E-Mail Alert

Add your e-mail address to receive forthcoming issues of this journal:

Journal Browser

Journal Browser

Topical Collection "Aging and Public Health"

Editors

Collection Editor
Prof. Dr. Matthew Lee Smith

Center for Population Health and Aging, Texas A&M University, 212 Adriance Lab Road, TAMU 1266, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Texas A&M School of Public Health, 212 Adriance Lab Road, TAMU 1266, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1-979-436-9518
Fax: +1-979-458-4264
Collection Editor
Prof. Dr. Marcia G. Ory

Center for Population Health and Aging, Texas A&M University, 212 Adriance Lab Road, TAMU 1266, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Strategic Partnerships and Initiatives, Texas A&M Health Science Center, College Station, TX 77843, USA Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Texas A&M School of Public Health, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1-979-458-1373
Fax: +1-979-458-4264

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the world-wide growth of the older adult population, there is increased concern about the impact of aging-related consequences on health and healthcare utilization. While individuals can encounter many problems as they age, two of the most pressing issues facing older adults are falls and chronic disease. The direct and indirect costs of these public health issues are enormous and growing. Many of the known risks for falls are associated with inadequate disease management (e.g., physical activity, medication, communication with healthcare providers), which makes strategies to address these issues highly interrelated. Over the past decade, there has been an emergence of large initiatives to reduce the burden of falls and chronic conditions that draw upon evidence-based programs (EBP) and practices in community, clinical, and industry settings. Often these efforts are translational in nature and integrate technology. Additional research is needed to document the reach and effectiveness of these interventions and advance their implementation, dissemination, and sustainability. 

This Topical Collection features a spectrum of articles about health among older adults. Articles being solicited include those that address: (1) health-related risk factors; (2) physical, mental, and social aspects of health and well-being; (3) interventions and programs influencing health status, functioning, and quality of life; and (4) strategies to engage older adults in healthy behaviors, enhance the delivery of EBP, develop infrastructure and networks to support healthy aging. 

This Topical Collection will advance healthy aging by contributing to what is known about health risk among older adults and opportunities to promote population health and aging. Further, this Topical Collection will inform practice, policy, and research needed to develop and nurture systems of support for evidence-based programs and strategies.

Prof. Dr. Matthew Lee Smith
Prof. Dr. Marcia G. Ory
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Aging
  • Public health
  • Behavioral intervention
  • Fall prevention
  • Physical activity
  • Mental health
  • Medication management
  • Aging-in-place
  • Built environment
  • Technology
  • Translational research
  • Dissemination
  • Implementation
  • Evidence-based programs
  • Quality of life
  • Chronic disease management

Published Papers (42 papers)

