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Physical and Histological Comparison of Hydroxyapatite, Carbonate Apatite, and β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Substitutes

1
Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
2
Department of Oral Surgery, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University Graduate School, 3-18-15 Kuramotocho, Tokushima 770-8504, Japan
3
Section of Bioengineering, Department of Dental Engineering, Fukuoka Dental College, Fukuoka 814-0193, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Materials 2018, 11(10), 1993; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma11101993
Received: 28 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 11 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials and Implant Biocompatibility)
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Abstract

Three commercially available artificial bone substitutes with different compositions, hydroxyapatite (HAp; Neobone®), carbonate apatite (CO3Ap; Cytrans®), and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP; Cerasorb®), were compared with respect to their physical properties and tissue response to bone, using hybrid dogs. Both Neobone® (HAp) and Cerasorb® (β-TCP) were porous, whereas Cytrans® (CO3Ap) was dense. Crystallite size and specific surface area (SSA) of Neobone® (HAp), Cytrans® (CO3Ap), and Cerasorb® (β-TCP) were 75.4 ± 0.9 nm, 30.8 ± 0.8 nm, and 78.5 ± 7.5 nm, and 0.06 m2/g, 18.2 m2/g, and 1.0 m2/g, respectively. These values are consistent with the fact that both Neobone® (HAp) and Cerasorb® (β-TCP) are sintered ceramics, whereas Cytrans® (CO3Ap) is fabricated in aqueous solution. Dissolution in pH 5.3 solution mimicking Howship’s lacunae was fastest in CO3Ap (Cytrans®), whereas dissolution in pH 7.3 physiological solution was fastest in β-TCP (Cerasorb®). These results indicated that CO3Ap is stable under physiological conditions and is resorbed at Howship’s lacunae. Histological evaluation using hybrid dog mandible bone defect model revealed that new bone was formed from existing bone to the center of the bone defect when reconstructed with CO3Ap (Cytrans®) at week 4. The amount of bone increased at week 12, and resorption of the CO3Ap (Cytrans®) was confirmed. β-TCP (Cerasorb®) showed limited bone formation at week 4. However, a larger amount of bone was observed at week 12. Among these three bone substitutes, CO3Ap (Cytrans®) demonstrated the highest level of new bone formation. These results indicate the possibility that bone substitutes with compositions similar to that of bone may have properties similar to those of bone. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbonate apatite; hydroxyapatite; β-tricalcium phosphate; artificial bone substitute; crystallite size; dissolution rate; hybrid dog carbonate apatite; hydroxyapatite; β-tricalcium phosphate; artificial bone substitute; crystallite size; dissolution rate; hybrid dog
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Ishikawa, K.; Miyamoto, Y.; Tsuchiya, A.; Hayashi, K.; Tsuru, K.; Ohe, G. Physical and Histological Comparison of Hydroxyapatite, Carbonate Apatite, and β-Tricalcium Phosphate Bone Substitutes. Materials 2018, 11, 1993.

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