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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Fabrication and Biocompatibility Evaluation of Nanodiamonds-Gelatin Electrospun Materials Designed for Prospective Tissue Regeneration Applications

1
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Bucharest, 050095 Bucharest, Romania
2
Advanced Polymer Materials Group, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 011061 Bucharest, Romania
3
DiaCoating. GmbH, 6112 Wattens, Austria
4
Department of Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and Nanomaterials, University Politehnica of Bucharest, 011061 Bucharest, Romania
5
Research Institute of University of Bucharest, 050107 Bucharest, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors have equally contributed to this study.
Materials 2019, 12(18), 2933; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma12182933
Received: 5 August 2019 / Revised: 4 September 2019 / Accepted: 9 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
Due to the reduced ability of most harmed tissues to self-regenerate, new strategies are being developed in order to promote self-repair assisted or not by biomaterials, among these tissue engineering (TE). Human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hASCs) currently represent a promising tool for tissue reconstruction, due to their low immunogenicity, high differentiation potential to multiple cell types and easy harvesting. Gelatin is a natural biocompatible polymer used for regenerative applications, while nanodiamond particles (NDs) are used as reinforcing nanomaterial that might modulate cell behavior, namely cell adhesion, viability, and proliferation. The development of electrospun microfibers loaded with NDs is expected to allow nanomechanical sensing due to local modifications of both nanostructure and stiffness. Two aqueous suspensions with 0.5 and 1% w/v NDs in gelatin from cold water fish skin (FG) were used to generate electrospun meshes. Advanced morpho- and micro-structural characterization revealed homogeneous microfibers. Nanoindentation tests confirmed the reinforcing effect of NDs. Biocompatibility assays showed an increased viability and proliferation profile of hASCs in contact with FG_NDs, correlated with very low cytotoxic effects of the materials. Moreover, hASCs developed an elongated cytoskeleton, suggesting that NDs addition to FG materials encouraged cell adhesion. This study showed the FG_NDs fibrous scaffolds potential for advanced TE applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: tissue engineering; diamond nanoparticles; fish gelatin; adipose-derived stem cells; biocompatibility tissue engineering; diamond nanoparticles; fish gelatin; adipose-derived stem cells; biocompatibility
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Şelaru, A.; Drăgușin, D.-M.; Olăreț, E.; Serafim, A.; Steinmüller-Nethl, D.; Vasile, E.; Iovu, H.; Stancu, I.-C.; Costache, M.; Dinescu, S. Fabrication and Biocompatibility Evaluation of Nanodiamonds-Gelatin Electrospun Materials Designed for Prospective Tissue Regeneration Applications. Materials 2019, 12, 2933.

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