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Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility (Second Volume)

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Biomaterials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (10 August 2023) | Viewed by 32246

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Guest Editor
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Universitatea din Bucuresti, Bucuresti, Romania
Interests: biomaterials and biocompatibility; tissue engineering; stem cells and regenerative medicine; cell biology; clinical biochemistry
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Guest Editor
Metallic Materials Science and Physical Metallurgy Department, Politehnica University of Bucharest, 060042 Bucharest, Romania
Interests: design and development of medical devices for bone reconstruction, synthesis, and preparation of calcium phosphates from natural sources; membrane materials; hybrid and composite materials
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The scientific advances in life sciences and engineering constantly challenge, expand, and redefine the concepts related to biocompatibility and safety of medical devices. New biomaterials, new products, and new testing regimes are introduced in scientific research practices. To provide clinically predictive results and to ensure a high benefit-risk ratio for patients, we need to optimize the material and implant characteristics and to adapt the performance and safety evaluation practices for these innovative medical devices.

Various characteristics related to materials and implant development such as raw materials composition, implants surface morphology, design, geometry, porosity, and mechanical properties need to be thoroughly characterized before the evaluation of the biological performance of implants. Furthermore, with the increase of regulatory demands, biological evaluation needs to ensure appropriate models, and methods for each implant development stage.

This Special Issue of Materials on "Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility Second Volume” will focus on recent progress in the development, material testing, and biocompatibility and bioactivity evaluation of various materials including, but not limited to, bioceramics, biopolymers, biometals, composite materials, biomimetic materials, hybrid biomaterials, and drug/device combinations for implants and prostheses with medical applications spanning from soft to hard tissue regeneration. Submitted manuscripts may cover all aspects, ranging from investigations into material characterization to in vitro and in vivo testing for the assessment of the biological performance of advanced, novel biomaterials, and implants.

We invite all colleagues to submit manuscripts (full papers, reviews, or notes) in open access to this Special Issue. We encourage you to disseminate this invitation to any colleagues who may be interested.

Prof. Dr. Anişoara Cîmpean
Prof. Dr. Florin Miculescu
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Biocompatibility
  • Bioactivity
  • Bioceramics
  • Biometals
  • Biopolymers
  • Composite materials
  • Hybrid material
  • Drug-releasing implants
  • in vitro testing
  • in vivo testing

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Published Papers (12 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

15 pages, 3775 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Different Femoral Component Materials on Bone and Implant Response in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Finite Element Analysis
by Allegra Galas, Lorenzo Banci and Bernardo Innocenti
Materials 2023, 16(16), 5605; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16165605 - 13 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2448
Abstract
Due to the high stiffness of the biomaterials used in total knee arthroplasty, stress shielding can lead to decreased periprosthetic bone mineral density and bone resorption. As different materials and 3D-printed highly porous surfaces are available for knee femoral components from the industry [...] Read more.
Due to the high stiffness of the biomaterials used in total knee arthroplasty, stress shielding can lead to decreased periprosthetic bone mineral density and bone resorption. As different materials and 3D-printed highly porous surfaces are available for knee femoral components from the industry nowadays, this study aimed to compare the effects of two same-design cruciate-retaining femoral components, made with CoCr and titanium alloy, respectively, on periprosthetic bone stresses through a finite element model of the implanted knee in order to evaluate the induced stress shielding. Moreover, the effect of the cementless highly porous surface of the titanium implant was analyzed in comparison to the cemented interface of the CoCr implant. The von Mises stresses were analyzed in different periprosthetic regions of interest of the femur with different configurations and knee flexion angles. The titanium component induced higher bone stresses in comparison with the CoCr component, mostly in the medial compartment at higher knee flexion angles; therefore, the CoCr component led to more stress shielding. The model was revealed to be effective in describing the effects of different femoral component materials on bone stress, highlighting how a cementless, highly porous titanium femoral component might lead to less stress shielding in comparison to a cemented CoCr implant with significant clinical relevance and reduced bone resorption after total knee arthroplasty. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility (Second Volume))
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15 pages, 6238 KiB  
Article
Strategies for the Covalent Anchoring of a BMP-2-Mimetic Peptide to PEEK Surface for Bone Tissue Engineering
by Leonardo Cassari, Annj Zamuner, Grazia Maria Lucia Messina, Martina Marsotto, Hao-chen Chang, Trevor Coward, Chiara Battocchio, Giovanna Iucci, Giovanni Marletta, Lucy Di Silvio and Monica Dettin
Materials 2023, 16(10), 3869; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16103869 - 21 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1779
Abstract
Researchers in the field of tissue engineering are always searching for new scaffolds for bone repair. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a chemically inert polymer that is insoluble in conventional solvents. PEEK’s great potential in tissue engineering applications arises from its ability to not induce [...] Read more.
