Advances in New Functional Biomaterials for Medical Applications

A special issue of Crystals (ISSN 2073-4352). This special issue belongs to the section "Hybrid and Composite Crystalline Materials".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (20 November 2023) | Viewed by 16310

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Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Technical University "Gheorghe Asachi" of Iasi, Iasi, Romania
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Dear Colleagues,

Biomaterials and devices fabricated from biomaterials have been used in healthcare applications since ancient times and significant improvements are being made on a daily basis, resulting in millions of lives being saved, and the quality of life improved for millions more. Biomaterials and the medical devices comprising them are now commonly used as prostheses in cardiovascular, orthopedic, dental, ophthalmological, and reconstructive surgery, and in other interventions, such as surgical sutures, bioadhesives, andcontrolled drug release devices.

The aim of this Special Issue is to present the latest experimental and theoretical achievements in the use of biomaterials in contemporary healthcare and the process of developing novel biomaterials. All advances in new functional biomaterials for medical applications and research, progress on metallic biomaterials (titanium alloys, cobalt alloys, magnesium alloys and stainless-steel alloys) are welcome to be published and shared, but not limited to natural and synthetic polymers and bio-inert and bioactive ceramics. Scientific and technological progress has been achieved on this topic by universities and research institutes, from leading research groups around the world. Biomaterials have revolutionized areas, such as bioengineering and tissue engineering for the development of novel strategies to combat life-threatening diseases, thus, improving the quality of life.  

In this Special Issue, original research articles and reviews are welcome. Research areas may include (but are not limited to) the following:

  • Synthesis, characterization, and applications of new biomaterials, tissue engineering, etc.;
  • Mechanical coating/alloying/treatment of metallic and non-metallic materials.

Dr. Madalina Simona Baltatu
Prof. Dr. Petrica Vizureanu
Dr. Andrei Victor Sandu
Guest Editors

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Crystals is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • new biomaterials
  • characterization
  • metallic biomaterials
  • bio interactive
  • resorbable biomaterials
  • controlled reactions

Published Papers (11 papers)

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Editorial

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5 pages, 170 KiB  
Editorial
Advances in New Functional Biomaterials for Medical Applications
by Madalina Simona Baltatu, Petrica Vizureanu and Andrei Victor Sandu
Crystals 2024, 14(4), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst14040334 - 31 Mar 2024
Viewed by 396
Abstract
In this Special Issue entitled “Advances in New Functional Biomaterials for Medical Applications”, we present a remarkable compilation of research that spans the innovative landscape of biomaterials tailored to enhance medical treatments, diagnostics, and tissue engineering [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in New Functional Biomaterials for Medical Applications)