2019

Jump to: 2018, 2017

Open AccessArticle Rural-Urban Variation in Weight Loss Recommendations Among US Older Adults with Arthritis and Obesity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(6), 946; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16060946
Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 13 March 2019 / Published: 16 March 2019
PDF Full-text (281 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Purpose: Weight loss is advantageous for individuals with obesity and arthritis. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine if there are differences by rural-urban status among older adults with these conditions who reported being advised by a health care provider to lose [...] Read more.
Purpose: Weight loss is advantageous for individuals with obesity and arthritis. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine if there are differences by rural-urban status among older adults with these conditions who reported being advised by a health care provider to lose weight for arthritis or to ameliorate arthritis symptoms. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis of 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data. Respondents reported if they had been diagnosed with arthritis and if they received a provider weight loss recommendation (WLR). The analytic sample was limited to older adults aged 60–79 living in the five states that administered the examined BRFSS arthritis module who had body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m2 and reported having arthritis (n = 2920). The respondent’s county of residence was linked to the corresponding county-level population density from the US Decennial Census to determine rural-urban status. A generalized linear model examined the association between receipt of a WLR and population density, controlling for demographics. Results: The sample was 83.6% white, 57.8% female, and 63.2% received a WLR. Respondents from more urban counties were more likely to receive a WLR (p value for trend <0.001). Additionally, older respondents, men, individuals with less than a high school education, and whites had a decreased likelihood of receiving a WLR. Conclusions: The analysis identified notable rural-urban differences with respondents in more urban counties being more likely to receive a WLR. Furthermore, there were differences in those who received a WLR by age, sex, and education. Reasons for these differences should be explored. Full article
Open AccessArticle What Matters Most for Community Social Capital among Older Adults Living in Urban China: The Role of Health and Family Social Capital
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 558; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040558
Received: 25 December 2018 / Revised: 7 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 15 February 2019
PDF Full-text (462 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study investigated individual-level determinants of community social capital among older adults in urban China, with a particular emphasis on health and family social capital. A quota sampling method was used to select 456 adults aged 60 or older from 16 local [...] Read more.
The present study investigated individual-level determinants of community social capital among older adults in urban China, with a particular emphasis on health and family social capital. A quota sampling method was used to select 456 adults aged 60 or older from 16 local communities in the city of Suzhou in 2015. Multiple indicators and multiple courses in structural equation modeling were used to examine the proposed model. Latent constructs of community social capital (i.e., cognitive social capital and structural social capital) were established. The results showed that family social capital and instrumental activities of daily living were the most influential determinants of cognitive social capital, whereas activities of daily living and socioeconomic status were the most important determinants of structural social capital. We demonstrate the application of social capital theory in an urban Chinese context. Future policy development and social work interventions should use a more comprehensive social capital latent constructs and health indicators as screening instruments. The promotion of family social capital could play an important role in enhancing cognitive social capital among older adults. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Denture Wearing Moderates the Association between Aspiration Risk and Incident Pneumonia in Older Nursing Home Residents: A Prospective Cohort Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(4), 554; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16040554
Received: 18 January 2019 / Revised: 9 February 2019 / Accepted: 13 February 2019 / Published: 14 February 2019
PDF Full-text (467 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Aspiration is increasingly recognized as a major risk for pneumonia, but a potential link between wearing dentures and incident pneumonia with aspiration risk is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether denture wearing moderates the association between aspiration risk and [...] Read more.
Aspiration is increasingly recognized as a major risk for pneumonia, but a potential link between wearing dentures and incident pneumonia with aspiration risk is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether denture wearing moderates the association between aspiration risk and incident pneumonia in older adults. We used prospective cohort data of 156 residents aged >70 years from eight nursing homes in Aso, Japan. Aspiration risk was evaluated using the modified water swallowing test. During a 1-year follow-up (2014 to 2015), information on incident pneumonia was obtained from nursing home medical records. During follow-up, pneumonia developed in 7.1% of participants. In the multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards model, after adjusting for potential confounders, aspiration risk was independently associated with a 4.4-fold higher hazard ratio (HR) of incident pneumonia (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.16–16.43). The difference in the risk of incident pneumonia between subjects with aspiration risk who were wearing dentures and those not at risk of aspiration was not significant, whereas those with aspiration risk without dentures had a 7.3-fold higher HR of incident pneumonia than those not at risk of aspiration (95% CI, 1.02–52.63). Denture wearing might partially moderate the increased risk of incident pneumonia associated with aspiration risk. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Study on Lifestyle Evaluation Systems for the Health of Chinese Elderly