Researchers in the field of tissue engineering are always searching for new scaffolds for bone repair. Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) is a chemically inert polymer that is insoluble in conventional solvents. PEEK’s great potential in tissue engineering applications arises from its ability to not induce adverse reactions when in contact with biological tissues and its mechanical properties, which are similar to those of human bone. These exceptional features are limited by the bio-inertness of PEEK, which causes poor osteogenesis on the implant surface. Here, we demonstrated that the covalent grafting of the sequence (48–69) mapped on the BMP-2 growth factor (GBMP1α) significantly enhances the mineralization and gene expression of human osteoblasts. Different chemical methods were employed for covalently grafting the peptide onto 3D-printed PEEK disks: (a) the reaction between PEEK carbonyls and amino-oxy groups inserted in the peptides’ N-terminal sites (oxime chemistry) and (b) the photoactivation of azido groups present in the peptides’ N-terminal sites, which produces nitrene radicals able to react with PEEK surface. The peptide-induced PEEK surface modification was assessed using X-ray photoelectron measurements, while the superficial properties of the functionalized material were analyzed by means of atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy. Live and dead assays and SEM measurements showed greater cell cover on functionalized samples than the control, without any cytotoxicity induction. Moreover, functionalization improved the rate of cell proliferation and the amount of calcium deposits, as demonstrated by the AlamarBlue™ and alizarin red results, respectively. The effects of GBMP1α on h-osteoblast gene expression were assayed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility (Second Volume))
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18 pages, 6116 KiB  
Article
Selection Route of Precursor Materials in 3D Printing Composite Filament Development for Biomedical Applications
by Aura-Cătălina Mocanu, Florin Miculescu, Andreea Elena Constantinescu, Mădălina-Andreea Pandele, Ștefan Ioan Voicu, Anișoara Cîmpean, Marian Miculescu and Andreea Mariana Negrescu
Materials 2023, 16(6), 2359; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16062359 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1939
Abstract
Additive manufacturing or 3D printing technologies might advance the fabrication sector of personalised biomaterials with high-tech precision. The selection of optimal precursor materials is considered the first key-step for the development of new printable filaments destined for the fabrication of products with diverse [...] Read more.
Additive manufacturing or 3D printing technologies might advance the fabrication sector of personalised biomaterials with high-tech precision. The selection of optimal precursor materials is considered the first key-step for the development of new printable filaments destined for the fabrication of products with diverse orthopaedic/dental applications. The selection route of precursor materials proposed in this study targeted two categories of materials: prime materials, for the polymeric matrix (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), polylactic acid (PLA)); and reinforcement materials (natural hydroxyapatite (HA) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) of different dimensions). HA was isolated from bovine bones (HA particles size < 40 μm, <100 μm, and >125 μm) through a reproducible synthesis technology. The structural (FTIR-ATR, Raman spectroscopy), morphological (SEM), and, most importantly, in vitro (indirect and direct contact studies) features of all precursor materials were comparatively evaluated. The polymeric materials were also prepared in the form of thin plates, for an advanced cell viability assessment (direct contact studies). The overall results confirmed once again the reproducibility of the HA synthesis method. Moreover, the biological cytotoxicity assays established the safe selection of PLA as a future polymeric matrix, with GNP of grade M as a reinforcement and HA as a bioceramic. Therefore, the obtained results pinpointed these materials as optimal for future composite filament synthesis and the 3D printing of implantable structures. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility (Second Volume))
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15 pages, 3751 KiB  
Article
Zn-doped Mono- and Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Materials Derived from Agriculture Waste and Their Potential Biomedical Applications: Part I
by Marta Kalbarczyk, Aleksandra Szcześ, Anna Belcarz, Paulina Kazimierczak and Zoltan May
Materials 2023, 16(5), 1971; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16051971 - 28 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1513
Abstract
In this study, calcium phosphate materials were obtained via a simple, eco-friendly wet synthesis method using hen eggshells as a calcium source. It was shown that Zn ions were successfully incorporated into hydroxyapatite (HA). The obtained ceramic composition depends on the zinc content. [...] Read more.