Research

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11 pages, 1842 KiB  
Article
Magnesium-Substituted Brushite Cement: Physical and Mechanical Properties
by Sarah Fleck and Sahar Vahabzadeh
Crystals 2024, 14(3), 222; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst14030222 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 691
Abstract
Brushite cements (BrCs) are calcium phosphate-based materials that are being widely used in hard tissue engineering applications due to their osteoconductivity, injectability, and bioresorbability. Therefore, the goal was to evaluate the effects of Mg concentration on the phase composition, setting time, and strength [...] Read more.
Brushite cements (BrCs) are calcium phosphate-based materials that are being widely used in hard tissue engineering applications due to their osteoconductivity, injectability, and bioresorbability. Therefore, the goal was to evaluate the effects of Mg concentration on the phase composition, setting time, and strength of BrC. Mg, which plays a vital role in bodily functions and bone health, was added to BrC at concentrations of 0.25, 0.50, 1.00, 1.50, 2.00, and 2.50 wt.%. The results showed that Mg stabilizes the TCP structure and increases the TCP content in final BrC. The initial and final setting times of BrCs increase with higher concentrations of Mg. Although 0.25 wt.% Mg did not change the setting of BrCs significantly, a higher concentration of 1.00 wt.% increased the initial setting time from 4.87 ± 0.38 min to 15.14 ± 0.88 min. Cements with Mg concentrations of 1.5 wt.% and above did not set after 4 h. Mg addition up to 0.5 wt.% did not change the compressive strength; however, higher concentrations decreased it significantly and 2.5 Mg-BrC had the lowest strength of 0.45 ± 0.09 MPs. Together, our results show that Mg can be added up to 1.00 wt.% without any adverse effect on the physical and mechanical properties of BrC. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in New Functional Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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14 pages, 19117 KiB  
Article
Micro Arc Oxidation of Mechanically Alloyed Binary Zn-1X (X = Mg or Sr) Alloys
by Kamil Kowalski, Michał Drzewiecki and Mieczysław Jurczyk
Crystals 2023, 13(10), 1503; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13101503 - 16 Oct 2023
Viewed by 971
Abstract
The binary Zn-1wt.% X (X = Mg or Sr) alloys prepared by the application of mechanical alloying (MA) combined with powder metallurgy were modified by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment in the 2 g/dm3 KOH aqueous solution at 200 V for 1 min [...] Read more.
The binary Zn-1wt.% X (X = Mg or Sr) alloys prepared by the application of mechanical alloying (MA) combined with powder metallurgy were modified by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) treatment in the 2 g/dm3 KOH aqueous solution at 200 V for 1 min for the formation of the ZnO layer. The Zn-alloys, obtained through the powder metallurgy method, are characterized by a dispersive microstructure that significantly improves its microhardness up to 90.5 HV0.3 for the Zn-1wt.%Mg sample after 24 h of MA. In the case of Zn-1Mg alloy after 24 h of mechanical alloying, Zn-1Mg alloy after 48 h of mechanical alloying, and Zn-1Sr alloy after 48 h of mechanical alloying, except for the main αZn phase, the traces of a second phase are noticed: MgZn2 and SrZn13. After the proposed MAO treatment, a zinc oxide (ZnO) layer on the zinc alloys was formed, allowing a significant improvement in the corrosion resistance and surface wetting properties. The potential of the modified ZnO layer is moved to more noble values in the case of MAO-treated samples α-Zn, Zn-1Mg (after 24 h of MA), and Zn-1Sr (after 48 h of MA). The obtained results show a good prospective potential of Zn-1wt.% X (X = Mg or Sr) binary alloys in the application of biodegradable materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in New Functional Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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16 pages, 3310 KiB  
Article
Influence of Polymeric Blends on Bioceramics of Hydroxyapatite
by Eduardo da Silva Gomes, Antônia Millena de Oliveira Lima, Sílvia Rodrigues Gavinho, Manuel Pedro Fernandes Graça, Susana Devesa and Ana Angélica Mathias Macêdo
Crystals 2023, 13(10), 1429; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13101429 - 26 Sep 2023
Viewed by 589
Abstract
Bioceramics are used to repair, rebuild, and replace parts of the human body, e.g., bones, joints and teeth, in the form of powder, coatings or prostheses. The synthetic hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (HAP)] based on calcium phosphate has [...] Read more.
Bioceramics are used to repair, rebuild, and replace parts of the human body, e.g., bones, joints and teeth, in the form of powder, coatings or prostheses. The synthetic hydroxyapatite [Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 (HAP)] based on calcium phosphate has been widely used in the medical and dental areas due to the chemical similarity with the inorganic component of human bone tissue. In this work, hydroxyapatite nanocrystalline powders were synthesized by the solid-state reaction method and sintered with a galactomannan and chitosan blend. The bioceramics studied were prepared from 70%, 80% and 90% of hydroxyapatite with 30%, 20% and 10% of galactomannan and chitosan blends, respectively. The influence of the blend content on the bioceramics was investigated through structural, vibrational, thermal, morphological and dielectric characterizations. It was observed that the increase in the blend percentage promoted an increase in the grain size, which was followed by a decrease in the density and hardness of the samples. The sample with a higher amount of polymeric blend also presented a higher dielectric constant and higher losses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in New Functional Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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12 pages, 8872 KiB  
Article
An Investigation of In Vitro Bioactivities and Cytotoxicities of Spray Pyrolyzed Apatite Wollastonite Glass-Ceramics
by Andualem Belachew Workie, Henni Setia Ningsih, Wen-Ling Yeh and Shao-Ju Shih
Crystals 2023, 13(7), 1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13071049 - 02 Jul 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1055
Abstract
An apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic (AWGC) has been recognized as one of the popular bioactive materials due to its good osteoconductivity and high mechanical properties in the field of tissue engineering. Various processes have been developed to fabricate AWGCs. Among them, the sol-gel process [...] Read more.
An apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic (AWGC) has been recognized as one of the popular bioactive materials due to its good osteoconductivity and high mechanical properties in the field of tissue engineering. Various processes have been developed to fabricate AWGCs. Among them, the sol-gel process is one of the most popular processes. However, sol-gel has the drawbacks of discontinuous processing and long processing time, making it unsuitable for mass production. This study demonstrates a successful synthesis of AWGCs using a spray pyrolysis method to overcome these drawbacks, and the prepared pellets were sintered at temperatures of 700, 800, 900, 1000, and 1100 °C for four hours. In addition, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used to obtain the phase composition, morphology, and chemical information of AWGCs. For bioactive measurements, among these AWGC samples, the 1100 °C sintered sample reveals the highest bioactivity. The MTT result indicates that all AWGCs are not non-toxic to the MC3T3-E1 cells and increase the growth rate of MC3T3-E1 cells. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in New Functional Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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23 pages, 9508 KiB  
