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The Synthesis and Characterization of Biocompatible Materials

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 May 2022) | Viewed by 20168

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
Metallic Materials Science and Physical Metallurgy Department, Politehnica University of Bucharest, 060042 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: design and development of medical devices for bone reconstruction, synthesis, and preparation of calcium phosphates from natural sources; membrane materials; hybrid and composite materials
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Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Universitatea din Bucuresti, Bucuresti, Romania
Interests: biomaterials and biocompatibility; tissue engineering; stem cells and regenerative medicine; cell biology; clinical biochemistry
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The recent advances in biomaterials field are tremendous, with new biomaterials and related devices constantly being developed and introduced in medical practice. Even if the amount of the research resources is exponentially increasing from decade to decade, however, the scientific community still encounters difficulties. One challenge involves the development of specific new and performant biomaterials. Another important issue is linked to the access to actual new scientific information, with some aspects related to the synthesis of new biomaterials being unavailable to the scientific community, especially due to economic reasons on behalf of the developers and research companies.

In this Special Issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944) on "The Synthesis and Characterization of Biocompatible Materials”, we are targeting the presentation of actual and niche experiments that are being conducted on the development of biomaterials into various research capacities and resources. In order to provide performant biomaterials, we need to optimize the material synthesis methods and to characterize the obtained ones in a correct, complex, and modern way. The targeted materials include all the biomaterials types and combinations, with a focus on synthesis methods and performances. Special attention should be given to explaining the phenomena related to reaction kinetics and mechanisms. Submitted manuscripts may cover all aspects on biocompatible materials characterization methods and may be related to the composition, morphology, structure, properties, and in vitro and in vivo behavior.

We invite all colleagues to submit manuscripts (full papers, reviews or short notes) in open access to this Special Issue. We also encourage the dissemination of this invitation to any colleagues that might be interested.

Prof. Habil. Florin Miculescu
Prof. Habil. Anisoara Cimpean
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biocompatible materials
  • Biomaterials synthesis
  • Biomaterials characterization
  • Biocompatibility
  • Bioactivity