In this study, calcium phosphate materials were obtained via a simple, eco-friendly wet synthesis method using hen eggshells as a calcium source. It was shown that Zn ions were successfully incorporated into hydroxyapatite (HA). The obtained ceramic composition depends on the zinc content. When doped with 10 mol % of Zn, in addition to HA and Zn-doped HA, DCPD (dicalcium phosphate dihydrate) appeared and its content increased with the increase in Zn concentration. All doped HA materials exhibited antimicrobial activity against S. aureus and E. coli. Nevertheless, fabricated samples significantly decreased preosteoblast (MC3T3-E1 Subclone 4) viability in vitro, exerting a cytotoxic effect which probably resulted from their high ionic reactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility (Second Volume))
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21 pages, 7807 KiB  
Article
MWCNTs-TiO2 Incorporated-Mg Composites to Improve the Mechanical, Corrosion and Biological Characteristics for Use in Biomedical Fields
by Mohammad Taher Amirzade-Iranaq, Mahdi Omidi, Hamid Reza Bakhsheshi-Rad, Abbas Saberi, Somayeh Abazari, Nadia Teymouri, Farid Naeimi, Claudia Sergi, Ahmad Fauzi Ismail, Safian Sharif and Filippo Berto
Materials 2023, 16(5), 1919; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16051919 - 25 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2014
Abstract
This study attempts to synthesize MgZn/TiO2-MWCNTs composites with varying TiO2-MWCNT concentrations using mechanical alloying and a semi-powder metallurgy process coupled with spark plasma sintering. It also aims to investigate the mechanical, corrosion, and antibacterial properties of these composites. When [...] Read more.
This study attempts to synthesize MgZn/TiO2-MWCNTs composites with varying TiO2-MWCNT concentrations using mechanical alloying and a semi-powder metallurgy process coupled with spark plasma sintering. It also aims to investigate the mechanical, corrosion, and antibacterial properties of these composites. When compared to the MgZn composite, the microhardness and compressive strength of the MgZn/TiO2-MWCNTs composites were enhanced to 79 HV and 269 MPa, respectively. The results of cell culture and viability experiments revealed that incorporating TiO2-MWCNTs increased osteoblast proliferation and attachment and enhanced the biocompatibility of the TiO2-MWCNTs nanocomposite. It was observed that the corrosion resistance of the Mg-based composite was improved and the corrosion rate was reduced to about 2.1 mm/y with the addition of 10 wt% TiO2-1 wt% MWCNTs. In vitro testing for up to 14 days revealed a reduced degradation rate following the incorporation of TiO2-MWCNTs reinforcement into a MgZn matrix alloy. Antibacterial evaluations revealed that the composite had antibacterial activity, with an inhibition zone of 3.7 mm against Staphylococcus aureus. The MgZn/TiO2-MWCNTs composite structure has great potential for use in orthopedic fracture fixation devices. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility (Second Volume))
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15 pages, 8445 KiB  
Article
Modulated Laser Cladding of Implant-Type Coatings by Bovine-Bone-Derived Hydroxyapatite Powder Injection on Ti6Al4V Substrates—Part I: Fabrication and Physico-Chemical Characterization
by Aura-Cătălina Mocanu, Florin Miculescu, George E. Stan, Iuliana Pasuk, Teddy Tite, Alexandru Pascu, Tudor Mihai Butte and Lucian-Toma Ciocan
Materials 2022, 15(22), 7971; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15227971 - 11 Nov 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1692
Abstract
The surface physico-chemistry of metallic implants governs their successful long-term functionality for orthopedic and dentistry applications. Here, we investigated the feasibility of harmoniously combining two of the star materials currently employed in bone treatment/restoration, namely, calcium-phosphate-based bioceramics (in the form of coatings that [...] Read more.