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020284
Received: 21 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 16 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
PDF Full-text (314 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background/Objective: China is now faced with a serious population aging challenge, and the health of the Chinese elderly is becoming an imminent concern. Consequently, it is critical to establish a lifestyle evaluation system for promoting the health of the Chinese elderly. Methods [...] Read more.
Background/Objective: China is now faced with a serious population aging challenge, and the health of the Chinese elderly is becoming an imminent concern. Consequently, it is critical to establish a lifestyle evaluation system for promoting the health of the Chinese elderly. Methods: Interviews with experts and questionnaire surveys were conducted. Factor analysis, analytic hierarchy process, and statistical analyses were also adopted in this study. Results: Besides evaluation metrics and standards, a two-level category system including 50 indices and associated weights from three level 1 categories (physical and mental health and social wellbeing) and thirteen level 2 categories were obtained. Discussion and Conclusions: Based on the confirmatory factor analysis and Cronbach’s test, such an evaluation system excels in effectiveness and reliability, and is ready to be popularized in Chinese society. We expect that the Chinese elderly will benefit from our system and that it will lead to a healthy lifestyle accordingly. Full article
Open AccessArticle Social Engagement and Elderly Health in China: Evidence from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 278; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020278
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 13 January 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2019 / Published: 18 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (539 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study examines the impact of social engagement on elderly health in China. A two-stage residual inclusion (2SRI) regression approach was used to examine the causal relationship. Our dataset comprises 9253 people aged 60 or above from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal [...] Read more.
This study examines the impact of social engagement on elderly health in China. A two-stage residual inclusion (2SRI) regression approach was used to examine the causal relationship. Our dataset comprises 9253 people aged 60 or above from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Survey (CHARLS) conducted in 2011 and 2013. Social engagement significantly improved the self-rated health of the elderly and reduced mental distress, but had no effect on chronic disease status. Compared with the rural areas, social engagement played a more important role in promoting the elderly health status in urban areas. Social engagement could affect the health status of the elderly through health behavior change and access to health resources. To improve the health of the elderly in China and promote healthy aging, the government should not only improve access to effective medical care but also encourage greater social engagement of the elderly. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Association between Social Support and Incident Dementia: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study in Japan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(2), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16020239
Received: 26 December 2018 / Revised: 11 January 2019 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 16 January 2019
PDF Full-text (294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Social support is important for the health of elderly populations. However, its longitudinal effect on incident dementia is unclear. We used the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES) project data to investigate the longitudinal effect of social support on dementia onset. Functionally independent older [...] Read more.
Social support is important for the health of elderly populations. However, its longitudinal effect on incident dementia is unclear. We used the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES) project data to investigate the longitudinal effect of social support on dementia onset. Functionally independent older people at baseline (n = 14,088) in 10 municipalities were followed from 2003 to 2013 using National Long-term Care Insurance System data. Social support was assessed by the following support sources: co-residing family, family or relatives living apart, and friends or neighbors. Cumulative incidence of dementia was 14.6% and 18.7% for men and women, respectively. Cox proportional hazard models were employed by gender to investigate the association between social support and dementia onset adjusting for age, health status, health behaviors, subjective cognitive complaints, depression, and other socioeconomic factors. Gender differences were observed in the association between social support and incident dementia. Support from co-residing family members was protective among men, whereas among women, no effect of social support on dementia was observed. Among other social factors, community engagement was protective for women, while for men, being married was associated with lower incidence of dementia. The association between social support and dementia seems to differ by gender. When we design programs to promote social interactions among the elderly, we need to take into account such gender differences. Full article
Open AccessArticle Waist Circumference and All-Cause Mortality among Older Adults in Rural Indonesia
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010116
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
PDF Full-text (1294 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Waist circumference, a measure of abdominal obesity, is associated with all-cause mortality in general adult population. However, the link between abdominal obesity with all-cause mortality in the studies of older adults is unclear. This study aims to determine the association between waist circumference [...] Read more.
