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Obtaining and Characterization of New Materials, Volume V

A special issue of Materials (ISSN 1996-1944). This special issue belongs to the section "Advanced Materials Characterization".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 20 December 2024 | Viewed by 2192

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

After our successful first four volumes Special Issue "Obtaining and Characterization of New Materials", we have decided to create the fourth volume, in order to collect and publish a series of state-of-the-art research in the field of new materials and their understanding.

This fourth volume of Special Issue, like the first three ones, covers a wide range of topics: obtaining and characterizing New Materials, from nano- to macro-scale, involving new alloys, ceramics, composites, biomaterials, polymers, as well as procedures and technologies for enhancing their structure, properties, and functions. In order to be able to select the future use of the new materials, we first must understand their structure, to know their characteristics, involving modern techniques such as microscopy (SEM, TEM, AFM, STM, etc.), spectroscopy (EDX, XRD, XRF, FTIR, XPS, etc.), mechanical tests (tensile, hardness, elastic modulus, toughness, etc.), and their behavior (corrosion, thermal—DSC, STA, DMA, magnetic properties, biocompatibility—in vitro and in vivo), among many others.

Dr. Andrei Victor Sandu
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Materials is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • new materials
  • surface analysis
  • structure analysis
  • chemical analysis
  • mechanical properties
  • behavior of materials
  • functionalization