The surface physico-chemistry of metallic implants governs their successful long-term functionality for orthopedic and dentistry applications. Here, we investigated the feasibility of harmoniously combining two of the star materials currently employed in bone treatment/restoration, namely, calcium-phosphate-based bioceramics (in the form of coatings that have the capacity to enhance osseointegration) and titanium alloys (used as bulk implant materials due to their mechanical performance and lack of systemic toxicity). For the first time, bovine-bone-derived hydroxyapatite (BHA) was layered on top of Ti6Al4V substrates using powder injection laser cladding technology, and then subjected, in this first stage of the research, to an array of physical-chemical analyses. The laser processing set-up involved the conjoined modulation of the BHA-to-Ti ratio (100 wt.% and 50 wt.%) and beam power range (500–1000 W). As such, on each metallic substrate, several overlapped strips were produced and the external surface of the cladded coatings was further investigated. The morphological and compositional (SEM/EDS) evaluations exposed fully covered metallic surfaces with ceramic-based materials, without any fragmentation and with a strong metallurgical bond. The structural (XRD, micro-Raman) analyses showed the formation of calcium titanate as the main phase up to maximum 800 W, accompanied by partial BHA decomposition and the consequential advent of tetracalcium phosphate (markedly above 600 W), independent of the BHA ratio. In addition, the hydrophilic behavior of the coatings was outlined, being linked to the varied surface textures and phase dynamism that emerged due to laser power increment for both of the employed BHA ratios. Hence, this research delineates a series of optimal laser cladding technological parameters for the adequate deposition of bioceramic layers with customized functionality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility (Second Volume))
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14 pages, 7124 KiB  
Article
Effects of 5 wt.% Polycaprolactone, Polyhydroxybutyrate and Polyvinyltrimethoxysilane on the Properties of Ag/Zn/Mg Alloy
by Marzieh Rabiei, Motahareh Sadat Raziyan, Reza Ebrahimi-Kahrizsangi, Sohrab Nasiri, Arvydas Palevicius, Giedrius Janusas and Andrius Vilkauskas
Materials 2022, 15(15), 5421; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15155421 - 5 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1264
Abstract
Mg-based alloys have several suitable properties for biomaterials, but they have major problems of being less antibacterial and have a low mechanical strength. To solve these problems, a new combination of Ag/Zn/Mg was prepared in this study, where the presence of Zn and [...] Read more.
Mg-based alloys have several suitable properties for biomaterials, but they have major problems of being less antibacterial and have a low mechanical strength. To solve these problems, a new combination of Ag/Zn/Mg was prepared in this study, where the presence of Zn and Ag can help to increase the bioactivity. The use of 5 wt.% polymers consisting of PolyCaproLactone (PCL), PolyHydroxyButyrate (PHB) and PolyVinylTriMethoxySilane (PVTMS) is also investigated. DSC, XRD, TEM, FTIR, SEM, and EDAX analysis, as well as mechanical and bioactive behavior, were investigated to characterize the prepared composites. In the comparison, the best behavior was found when PHB was used. The results show that the strength values ranged from ~201 to 261 MPa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility (Second Volume))
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14 pages, 3971 KiB  
Article
What Is the Cause of Toxicity of Silicone Oil?
by Ying Chen, Yan Lam Ip, Liangyu Zhou, Pik Yi Li, Yee Mei Chan, Wai Ching Lam, Kenneth Kai Wang Li, David H. Steel and Yau Kei Chan
Materials 2022, 15(1), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15010269 - 30 Dec 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2521
Abstract
Purpose: To investigate the toxicity of the low-molecular-weight components (LMWCs) in ophthalmic silicone oils (SilOils) on retinal cell lines. Methods: The toxicity of six types of LMWCs were studied and compared with conventional SilOil 1000 cSt. In vitro cytotoxic tests of LMWCs, in [...] Read more.