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

17 pages, 4185 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Characterization of Porous CaCO3 Vaterite Particles by Simple Solution Method
by Renny Febrida, Arief Cahyanto, Ellyza Herda, Vanitha Muthukanan, Nina Djustiana, Ferry Faizal, Camellia Panatarani and I Made Joni
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4425; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164425 - 7 Aug 2021
Cited by 18 | Viewed by 4088
Abstract
Appropriately engineered CaCO3 vaterite has interesting properties such as biodegradability, large surface area, and unique physical and chemical properties that allow a variety of uses in medical applications, mainly in dental material as the scaffold. In this paper, we report the synthesis [...] Read more.
Appropriately engineered CaCO3 vaterite has interesting properties such as biodegradability, large surface area, and unique physical and chemical properties that allow a variety of uses in medical applications, mainly in dental material as the scaffold. In this paper, we report the synthesis of vaterite from Ca(NO3)2·4H2O without porogen to obtain a highly pure and porous microsphere for raw material of calcium phosphate as the scaffold in our future development. CaCO3 properties were investigated at two different temperatures (20 and 27 °C) and stirring speeds (800 and 1000 rpm) and at various reaction times (5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 min). The as-prepared porous CaCO3 powders were characterized by FTIR, XRD, SEM, TEM, and BET methods. The results showed that vaterite with purity 95.3%, crystallite size 23.91 nm, and porous microsphere with lowest pore diameter 3.5578 nm was obtained at reaction time 30 min, temperature reaction 20 °C, and stirring speed 800 rpm. It was emphasized that a more spherical microsphere with a smaller size and nanostructure contained multiple primary nanoparticles received at a lower stirring speed (800 rpm) at the reaction time of 30 min. One of the outstanding results of this study is the formation of the porous vaterite microsphere with a pore size of ~3.55 nm without any additional porogen or template by using a simple mixing method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Synthesis and Characterization of Biocompatible Materials)
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32 pages, 10815 KiB  
Article
The Physico-Chemical Properties and Exploratory Real-Time Cell Analysis of Hydroxyapatite Nanopowders Substituted with Ce, Mg, Sr, and Zn (0.5–5 at.%)
by Iuliana Maria Chirică, Ana-Maria Enciu, Teddy Tite, Maria Dudău, Lucian Albulescu, Simona Liliana Iconaru, Daniela Predoi, Iuliana Pasuk, Monica Enculescu, Cristian Radu, Cătălina Gabriela Mihalcea, Adrian-Claudiu Popa, Nicoleta Rusu, Sultana Niţă, Cristiana Tănase and George E. Stan
Materials 2021, 14(14), 3808; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14143808 - 8 Jul 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 3293
Abstract
Cation-substituted hydroxyapatite (HA), standalone or as a composite (blended with polymers or metals), is currently regarded as a noteworthy candidate material for bone repair/regeneration either in the form of powders, porous scaffolds or coatings for endo-osseous dental and orthopaedic implants. As a response [...] Read more.
Cation-substituted hydroxyapatite (HA), standalone or as a composite (blended with polymers or metals), is currently regarded as a noteworthy candidate material for bone repair/regeneration either in the form of powders, porous scaffolds or coatings for endo-osseous dental and orthopaedic implants. As a response to the numerous contradictions reported in literature, this work presents, in one study, the physico-chemical properties and the cytocompatibility response of single cation-doped (Ce, Mg, Sr or Zn) HA nanopowders in a wide concentration range (0.5–5 at.%). The modification of composition, morphology, and structure was multiparametrically monitored via energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray photoelectron, Fourier-transform infrared and micro-Raman spectroscopy methods, as well as by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. From a compositional point of view, Ce and Sr were well-incorporated in HA, while slight and pronounced deviations were observed for Mg and Zn, respectively. The change of the lattice parameters, crystallite size, and substituting cation occupation factors either in the Ca(I) or Ca(II) sites were further determined. Sr produced the most important HA structural changes. The in vitro biological performance was evaluated by the (i) determination of leached therapeutic cations (by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) and (ii) assessment of cell behaviour by both conventional assays (e.g., proliferation—3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazol-2-yl) 5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium assay; cytotoxicity—lactate dehydrogenase release assay) and, for the first time, real-time cell analysis (RTCA). Three cell lines were employed: fibroblast, osteoblast, and endothelial. When monophasic, the substituted HA supported the cells’ viability and proliferation without signs of toxicity. The RTCA results indicate the excellent adherence of cells. The study strived to offer a perspective on the behaviour of Ce-, Mg-, Sr-, or Zn-substituted HAs and to deliver a well-encompassing viewpoint on their effects. This can be highly important for the future development of such bioceramics, paving the road toward the identification of candidates with highly promising therapeutic effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Synthesis and Characterization of Biocompatible Materials)
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21 pages, 9170 KiB  
Article
Fiber-Templated 3D Calcium-Phosphate Scaffolds for Biomedical Applications: The Role of the Thermal Treatment Ambient on Physico-Chemical Properties
by Aura-Cătălina Mocanu, Florin Miculescu, George E. Stan, Andreea-Mădălina Pandele, Mihai Alin Pop, Robert Cătălin Ciocoiu, Ștefan Ioan Voicu and Lucian-Toma Ciocan
Materials 2021, 14(9), 2198; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14092198 - 25 Apr 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2277
Abstract