Waist circumference, a measure of abdominal obesity, is associated with all-cause mortality in general adult population. However, the link between abdominal obesity with all-cause mortality in the studies of older adults is unclear. This study aims to determine the association between waist circumference and all-cause mortality in older adults in Indonesia. The association between waist circumference and all-cause mortality was examined in 10,997 men and women aged 50 years and older, in the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Network of field sites for continuous Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health in developing countries (INDEPTH) collaboration Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) in Purworejo District Central Java, Indonesia during 2007–2010. Multivariate Cox regression analysis with restricted cubic splines was used to assess the non-linear association between waist circumference and all-cause mortality. During the 3-year follow-up, a total of 511 men and 470 women died. The hazard ratio plot shows a pattern of U-shape relationship between waist circumference and all-cause mortality among rich women, though the result was significant only for women in the lower end of waist circumference distribution (p < 0.05). Poor men with a low waist circumference (5th percentile) have a two times higher mortality risk (HR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.3, 3.3) relative to those with a waist circumference of 90 cm. Poor women with a low waist circumference (25th percentile) have a 1.4 times higher mortality risk (HR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.8) relative to those with a waist circumference of 80 cm. This study shows a significant association between low waist circumference measure and mortality, particularly among poor men and women. Though the association between large waist circumference and mortality was not significant, we observed a trend of higher mortality risk particularly among rich women with large waist circumference measure. Public health intervention should include efforts to improve nutritional status among older people and promoting healthy lifestyle behaviours including healthy food and active lifestyle. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Health Management Program for the Elderly on Health-Related Quality of Life among Elderly People in China: Findings from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010113
Received: 16 November 2018 / Revised: 28 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
PDF Full-text (606 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
The world’s rapidly aging population brings serious challenges which could be addressed by changes in behaviour and policy that promote good health in older age. However, these cheap and simple interventions are not available in many countries. China is one of the fastest-ageing [...] Read more.
The world’s rapidly aging population brings serious challenges which could be addressed by changes in behaviour and policy that promote good health in older age. However, these cheap and simple interventions are not available in many countries. China is one of the fastest-ageing countries in the world. The health management programs for the elderly in basic public health services was introduced by the government to promote the health of the elderly in China and address the challenges related to ageing. However, the effectiveness of the program is uncertain. So, we use a propensity score matching difference-in-difference (PSM-DID) model to analyse the causal effect of the health management program for the elderly in basic public health services on the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of the elderly in China. The result shows that the program has improved the physical health of the elderly but has had no significant impact on mental health. Expanding the program to cover mental health could further benefit the HRQoL of the elderly. The program is a cost-effective approach to tackle the challenges of ageing and is a good example for other developing countries facing the same ageing challenges. Full article
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessArticle Gender Differences in the Prevalence and Correlates of Elder Abuse in a Community-Dwelling Older Population in Korea
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010100
Received: 9 December 2018 / Revised: 25 December 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 1 January 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (316 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: We examined gender differences in the prevalence estimates and correlates of elder abuse in a community-dwelling older population in Korea. Methods: We analyzed responses from the Living Profiles of Older People Survey (LPOPS), which comprises a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized Korean [...] Read more.
Background: We examined gender differences in the prevalence estimates and correlates of elder abuse in a community-dwelling older population in Korea. Methods: We analyzed responses from the Living Profiles of Older People Survey (LPOPS), which comprises a nationally representative sample of non-institutionalized Korean older adults living in the community. A total of 10,184 older persons (4179 men and 6005 women) were included in the analysis. Results: The overall rate of elder abuse was 9.9%, and emotional elder abuse was the most frequent type. Of the men and women subjects, 8.8 and 10.6%, respectively, had experienced elder abuse. We observed significant gender differences in the correlates of elder abuse. Educational attainment was significantly associated with elder abuse in men but not in women. Poor self-rated health was significantly associated with elder abuse in women but not in men. Household income and relationship with children were significantly associated with elder abuse in both men and women. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the factors that make elderly persons vulnerable to elder abuse may differ by gender. A better understanding of the risk factors for elder abuse across genders will facilitate the development of elder abuse prevention strategies, practices, and policies. Full article