Purpose: To investigate the toxicity of the low-molecular-weight components (LMWCs) in ophthalmic silicone oils (SilOils) on retinal cell lines. Methods: The toxicity of six types of LMWCs were studied and compared with conventional SilOil 1000 cSt. In vitro cytotoxic tests of LMWCs, in both liquid and emulsified forms, on three retinal cell lines (Müller cells (rMC-1), photoreceptor cells (661W) and retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19)) were conducted using a transwell cell culturing system. The morphology and viability of cells were assessed by light microscopy and Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay at different time points (6, 24 and 72 h). The ARPE-19 apoptotic pathway was investigated by Mitochondrial Membrane Potential/Annexin V Apoptosis Kit at different time points (6, 24 and 72 h). Results: Apart from dodecamethylpentasiloxane (L5), all liquid LMWCs showed varying degrees of acute cytotoxicity on retinal cell lines within 72 h. Emulsified LMWCs showed comparable cytotoxicity with liquid LMWCs on retinal cell lines. Cyclic LMWCs, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) and decamethylcyclopentasiloxane (D5) had significantly higher cytotoxicity when compared with their linear counterparts decamethyltetrasiloxane (L4) and L5 with similar molecular formula. Using ARPE-19 cells as an example, we showed that LMWCs induce the apoptosis of retinal cells. Conclusions: Most LMWCs, in both liquid and emulsified forms, can induce acute cytotoxicity. In addition, cyclic LMWCs are suspected to have higher cytotoxicity than their linear counterparts. Therefore, LMWCs are suspected to be the main cause of the long-term toxicity of ophthalmic SilOil, due to their toxicity and propensity to cause ophthalmic SilOil to emulsify. The amount of LMWCs should be considered as the paramount parameter when referring to the quality of SilOil. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility (Second Volume))
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13 pages, 5924 KiB  
Article
Biomimetic Octacalcium Phosphate Bone Has Superior Bone Regeneration Ability Compared to Xenogeneic or Synthetic Bone
by Jooseong Kim, Sukyoung Kim and Inhwan Song
Materials 2021, 14(18), 5300; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14185300 - 14 Sep 2021
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2471
Abstract
Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) is a precursor of biological apatite crystals that has attracted attention as a possible bone substitute. On the other hand, few studies have examined this material at the experimental level due to the limitations on OCP mass production. Recently, mass [...] Read more.
Octacalcium phosphate (OCP) is a precursor of biological apatite crystals that has attracted attention as a possible bone substitute. On the other hand, few studies have examined this material at the experimental level due to the limitations on OCP mass production. Recently, mass production technology of OCP was developed, and the launch of OCP bone substitutes is occurring. In this study, the bone regeneration capacity of OCP products was compared with two of the most clinically used materials: heat-treated bovine bone (BHA) and sintered biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP). Twelve rabbits were used, and defects in each tibia were filled with OCP, BHA, BCP, and left unfilled as control (CON). The tibias were harvested at 4 and 12 weeks, and 15 μm slides were prepared using the diamond grinding method after being embedded in resin. Histological and histomorphometric analyses were performed to evaluate the bone regeneration ability and mechanism. The OCP showed significantly higher resorption and new bone formation in both periods analysed (p < 0.05). Overall, OCP bone substitutes can enhance bone regeneration significantly by activating osteoblasts and a rapid phase transition of OCP crystals to biological apatite crystals (mineralization), as well as providing additional space for new bone formation by rapid resorption. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility (Second Volume))
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21 pages, 6552 KiB  
Article
In Vivo Study of Osteochondral Defect Regeneration Using Innovative Composite Calcium Phosphate Biocement in a Sheep Model
by Lenka Kresakova, Jan Danko, Katarina Vdoviakova, Lubomir Medvecky, Zdenek Zert, Eva Petrovova, Maros Varga, Tatiana Spakovska, Jozef Pribula, Miroslav Gasparek, Maria Giretova, Radoslava Stulajterova, Filip Kolvek, Zuzana Andrejcakova, Veronika Simaiova, Marian Kadasi, Vladimir Vrabec, Teodor Toth and Vladimir Hura
Materials 2021, 14(16), 4471; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14164471 - 10 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2225
Abstract
This study aimed to clarify the therapeutic effect and regenerative potential of the novel, amino acids-enriched acellular biocement (CAL) based on calcium phosphate on osteochondral defects in sheep. Eighteen sheep were divided into three groups, the treated group (osteochondral defects filled with a [...] Read more.
