); [email protected] (E.P.)

5   Clinic of Horses, University of Veterinary Medicine and Pharmacy in Kosice, Komenskeho 73, 041 81 Kosice, Slovak Republic; [email protected] (Z.Z.); [email protected] (Z.V.)

2   Sport-arthro Centre, Privat Hospital Saca-Kosice, Lucna 57, 040 15 Kosice-Saca, Slovak Republic; [email protected] (M.V.)

*   Correspondence: [email protected]; Tel.: +421-917-637-799

Received: date; Accepted: date; Published: date

Abstract: Although several new implants have been demonstrated using animal studies for the treatment of osteochondral and cartilage defects, including the histological evaluation of the cartilage repair and maturation of the newly-formed cartilage. However, there is a lack of information on the possible metabolic and biochemical reactions of the body to the implantation of biomaterials and cartilage reconstruction in the animal model. Therefore, this study is focused on  evaluation of the serum protein pattern and the alterations in the concentrations of selected acute phase proteins in sheep before and after the reconstruction of experimentally induced articular cartilage defects using polyhydroxybutyrate/chitosan-based biopolymer material. Into the evaluation, we included five clinically healthy female sheep of the crossbreed of Merino and Valachian sheep at the age of 2 years and in good nutritional condition. The concentrations of total serum proteins (TSP), protein fractions and selected acute phase proteins - serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured before and on day 7, 14, and 30 after the surgical intervention. The TSP concentrations showed no marked differences during the evaluated period. Albumin values decreased on day 7 and 14 after surgery. In the concentrations of 1-, 2-, β- and 2-globulins a gradual significant increase was observed during the postoperative period (P < 0.05). The 1-globulins decreased slightly 7 days after surgery, with a subsequent gradual increase to preoperative values. The SAA values increased 7 days after the surgical intervention (P < 0.01) and decreased from day 14. In the concentrations of Hp, a more gradual increase was found until the day 14 after surgery, with the subsequent decrease on day 30. The values of CRP increased significantly until the day 14 after surgery (P < 0.05). Presented results suggest marked alterations in the serum protein pattern after surgical intervention characterized by changes in most serum proteins fractions and evaluated acute phase protein concentrations.

Keywords: articular cartilage defect; bioplolymers; C-reactive protein; haptoglobin; in vivo testing; serum amyloid A; serum protein fractions; sheep

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