2018

Jump to: 2019, 2017

Open AccessArticle A Data-Driven Assessment of the Metabolic Syndrome Criteria for Adult Health Management in Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010092
Received: 15 October 2018 / Revised: 21 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 31 December 2018
PDF Full-text (1190 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
According to the modified Adult Treatment Panel III, five indices are used to define metabolic syndrome (MetS): waist circumference (WC), high blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Our work evaluates the importance of these indices. In addition, we attempted [...] Read more.
According to the modified Adult Treatment Panel III, five indices are used to define metabolic syndrome (MetS): waist circumference (WC), high blood pressure, fasting glucose, triglycerides (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Our work evaluates the importance of these indices. In addition, we attempted to identify whether trends and patterns existed among young, middle-aged, and older people. Following the analysis, a decision tree algorithm was used to analyze the importance of the five criteria for MetS because the algorithm in question selects the attribute with the highest information gain as the split node. The most important indices are located on the top of the tree, indicating that these indices can effectively distinguish data in a binary tree and the importance of this criterion. That is, the decision tree algorithm specifies the priority of the influence factors. The decision tree algorithm examined four of the five indices because one was excluded. Moreover, the tree structures differed among the three age groups. For example, the first key index for middle-aged and older people was TG whereas for younger people it was WC. Furthermore, the order of the second to fourth indices differed among the groups. Because the key index was identified for each age group, researchers and practitioners could provide different health care strategies for individuals based on age. High-risk middle-aged and healthy older people maintained low values of TG, which might be the most crucial index. When a person can avoid the first and second indices provided by the decision tree, they are at lower risk of MetS. Therefore, this paper provides a data-driven guideline for MetS prevention. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Factors Associated with Discharge to a Skilled Nursing Facility after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Surgery
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010073
Received: 11 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 25 December 2018 / Published: 28 December 2018
PDF Full-text (297 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An assumption regarding transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), a minimally invasive procedure for treating aortic stenosis, is that patients remain at, or near baseline and soon return to their presurgical home to resume activities of daily living. However, this does not consistently occur. [...] Read more.
An assumption regarding transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), a minimally invasive procedure for treating aortic stenosis, is that patients remain at, or near baseline and soon return to their presurgical home to resume activities of daily living. However, this does not consistently occur. The purpose of this study was to identify preoperative factors that optimally predict discharge to a skilled nursing facility (SNF) after TAVR. Delineation of these conditions is an important step in developing a risk stratification model to assist in making informed decisions. Data was extracted from the American College of Cardiology (ACC) transcatheter valve therapy (TVT) registry and the Society of Thoracic Surgeons (STS) database on 285 patients discharged from 2012–2017 at a tertiary referral heart institute located in the southeastern region of the United States. An analysis of assessment, clinical and demographic variables was used to estimate relative risk (RR) of discharge to a SNF. The majority of participants were female (55%) and white (84%), with a median age of 82 years (interquartile range = 9). Approximately 27% (n = 77) were discharged to a SNF. Age > 75 years (RR = 2.3, p = 0.0026), female (RR = 1.6, p = 0.019), 5-meter walk test (5MWT) >7 s (RR = 2.0, p = 0.0002) and not using home oxygen (RR = 2.9, p = 0.0084) were identified as independent predictive factors for discharge to a SNF. We report a parsimonious risk-stratification model that estimates the probability of being discharged to a SNF following TAVR. Our findings will facilitate making informed treatment decisions regarding this older patient population. Full article
Open AccessArticle Gender Differences in Quality of Life and Health Services Utilization among Elderly People in Rural Vietnam
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010069
Received: 13 November 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 18 December 2018 / Published: 28 December 2018
PDF Full-text (327 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As in much of the world, the elderly population in Vietnam is growing rapidly with two-thirds of them currently living in rural areas. Besides limited access to quality healthcare services, they also have unique health profiles and needs due to various factors, including [...] Read more.