This study aimed to clarify the therapeutic effect and regenerative potential of the novel, amino acids-enriched acellular biocement (CAL) based on calcium phosphate on osteochondral defects in sheep. Eighteen sheep were divided into three groups, the treated group (osteochondral defects filled with a CAL biomaterial), the treated group with a biocement without amino acids (C cement), and the untreated group (spontaneous healing). Cartilages of all three groups were compared with natural cartilage (negative control). After six months, sheep were evaluated by gross appearance, histological staining, immunohistochemical staining, histological scores, X-ray, micro-CT, and MRI. Treatment of osteochondral defects by CAL resulted in efficient articular cartilage regeneration, with a predominant structural and histological characteristic of hyaline cartilage, contrary to fibrocartilage, fibrous tissue or disordered mixed tissue on untreated defect (p < 0.001, modified O’Driscoll score). MRI results of treated defects showed well-integrated and regenerated cartilage with similar signal intensity, regularity of the articular surface, and cartilage thickness with respect to adjacent native cartilage. We have demonstrated that the use of new biocement represents an effective solution for the successful treatment of osteochondral defects in a sheep animal model, can induce an endogenous regeneration of cartilage in situ, and provides several benefits for the design of future therapies supporting osteochondral defect healing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility (Second Volume))
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Review

Jump to: Research

17 pages, 1152 KiB  
Review
Titanium Dental Implants: An Overview of Applied Nanobiotechnology to Improve Biocompatibility and Prevent Infections
by Rayane C. S. Silva, Almerinda Agrelli, Audrey N. Andrade, Carina L. Mendes-Marques, Isabel R. S. Arruda, Luzia R. L. Santos, Niedja F. Vasconcelos and Giovanna Machado
Materials 2022, 15(9), 3150; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15093150 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 6381
Abstract
This review addresses the different aspects of the use of titanium and its alloys in the production of dental implants, the most common causes of implant failures and the development of improved surfaces capable of stimulating osseointegration and guaranteeing the long-term success of [...] Read more.
This review addresses the different aspects of the use of titanium and its alloys in the production of dental implants, the most common causes of implant failures and the development of improved surfaces capable of stimulating osseointegration and guaranteeing the long-term success of dental implants. Titanium is the main material for the development of dental implants; despite this, different surface modifications are studied aiming to improve the osseointegration process. Nanoscale modifications and the bioactivation of surfaces with biological molecules can promote faster healing when compared to smooth surfaces. Recent studies have also pointed out that gradual changes in the implant, based on the microenvironment of insertion, are factors that may improve the integration of the implant with soft and bone tissues, preventing infections and osseointegration failures. In this context, the understanding that nanobiotechnological surface modifications in titanium dental implants improve the osseointegration process arouses interest in the development of new strategies, which is a highly relevant factor in the production of improved dental materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility (Second Volume))
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34 pages, 16225 KiB  
Review
The State of the Art and Prospects for Osteoimmunomodulatory Biomaterials
by Andreea-Mariana Negrescu and Anisoara Cimpean
Materials 2021, 14(6), 1357; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma14061357 - 11 Mar 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 3838
Abstract
The critical role of the immune system in host defense against foreign bodies and pathogens has been long recognized. With the introduction of a new field of research called osteoimmunology, the crosstalk between the immune and bone-forming cells has been studied more thoroughly, [...] Read more.
The critical role of the immune system in host defense against foreign bodies and pathogens has been long recognized. With the introduction of a new field of research called osteoimmunology, the crosstalk between the immune and bone-forming cells has been studied more thoroughly, leading to the conclusion that the two systems are intimately connected through various cytokines, signaling molecules, transcription factors and receptors. The host immune reaction triggered by biomaterial implantation determines the in vivo fate of the implant, either in new bone formation or in fibrous tissue encapsulation. The traditional biomaterial design consisted in fabricating inert biomaterials capable of stimulating osteogenesis; however, inconsistencies between the in vitro and in vivo results were reported. This led to a shift in the development of biomaterials towards implants with osteoimmunomodulatory properties. By endowing the orthopedic biomaterials with favorable osteoimmunomodulatory properties, a desired immune response can be triggered in order to obtain a proper bone regeneration process. In this context, various approaches, such as the modification of chemical/structural characteristics or the incorporation of bioactive molecules, have been employed in order to modulate the crosstalk with the immune cells. The current review provides an overview of recent developments in such applied strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility (Second Volume))
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