Article
Morphology Control of Hydroxyapatite as a Potential Reinforcement for Orthopedic Biomaterials: The Hydrothermal Process
by Piotr Szterner, Agnieszka Antosik, Joanna Pagacz and Paulina Tymowicz-Grzyb
Crystals 2023, 13(5), 793; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13050793 - 09 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) of different morphologies was prepared by the direct decomposition of calcium lactate pentahydrate chelates using dipotassium hydrogen phosphate under hydrothermal conditions. The proposed technique allows for precise control of the HAp crystals morphology and product purity, which are necessary for biomedical [...] Read more.
Hydroxyapatite (HAp) of different morphologies was prepared by the direct decomposition of calcium lactate pentahydrate chelates using dipotassium hydrogen phosphate under hydrothermal conditions. The proposed technique allows for precise control of the HAp crystals morphology and product purity, which are necessary for biomedical applications. The synthesis parameters such as reagent concentrations, pH, reaction time, temperature, pressure, and stirring rate were optimized in order to produce calcium phosphates (CaPs) ceramics with restricted morphologies and composition. As a result, we obtained hydroxyapatite in the form of whiskers, hexagonal rods, nano particles, flowers, and cylinders. The products were characterized according to their structure (FTIR and XRD), morphology (SEM), and functional properties, i.e., the specific surface area. The obtained results indicate that the reagent concentration and pH values have the greatest impact on the HAp properties; however, the proper combination of all the mentioned parameters should be considered when there is a need for a bioceramic with defined physicochemical properties and an appropriate morphology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in New Functional Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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16 pages, 6115 KiB  
Article
Hydroxyapatite-Barium Titanate Biocoatings Using Room Temperature Coblasting
by Inês J. G. Dias, A. Sofia Pádua, Eduardo A. Pires, João P. M. R. Borges, Jorge C. Silva and M. Carmo Lança
Crystals 2023, 13(4), 579; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13040579 - 28 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1209
Abstract
The use of orthopaedic and dental implants is expanding as a consequence of an ageing population and also due to illness or trauma in younger age groups. The implant must be biocompatible, bioactive and interact favourably with the recipient’s bone, as rapid osseointegration [...] Read more.
The use of orthopaedic and dental implants is expanding as a consequence of an ageing population and also due to illness or trauma in younger age groups. The implant must be biocompatible, bioactive and interact favourably with the recipient’s bone, as rapid osseointegration is key to success. In this work, Ti-6Al-4V plates were coated using the CoBlastTM technique, with hydroxyapatite (HAp) and HAp/BaTiO3 (barium titanate, BT) non-piezoelectric cubic nanopowders (HAp/cBT) and piezoelectric tetragonal micropowders (HAp/tBT). The addition of BT, a piezoelectric ceramic, is a strategy to accelerate osseointegration by using surface electric charges as cues for cells. For comparison with commercial coatings, plates were coated with HAp using the plasma spray technique. Using XRD and FTIR, both plasma spray and CoBlastTM coatings showed crystalline HAp and no presence of by-products. However, the XRD of the plasma-sprayed coatings revealed the presence of amorphous HAp. The average surface roughness was close to the coatings’ thickness (≈5 μm for CoBlastTM and ≈13 μm for plasma spray). Cytotoxicity assays proved that the coatings are biocompatible. Therefore, it can be concluded that for HAp-based coatings, CoBlastTM is a viable alternative to plasma spray, with the advantage of facilitating room temperature addition of other ceramics, like piezoelectric BaTiO3. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in New Functional Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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11 pages, 2741 KiB  
Article
Degradable Magnesium and Its Surface Modification as Tumor Embolic Agent for Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization
by Xinbao Kang, Yonggang Wang, Hongtao Li, Han Yu, Xiyue Zhang, Rui Zan, Wenhui Wang, Tao Wang and Xiaonong Zhang
Crystals 2023, 13(2), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13020194 - 22 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1261
Abstract
Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is an effective method for traditional cancer treatment. Currently, various embolic agents block the blood vessels in the TACE operation. In this paper, the feasibility of the degradable Mg applied for TACE was explored innovatively. The degradation behavior of [...] Read more.
Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) is an effective method for traditional cancer treatment. Currently, various embolic agents block the blood vessels in the TACE operation. In this paper, the feasibility of the degradable Mg applied for TACE was explored innovatively. The degradation behavior of Mg particles and PLLA modified Mg particles used as embolic agents in contrast media was studied. The morphology and corrosion products were also characterized. After two days of immersion, the pH of the contrast agent was increased to 9.79 and 10.28 by the PLLA-modified Mg particles and unmodified Mg, respectively. The results show that the surface-modified Mg particles with PLLA have an eligible degradation rate to release degradation products and form an acceptable microenvironment. It is feasible to be used as an embolic agent in TACE. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in New Functional Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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16 pages, 3580 KiB  
Article
Structural Characterization of Low-Sr-Doped Hydroxyapatite Obtained by Solid-State Synthesis
by Francesco Baldassarre, Angela Altomare, Ernesto Mesto, Maria Lacalamita, Bujar Dida, Altin Mele, Elvira Maria Bauer, Massimo Puzone, Emanuela Tempesta, Davide Capelli, Dritan Siliqi and Francesco Capitelli
Crystals 2023, 13(1), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13010117 - 09 Jan 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2406
Abstract
Strontium-substituted Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders, with Sr wt% concentrations of 2.5, 5.6 and 10%, were prepared by a solid-state synthesis method. The chemical composition of the samples was accurately evaluated by using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) [...] Read more.
Strontium-substituted Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders, with Sr wt% concentrations of 2.5, 5.6 and 10%, were prepared by a solid-state synthesis method. The chemical composition of the samples was accurately evaluated by using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy. The morphology of the samples was analyzed via optical microscopy, while structural characterization was achieved through powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The PXRD structural characterization showed the presence of the Sr dopant in the Ca1 structural site for HAp with a lower Sr concentration and in the Ca2 site for the sample with a higher Sr concentration. FTIR and Raman spectra showed slight band shifts and minor modifications of the (PO4) bands with increasing the Sr doping rate. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in New Functional Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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Review