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

14 pages, 1159 KiB  
Article
Structure of Polaronic Centers in Proton-Intercalated AWO4 Scheelite-Type Tungstates
by Georgijs Bakradze, Edmund Welter and Alexei Kuzmin
Materials 2024, 17(13), 3071; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17133071 - 22 Jun 2024
Viewed by 148
Abstract
The studies of polaronic centers in a homologous series of scheelite-type compounds AWO4 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) were performed using the W L3-edge and Sr K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with the reverse Monte Carlo simulations, X-ray photoelectron [...] Read more.
The studies of polaronic centers in a homologous series of scheelite-type compounds AWO4 (A = Ca, Sr, Ba) were performed using the W L3-edge and Sr K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy combined with the reverse Monte Carlo simulations, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and first-principles calculations. Protonated scheelites HxA O4 were produced using acid electrolytes in a one-step route at ambient conditions. The underlying mechanism behind this phenomenon can be ascribed to the intercalation of H+ into the crystal structure of tungstate, effectively resulting in the reduction of W6+ to W5+, i.e., the formation of polaronic centers, and giving rise to a characteristic dark blue-purple color. The emergence of the W5+ was confirmed by XPS experiments. The relaxation of the local atomic structure around the W5+ polaronic center was determined from the analysis of the extended X-ray absorption fine structures using the reverse Monte Carlo method. The results obtained suggest the displacement of the W5+ ions from the center of [W5+O4] tetrahedra in the structure of AWO4 scheelite-type tungstates. This finding was also supported by the results of the first-principles calculations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obtaining and Characterization of New Materials, Volume V)
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28 pages, 4517 KiB  
Article
Mobility of Zn and Cu in Bentonites: Implications for Environmental Remediation
by Edyta Nartowska, Anna Podlasek, Magdalena Daria Vaverková, Eugeniusz Koda, Aleksandra Jakimiuk, Robert Kowalik and Tomasz Kozłowski
Materials 2024, 17(12), 2957; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17122957 - 17 Jun 2024
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Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the mobility of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) and their impact on the properties of bentonites and unfrozen water content. Limited research in this area necessitates further analysis to prevent the negative effects of metal [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the mobility of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) and their impact on the properties of bentonites and unfrozen water content. Limited research in this area necessitates further analysis to prevent the negative effects of metal interactions on bentonite effectiveness. Tests involved American (SWy-3, Stx-1b) and Slovak (BSvk) bentonite samples with Zn or Cu ion exchange. Sequential extraction was performed using the Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) method. Elemental content was analyzed via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Unfrozen water content was measured using nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Results showed a significant influence of the main cation (Zn or Cu) on ion mobility, with toxic metal concentrations increasing mobility and decreasing residual fractions. Mobile Zn fractions increased with larger particle diameters, lower clay content, and shorter interplanar spacing, while the opposite was observed for Cu. Zn likely accumulated in larger clay pores, while Cu was immobilized in the bentonite complex. The stability of Zn or Cu ions increased with higher clay content or specific surface area. Residual Zn or Cu fractions were highest in uncontaminated bentonites with higher unfrozen water content, suggesting the potential formation of concentrated solutions in sub-zero temperatures, posing a threat to the clay–water environment, especially in cold regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obtaining and Characterization of New Materials, Volume V)
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15 pages, 2105 KiB  
Article
Additively-Manufactured Broadband Metamaterial-Based Luneburg Lens for Flexible Beam Scanning
by Xuanjing Li, Rui Feng, Quilin Tan, Jianjia Yi, Shixiong Wang, Feng He and Shah Nawaz Burokur
Materials 2024, 17(12), 2847; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17122847 - 11 Jun 2024
Viewed by 256
Abstract
Multi-beam microwave antennas have attracted enormous attention owing to their wide range of applications in communication systems. Here, we propose a broadband metamaterial-based multi-beam Luneburg lens-antenna with low polarization sensitivity. The lens is constructed from additively manufactured spherical layers, where the effective permittivity [...] Read more.
Multi-beam microwave antennas have attracted enormous attention owing to their wide range of applications in communication systems. Here, we propose a broadband metamaterial-based multi-beam Luneburg lens-antenna with low polarization sensitivity. The lens is constructed from additively manufactured spherical layers, where the effective permittivity of the constituting elements is obtained by adjusting the ratio of dielectric material to air. Flexible microstrip patch antennas operating at different frequencies are used as primary feeds illuminating the lens to validate the radiation features of the lens-antenna system. The proposed Luneburg lens-antenna achieves ±72° beam scanning angle over a broad frequency range spanning from 2 GHz to 8 GHz and presents a gain between 15.3 dBi and 22 dBi, suggesting potential applications in microwave- and millimeter-wave mobile communications, radar detection and remote sensing. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obtaining and Characterization of New Materials, Volume V)
12 pages, 2780 KiB  
Article
Vapor Pressure and Enthalpy of Vaporization of Guanidinium Methanesulfonate as a Phase Change Material for Thermal Energy Storage
by Wenrong Bi, Shijie Liu, Xing Rong, Guangjun Ma and Jiangshui Luo
Materials 2024, 17(11), 2582; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17112582 - 27 May 2024
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Abstract
This paper reports the vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization for a promising phase change material (PCM) guanidinium methanesulfonate ([Gdm][OMs]), which is a typical guanidinium organomonosulfonate that displays a lamellar crystalline architecture. [Gdm][OMs] was purified by recrystallization. The elemental analysis and infrared spectrum [...] Read more.