As in much of the world, the elderly population in Vietnam is growing rapidly with two-thirds of them currently living in rural areas. Besides limited access to quality healthcare services, they also have unique health profiles and needs due to various factors, including the highly skewed sex ratio of more women residing in rural areas. However, the relationship between gender, health-seeking behaviors, and health outcomes in this under-served population has not been well characterized. This study sought to explore the associations of gender with health-related quality of life and health-seeking behavior among the elderly in Soc Son, a rural district of Hanoi, Vietnam. A cross-sectional design was used; elderly individuals were surveyed across the domains of socioeconomic information, health status, and healthcare service utilization. We found that overall, women had poorer health and quality of life even though gender difference did not appear to significantly influence their levels of health services utilization. A greater understanding of the systemic, sociocultural, and psychological factors underlying such differences may help better inform future healthcare service delivery strategies targeting this growing population in rural areas. Full article
Open AccessArticle Relationship between the Well-Being of Elderly Men and Cohabiting with Women Who Have Had Experience as a Health Promotion Volunteer in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010065
Received: 7 November 2018 / Revised: 15 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 27 December 2018
PDF Full-text (467 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In Japan, there are traditionally many health promotion volunteer activities. However, the effects these activities have on the volunteers’ families are not clear. This study examined whether the well-being of Japanese elderly men was affected by cohabiting with women who have had experience [...] Read more.
In Japan, there are traditionally many health promotion volunteer activities. However, the effects these activities have on the volunteers’ families are not clear. This study examined whether the well-being of Japanese elderly men was affected by cohabiting with women who have had experience as a health promotion volunteer. The study area was Suzaka City, where more than 7500 women have been elected and served as health promotion volunteers for over 60 years. A cross-sectional survey targeting all residents aged 65 years or over was conducted in 2014 using a self-administered questionnaire and 10,758 (77.7%) residents participated. Of those, married men who lived with married women were analyzed (n = 2370). Functional capacity and depressive symptoms were analyzed as outcomes respectively. Of the 2370 men, 1434 (60.5%) lived with women who had experience as a health promotion volunteer in the past. Modified Poisson regression analysis adjusting for covariates showed that living with women who had this experience was inversely associated with depressive symptoms (adjusted Prevalence Ratio; 0.84, 95% Confidence Interval; 0.73–0.97), but not with low functional capacity. These results suggest that living with women who had the experience as health promotion volunteer might affect depressive symptoms of elderly men. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Shifts in Traditional Methods of Coping Among Elderly Bedouin Men
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 4; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010004
Received: 1 November 2018 / Revised: 14 December 2018 / Accepted: 16 December 2018 / Published: 20 December 2018
PDF Full-text (309 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Elderly Bedouin men in southern Israel are a unique traditional population living in remote unrecognized villages and experiencing rapid social transition, in addition to deep poverty and political tension. In this study, we aimed to explore stressful events, as self-defined by the participants, [...] Read more.
Elderly Bedouin men in southern Israel are a unique traditional population living in remote unrecognized villages and experiencing rapid social transition, in addition to deep poverty and political tension. In this study, we aimed to explore stressful events, as self-defined by the participants, and the ways in which these men have coped with those stressful events. This study involved 12 men, aged 69–74, who participated in in-depth narrative interviews during which they were asked about transformative stressful events in their lives and how they had managed, understood, and utilized human capital, meaning-making, and other methods of coping. Analysis of the interviews revealed several themes: (a) the definition of stressful events within the cultural context, (b) the use of human capital to overcome those events, (c) the transformation of experience from hindsight into a didactic narrative that can be used to assign meaning to past events, which can then be passed on to the next generation, and (d) cultural transition as a catalyst for the creation of new understandings of events. This paper sheds new light on how elderly indigenous Bedouin men self-define stressful situations within a complex and unstable cultural context. This specific context, can help us to gain insight into how indigenous impoverished older men in similar contexts may self-define their stress and coping, based on the types of generalization accepted in qualitative research. The methodological contribution of this work lies in its use of narrative to culturally contextualize phenomenological meaning structures. Its theoretical contribution lies in its examination of the concept of stress within a specific cultural context. Full article
Open AccessArticle Delivery of Fall Prevention Interventions for At-Risk Older Adults in Rural Areas: Findings from a National Dissemination
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2798; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122798
Received: 16 September 2018 / Revised: 10 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 10 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1787 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Falls incidence rates and associated injuries are projected to increase among rural-dwelling older adults, which highlights the need for effective interventions to prevent falls and manage fall-related risks. The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify the geospatial dissemination of eight evidence-based [...] Read more.