A successful bone-graft-controlled healing entails the development of novel products with tunable compositional and architectural features and mechanical performances and is, thereby, able to accommodate fast bone in-growth and remodeling. To this effect, graphene nanoplatelets and Luffa-fibers were chosen as mechanical reinforcement [...] Read more.
A successful bone-graft-controlled healing entails the development of novel products with tunable compositional and architectural features and mechanical performances and is, thereby, able to accommodate fast bone in-growth and remodeling. To this effect, graphene nanoplatelets and Luffa-fibers were chosen as mechanical reinforcement phase and sacrificial template, respectively, and incorporated into a hydroxyapatite and brushite matrix derived by marble conversion with the help of a reproducible technology. The bio-products, framed by a one-stage-addition polymer-free fabrication route, were thoroughly physico-chemically investigated (by XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, and nano-computed tomography analysis, as well as surface energy measurements and mechanical performance assessments) after sintering in air or nitrogen ambient. The experiments exposed that the coupling of a nitrogen ambient with the graphene admixing triggers, in both compact and porous samples, important structural (i.e., decomposition of β-Ca3(PO4)2 into α-Ca3(PO4)2 and α-Ca2P2O7) and morphological modifications. Certain restrictions and benefits were outlined with respect to the spatial porosity and global mechanical features of the derived bone scaffolds. Specifically, in nitrogen ambient, the graphene amount should be set to a maximum 0.25 wt.% in the case of compact products, while for the porous ones, significantly augmented compressive strengths were revealed at all graphene amounts. The sintering ambient or the graphene addition did not interfere with the Luffa ability to generate 3D-channels-arrays at high temperatures. It can be concluded that both Luffa and graphene agents act as adjuvants under nitrogen ambient, and that their incorporation-ratio can be modulated to favorably fit certain foreseeable biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Synthesis and Characterization of Biocompatible Materials)
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14 pages, 2288 KiB  
Article
Complexation with Random Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin and (2-Hydroxypropyl)-β-Cyclodextrin Promotes Chrysin Effect and Potential for Liver Fibrosis Therapy
by Simona-Rebeca Ignat, Sorina Dinescu, Judit Váradi, Ferenc Fenyvesi, Thi Le Phuong Nguyen, Alina Ciceu, Anca Hermenean and Marieta Costache
Materials 2020, 13(21), 5003; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13215003 - 6 Nov 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2141
Abstract
Liver fibrosis results from chronic liver injury and is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix in excess driven by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. Chrysin (CHR) is a natural flavonoid that is limited by its low solubility to exert its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant [...] Read more.
Liver fibrosis results from chronic liver injury and is characterized by the accumulation of extracellular matrix in excess driven by hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation. Chrysin (CHR) is a natural flavonoid that is limited by its low solubility to exert its anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-fibrotic properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the biocompatibility of CHR complexes with two cyclodextrins (CDs)-(2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) and random methyl-β-cyclodextrin (RAMEB), and their potential to induce anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-fibrotic effects. Biocompatibility of the complexes was evaluated on Huh7 and LX2 cell lines: MTT and Live/Dead tests indicated the cell viability and an LDH test showed the cytotoxicity. Immunohistochemical staining of Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB) nuclear translocation was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effect of the complexes. Oxygen Radical Absorbance assay, Superoxide Dismutase activity and Glutathione Peroxidase (GPx) assays indicated the antioxidant properties of the chrysin complexes. Finally, the complexes’ anti-fibrotic potential was evaluated at the protein and gene level of α-sma. In HSCs, CDs induced higher cytotoxicity correlated with lower cell viability than CHR–CD. The 1:1 CHR–RAMEB pretreatment avoided p65 translocation. The 1:2 CHR–RAMEB complex increased ORAC values, improved SOD activity and produced the highest stimulation of GPx activity. CHR–RAMEB reduced α-sma expression at lower concentration than CHR–HPBCD, proving to be more efficient. In conclusion, both CHR–CD complexes proved to be biocompatible, but CHR–RAMEB showed improved anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-fibrotic effects that could recommend its further use in liver fibrosis treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Synthesis and Characterization of Biocompatible Materials)
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22 pages, 4481 KiB  
Article
Biocompatible Nanocomposite Enhanced Osteogenic and Cementogenic Differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells In Vitro for Periodontal Regeneration
by Jin Liu, Quan Dai, Michael D. Weir, Abraham Schneider, Charles Zhang, Gary D. Hack, Thomas W. Oates, Ke Zhang, Ang Li and Hockin H. K. Xu
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4951; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214951 - 4 Nov 2020
Cited by 15 | Viewed by 2272
Abstract
Decays in the roots of teeth is prevalent in seniors as people live longer and retain more of their teeth to an old age, especially in patients with periodontal disease and gingival recession. The objectives of this study were to develop a biocompatible [...] Read more.