This paper reports the vapor pressure and enthalpy of vaporization for a promising phase change material (PCM) guanidinium methanesulfonate ([Gdm][OMs]), which is a typical guanidinium organomonosulfonate that displays a lamellar crystalline architecture. [Gdm][OMs] was purified by recrystallization. The elemental analysis and infrared spectrum of [Gdm][OMs] confirmed the purity and composition. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) also confirmed its high purity and showed a sharp and symmetrical endothermic melting peak with a melting point (Tm) of 207.6 °C and a specific latent heat of fusion of 183.0 J g−1. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) reveals its thermal stability over a wide temperature range, and yet three thermal events at higher temperatures of 351 °C, 447 °C, and 649 °C were associated with vaporization or decomposition. The vapor pressure was measured using the isothermogravimetric method from 220 °C to 300 °C. The Antoine equation was used to describe the temperature dependence of its vapor pressure, and the substance-dependent Antoine constants were obtained by non-linear regression. The enthalpy of vaporization (ΔvapH) was derived from the linear regression of the slopes associated with the linear temperature dependence of the rate of weight loss per unit area of vaporization. Hence, the temperature dependence of vapor pressures ln Pvap (Pa) = 10.99 − 344.58/(T (K) − 493.64) over the temperature range from 493.15 K to 573.15 K and the enthalpy of vaporization ΔvapH = 157.10 ± 20.10 kJ mol−1 at the arithmetic mean temperature of 240 °C were obtained from isothermogravimetric measurements using the Antoine equation and the Clausius–Clapeyron equation, respectively. The flammability test indicates that [Gdm][OMs] is non-flammable. Hence, [Gdm][OMs] enjoys very low volatility, high enthalpy of vaporization, and non-flammability in addition to its known advantages. This work thus offers data support, methodologies, and insights for the application of [Gdm][OMs] and other organic salts as PCMs in thermal energy storage and beyond. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obtaining and Characterization of New Materials, Volume V)
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24 pages, 33760 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Axial Profile of a Ceramic Grinding Wheel on Selected Roughness Parameters of Shaped Surfaces Obtained in the Grinding Process with a Dual-Tool Grinding Head
by Piotr Jaskólski, Marzena Sutowska, Wojciech Zawadka, Winfried Malorny, Krzysztof Rokosz and Krzysztof Nadolny
Materials 2024, 17(10), 2434; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17102434 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 450
Abstract
The use of CNC equipment that integrates several machining operations eliminates downtime due to changes in setup and clamping of workpieces in more than one machining device. A review of CNC equipment and tools known from the literature and from manufacturers’ offerings indicates [...] Read more.
The use of CNC equipment that integrates several machining operations eliminates downtime due to changes in setup and clamping of workpieces in more than one machining device. A review of CNC equipment and tools known from the literature and from manufacturers’ offerings indicates that new technical solutions are being developed to integrate two or more technological operations. However, these examples have numerous limitations and are mostly not suitable for machining surfaces with complex shapes. An example of such solutions is the use of a dual-tool grinding head, which integrates the process of rough grinding with a ceramic grinding wheel and finish grinding with a flexible grinding wheel. Unfortunately, it has the disadvantage of being limited by the angular shape of the ceramic grinding wheel, making it unable to adapt to the complex geometries of the shaped surfaces being ground. The need to overcome this limitation became the motivation for the research work described in this article. By means of experimental research, it was verified what effect the radial outline on the periphery of a ceramic grinding wheel realized by rough grinding would have on the surface roughness parameters obtained in the process of grinding shaped surfaces. For this purpose, grinding processes using a ceramic wheel with a conical and radial outline were compared. The result of the study was a summary of the surface roughness parameters Sa, St, Sq, Spk, Str, and Sds obtained after two-stage machining (rough and finish grinding). The obtained analysis results showed that changing the axial outline of the ceramic grinding wheel makes it possible to significantly expand the range of applications of the dual-tool head without negatively affecting the quality of the machined surface. Thus, such an improvement will make it possible to increase the applicability of the head by grinding shaped surfaces with a radial profile of curvature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obtaining and Characterization of New Materials, Volume V)
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19 pages, 13822 KiB  
Article
Two 3D Fractal-Based Approaches for Topographical Characterization: Richardson Patchwork versus Sdr
by François Berkmans, Julie Lemesle, Robin Guibert, Michał Wieczorowski, Christopher Brown and Maxence Bigerelle
Materials 2024, 17(10), 2386; https://doi.org/10.3390/ma17102386 - 16 May 2024
Viewed by 392
Abstract
Various methods exist for multiscale characterization of surface topographies, each offering unique insights and applications. The study focuses on fractal-based approaches, distinguishing themselves by leveraging fractals to analyze surface complexity. Specifically, the Richardson Patchwork method, used in the ASME B46.1 and ISO 25178 [...] Read more.
Various methods exist for multiscale characterization of surface topographies, each offering unique insights and applications. The study focuses on fractal-based approaches, distinguishing themselves by leveraging fractals to analyze surface complexity. Specifically, the Richardson Patchwork method, used in the ASME B46.1 and ISO 25178 standards, is compared to the Sdr parameter derived from ISO 25178-2, with a low-pass Gaussian filter for multiscale characterization. The comparison is performed from the relative area calculated on topographies of TA6V samples grit blasted with different pressures and blasting materials (media). The surfaces obtained by grit blasting have fractal-like characteristics over the scales studied, enabling the analysis of area development at multiple levels based on pressure and media. The relative area is similar for both methods, regardless of the complexity of the topographies. The relevance scale for each calculation method that significantly represents the effect of grit blasting pressure on the increased value of the relative area is a tiling of 7657.64 µm² of triangle area for the Patchwork method and a 124.6 µm cut-off for the low-pass Gaussian filter of the Sdr method. These results could facilitate a standard, friendly, new fractal method for multiscale characterization of the relative area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Obtaining and Characterization of New Materials, Volume V)
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