Falls incidence rates and associated injuries are projected to increase among rural-dwelling older adults, which highlights the need for effective interventions to prevent falls and manage fall-related risks. The purpose of this descriptive study was to identify the geospatial dissemination of eight evidence-based fall prevention programs (e.g., A Matter of Balance, Stepping On, Tai Chi, Otago Exercise Program) across the United States (U.S.) in terms of participants enrolled, workshops delivered, and geospatial reach. These dissemination characteristics were compared across three rurality designations (i.e., metro areas; non-metro areas adjacent to metro areas; and, non-metro areas not adjacent to metro areas). Data were analyzed from a national repository of 39 Administration for Community Living (ACL) grantees from 2014–2017 (spanning 22 states). Descriptive statistics were used to assess program reach, delivery-site type, and completion rate by rurality. Geographic information systems (GIS) geospatially represented the collective reach of the eight interventions. Of the 45,812 participants who attended a fall prevention program, 12.7% attended workshops in non-metro adjacent areas and 6.6% attended workshops in non-metro non-adjacent areas. Of the 3755 workshops delivered (in over 550 unique counties), most were delivered in senior centers (26%), residential facilities (20%), healthcare organizations (13%), and faith-based organizations (9%). On average, the workshop attendance/retention rates were consistent across rurality (~70%). Findings highlight the need to diversify the delivery infrastructure for fall prevention programs to adequately serve older adults in rural areas. Ongoing efforts are needed to offer sustainable technical assistance and to develop scalable clinical-community referral systems to increase fall prevention program participation among rural-dwelling older adults. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Gender Differences in the Impact of Cognitive Function on Health Literacy among Older Adults with Heart Failure
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2711; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122711
Received: 19 November 2018 / Revised: 26 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 1 December 2018
PDF Full-text (319 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Heart failure (HF)-related cognitive decline is a common condition and may be associated with health literacy. However, gender differences in this context have not been explored fully. This secondary data analysis aimed to identify gender differences in the impact of cognitive function on [...] Read more.
Heart failure (HF)-related cognitive decline is a common condition and may be associated with health literacy. However, gender differences in this context have not been explored fully. This secondary data analysis aimed to identify gender differences in the impact of cognitive function on health literacy among older patients with HF. A total of 135 patients (75 men and 60 women) with a mean age of 73.01 ± 6.45 years were recruited. Older women with HF had higher cognitive impairment (15%) and inadequate health literacy (56.7%) compared to men. Cognitive function was the strongest predictor of health literacy in men (β = 3.668, p < 0.001) and women (β = 2.926, p = 0.004). Notably elderly women are likely to face double the burden of the influence of cognitive function on health literacy in comparison with men. It is necessary to assess cognitive function and health literacy during HF illness trajectories on a regular basis. Healthcare professionals working with patients with HF should be aware of gender differences in cognitive function and health literacy and the importance of assessing these factors. Full article
Open AccessArticle Correlates of Mild Cognitive Impairment of Community-Dwelling Older Adults in Wuhan, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2705; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122705
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 25 November 2018 / Accepted: 28 November 2018 / Published: 30 November 2018
PDF Full-text (336 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an early stage of Alzheimer’s disease or other forms of dementia that occurs mainly in older adults. The MCI phase could be considered as an observational period for the secondary prevention of dementia. This study aims to assess [...] Read more.
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an early stage of Alzheimer’s disease or other forms of dementia that occurs mainly in older adults. The MCI phase could be considered as an observational period for the secondary prevention of dementia. This study aims to assess potential differences in the risk of MCI among different elderly groups in Wuhan, China, and to further identify the most vulnerable populations using logistic regression models. A total of 622 older adults participated in this study, and the prevalence of MCI was 34.1%. We found that individuals aged 80–84 (odds ratio, OR = 1.908, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 1.026 to 3.549) or above (OR = 2.529, 95% CI 1.249 to 5.122), and those with two chronic diseases (OR = 1.982, 95% CI 1.153 to 3.407) or more (OR = 2.466, 95% CI 1.419 to 4.286) were more likely to be diagnosed with MCI. Those with high school degrees (OR = 0.451, 95% CI 0.230 to 0.883) or above (OR = 0.318, 95% CI 0.129 to 0.783) and those with a family per-capita monthly income of 3001–4500 yuan (OR = 0.320, 95% CI 0.137 to 0.750) or above (OR = 0.335, 95% CI 0.135 to 0.830) were less likely to experience MCI. The results also showed that those aged 80 or above were more likely to present with cognitive decline and/or reduced activities of daily living (ADL) function, with the odds ratios being 1.874 and 3.782, respectively. Individuals with two, or three or more chronic diseases were more likely to experience cognitive decline and/or reduced ADL function, with odds ratios of 2.423 and 2.631, respectively. Increased risk of suffering from either MCI and/or decline in ADL functioning is strongly positively associated with older age, lower educational levels, poorer family economic status, and multiple chronic diseases. Our findings highlight that the local, regional, and even national specific MCI-related health promotion measures and interventions must target these vulnerable populations. Full article