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14 pages, 1824 KiB  
Review
Nanoscale MOF–Protein Composites for Theranostics
by Xiantai Zhou, Zhiying Zhong, Ning Xu and Shenghui Zhong
Crystals 2023, 13(8), 1229; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13081229 - 09 Aug 2023
Viewed by 889
Abstract
Nanoscale metal–organic frameworks (nMOFs) have gained increasingly more attention as attractive support materials in the immobilization and delivery of proteins for disease theranostics in recent years owing to their various advantages, such as large specific surface areas, well-ordered pore structures, aperture channel distributions, [...] Read more.
Nanoscale metal–organic frameworks (nMOFs) have gained increasingly more attention as attractive support materials in the immobilization and delivery of proteins for disease theranostics in recent years owing to their various advantages, such as large specific surface areas, well-ordered pore structures, aperture channel distributions, and ease of functionalization. Here, we present an overview of recent progress in nMOF–protein composites for disease theranostics. First, advantages and construction strategies of nMOF–protein composites as drug carriers are introduced. Then, therapeutic modalities and theranostic nanosystems based on nMOF–protein composites are reviewed. Next, we pay specific attention to their biosafety, biodistribution, and excretion in vivo. Finally, the challenges and limitations of nMOF–protein composites for biomedical applications are discussed, along with future perspectives in the field. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in New Functional Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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16 pages, 3286 KiB  
Review
Effects of Pore Size Parameters of Titanium Additively Manufactured Lattice Structures on the Osseointegration Process in Orthopedic Applications: A Comprehensive Review
by Rashwan Alkentar, Nikolaos Kladovasilakis, Dimitrios Tzetzis and Tamás Mankovits
Crystals 2023, 13(1), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/cryst13010113 - 07 Jan 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3578
Abstract
Architected materials are increasingly applied in form of lattice structures to biomedical implant design for the purpose of optimizing the implant’s biomechanical properties. Since the porous design of the lattice structures affects the resulting properties of the implant, its parameters are being investigated [...] Read more.
Architected materials are increasingly applied in form of lattice structures to biomedical implant design for the purpose of optimizing the implant’s biomechanical properties. Since the porous design of the lattice structures affects the resulting properties of the implant, its parameters are being investigated by numerous research articles. The design-related parameters of the unit cells for a strut-architected material are mainly the pore size and the strut thickness. Until today, researchers have not been able to decide on the perfect values of the unit cell parameters for the osseointegration process and tissue regeneration. Based on in vivo and in vitro experiments conducted in the field, researchers have suggested a range of values for the parameters of the lattice structures where osseointegration is in acceptable status. The present study presents a comprehensive review of the research carried out until today, experimenting and proposing the optimum unit cell parameters to generate the most suitable lattice structure for the osseointegration procedure presented in orthopedic applications. Additional recommendations, research gaps, and instructions to improve the selection process of the unit cell parameters are also discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in New Functional Biomaterials for Medical Applications)
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