Decays in the roots of teeth is prevalent in seniors as people live longer and retain more of their teeth to an old age, especially in patients with periodontal disease and gingival recession. The objectives of this study were to develop a biocompatible nanocomposite with nano-sized calcium fluoride particles (Nano-CaF2), and to investigate for the first time the effects on osteogenic and cementogenic induction of periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) from human donors.Nano-CaF2 particles with a mean particle size of 53 nm were produced via a spray-drying machine.Nano-CaF2 was mingled into the composite at 0%, 10%, 15% and 20% by mass. Flexural strength (160 ± 10) MPa, elastic modulus (11.0 ± 0.5) GPa, and hardness (0.58 ± 0.03) GPa for Nano-CaF2 composite exceeded those of a commercial dental composite (p < 0.05). Calcium (Ca) and fluoride (F) ions were released steadily from the composite. Osteogenic genes were elevated for hPDLSCs growing on 20% Nano-CaF2. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) peaked at 14 days. Collagen type 1 (COL1), runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and osteopontin (OPN) peaked at 21 days. Cementogenic genes were also enhanced on 20% Nano-CaF2 composite, promoting cementum adherence protein (CAP), cementum protein 1 (CEMP1) and bone sialoprotein (BSP) expressions (p < 0.05). At 7, 14 and 21 days, the ALP activity of hPDLSCs on 20% Nano-CaF2 composite was 57-fold, 78-fold, and 55-fold greater than those of control, respectively (p < 0.05). Bone mineral secretion by hPDLSCs on 20% Nano-CaF2 composite was 2-fold that of control (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the novel Nano-CaF2 composite was biocompatible and supported hPDLSCs. Nano-CaF2 composite is promising to fill tooth root cavities and release Ca and F ions to enhance osteogenic and cementogenic induction of hPDLSCs and promote periodontium regeneration. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Synthesis and Characterization of Biocompatible Materials)
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15 pages, 35396 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Severe Plastic Deformation on Microstructure and In Vitro Biocompatibility of the New Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta-Fe-O Alloy Composition
by Carmela Gurau, Gheorghe Gurau, Valentina Mitran, Alexandru Dan and Anisoara Cimpean
Materials 2020, 13(21), 4853; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13214853 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2032
Abstract
In this work, severe plastic deformation (SPD) of the newly designed Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta-Fe-O GUM metal was successfully conducted at room temperature using high speed high pressure torsion (HSHPT) followed by cold rolling (CR) to exploit the suitability of the processed alloy for bone staples. [...] Read more.
In this work, severe plastic deformation (SPD) of the newly designed Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta-Fe-O GUM metal was successfully conducted at room temperature using high speed high pressure torsion (HSHPT) followed by cold rolling (CR) to exploit the suitability of the processed alloy for bone staples. The Ti-31.5Nb-3.1Zr-3.1Ta-0.9Fe-0.16O GUM alloy was fabricated in a levitation melting furnace using a cold crucible and argon protective atmosphere. The as-cast specimens were subjected to SPD, specifically HSHPT, and then processed by the CR method to take the advantages of both grain refinement and larger dimensions. This approach creates the opportunity to obtain temporary orthopedic implants nanostructured by SPD. The changes induced by HSHPT technology from the coarse dendrite directly into the ultrafine grained structure were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The structural investigations showed that by increasing the deformation, a high density of grain boundaries is accumulated, leading gradually to fine grain size. In addition, the in vitro biocompatibility studies were conducted in parallel on the GUM alloy specimens in the as-cast state, and after HSHPT- and HSHPT+CR- processing. For comparative purposes, in vitro behavior of the bone-derived MC3T3-E1 cells on the commercially pure titanium has also been investigated regarding the viability and proliferation, morphology and osteogenic differentiation. The results obtained support the appropriateness of the HSHPT technology for developing compression staples able to ensure a better fixation of bone fragments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Synthesis and Characterization of Biocompatible Materials)
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18 pages, 5829 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of a Zn–2Ag–1.8Au–0.2V Alloy for Absorbable Biocompatible Materials
by Ping Li, Christine Schille, Ernst Schweizer, Evi Kimmerle-Müller, Frank Rupp, Xingting Han, Alexander Heiss, Andreas Richter, Claudia Legner, Ulrich E. Klotz, Jürgen Geis-Gerstorfer and Lutz Scheideler
Materials 2020, 13(1), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma13010056 - 20 Dec 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 2944
Abstract
Zinc (Zn) and Zn-based alloys have been proposed as a new generation of absorbable metals mainly owing to the moderate degradation behavior of zinc between magnesium and iron. Nonetheless, mechanical strength of pure Zn is relatively poor, making it insufficient for the majority [...] Read more.
Zinc (Zn) and Zn-based alloys have been proposed as a new generation of absorbable metals mainly owing to the moderate degradation behavior of zinc between magnesium and iron. Nonetheless, mechanical strength of pure Zn is relatively poor, making it insufficient for the majority of clinical applications. In this study, a novel Zn–2Ag–1.8Au–0.2V (wt.%) alloy (Zn–Ag–Au–V) was fabricated and investigated for use as a potential absorbable biocompatible material. Microstructural characterization indicated an effective grain-refining effect on the Zn alloy after a thermomechanical treatment. Compared to pure Zn, the Zn–Ag–Au–V alloy showed significantly enhanced mechanical properties, with a yield strength of 168 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 233 MPa, and an elongation of 17%. Immersion test indicated that the degradation rate of the Zn–Ag–Au–V alloy in Dulbecco’s phosphate buffered saline was approximately 7.34 ± 0.64 μm/year, thus being slightly lower than that of pure Zn. Biocompatibility tests with L929 and Saos-2 cells showed a moderate cytotoxicity, alloy extracts at 16.7%, and 10% concentration did not affect metabolic activity and cell proliferation. Plaque formation in vitro was reduced, the Zn–Ag–Au–V surface inhibited adhesion and biofilm formation by the early oral colonizer Streptococcus gordonii, indicating antibacterial properties of the alloy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Synthesis and Characterization of Biocompatible Materials)
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