Open AccessArticle Associations between Body Mass Index and Subjective Health Outcomes among Older Adults: Findings from the Yilan Study, Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(12), 2645; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15122645
Received: 1 September 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 19 November 2018 / Published: 26 November 2018
PDF Full-text (497 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous findings on the associations between body mass index (BMI) and subjective health outcomes among older adults are inconsistent. The aims of this study were to explore the associations of BMI with health-related quality of life (HRQoL), self-rated health (SRH) and happiness among [...] Read more.
Previous findings on the associations between body mass index (BMI) and subjective health outcomes among older adults are inconsistent. The aims of this study were to explore the associations of BMI with health-related quality of life (HRQoL), self-rated health (SRH) and happiness among older adults. This study was part of the Yilan study, which was a community-based survey conducted in the Yilan city in Taiwan. A total of 3722 older adults were randomly recruited during 2012–2016. HRQoL was measured using the Short Form-12 Health Survey physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores and SRH and happiness were also evaluated. By hierarchical regression, after adjusting for covariates, compared with normal-weight participants, overweight did not have significantly different PCS scores (B = 0.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.45 to 0.85, p = 0.546) but obese had significantly lower PCS scores (B = −0.97, 95% CI: −1.68 to −0.26, p < 0.0001); overweight and obese participants had significantly better MCS scores (B = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.40 to 1.61, p = 0.001 and B = 1.22, 95% CI: 0.60 to 1.88, p < 0.0001, respectively); overweight participants had significantly higher SRH scores (B = 1.08, 95% CI: 0.16 to 2.00, p = 0.022) but underweight had significantly lower SRH scores (B = −2.88, 95% CI: −4.81 to −0.95, p = 0.003); overweight and obese participants had better happiness scores (B = 1.55, 95% CI: 0.45 to 2.66, p = 0.006 and B = 1.68, 95% CI: 0.49 to 2.88, p = 0.006, respectively). In conclusion, compared with normal-weight individuals, overweight individuals had better mental HRQoL, SRH and happiness but underweight older people reported poorer SRH and obese reported poorer physical HRQOL but better mental HRQoL and self-rated happiness. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Effectiveness of Home Services in Taiwan: A People-Centered Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2605; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112605
Received: 4 October 2018 / Revised: 14 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
PDF Full-text (309 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Among available home and community-based services in Taiwan, there should be a focus on providing people with people-centered, value-based services. This study aims to follow up the people-centered health outcomes of care recipients and to examine the factors associated with to feedback for [...] Read more.
Among available home and community-based services in Taiwan, there should be a focus on providing people with people-centered, value-based services. This study aims to follow up the people-centered health outcomes of care recipients and to examine the factors associated with to feedback for policy and practice in long-term care. A total of 9889 persons from the long-term care dataset were followed up for two years (T0–T4). The Cox Proportional Hazard Regression analyses to analyze mortality and the mixed effect models for health outcomes were used. Three classes among the care recipients were identified. Health profiles (HR = 1.46 and 2.56 for FI and FD compared with RI, p < 0.001), subsidy gap (HR = 1.01), and living status (HR = 0.88 for those living with spouse only) had a significant impact on mortality. The overall dropout rate was 52.3% at two years, and the health profiles at baseline significantly influenced the health outcome’s change. The health heterogeneity matters and influences subsequent outcomes. To reach the goal of the HCBS, regular and exact monitoring of care recipients is crucial, while feedback regarding health outcomes and a greater focus on providing person-centered and responsive services in the community are also required. Full article
Open AccessArticle Intensity-Dependent Effects of a Six-Week Balance Exercise Program in Elderly Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(11), 2564; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15112564
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 9 November 2018 / Accepted: 14 November 2018 / Published: 16 November 2018
PDF Full-text (987 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying falls in the elderly. The results were based on a group of 28 women in a control group (CON) and 16 women in an experimental group (EXP), aged [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying falls in the elderly. The results were based on a group of 28 women in a control group (CON) and 16 women in an experimental group (EXP), aged 60–70. Participants took part in the six-weeks Elderly Recreation Movement Program (ERMP) with the only difference that the EXP group practiced twice as often as the CON group. The measurement of variations in the index called limits of stability (LOS) was performed by application of Kistler force plate and the coactivation index (CI) was registered by means of sEMG. The results demonstrate the existence of statistically significant differences in terms of the principal outcome of the exercise time in the measurements of LOS (F(1.42) = 10.0, p = 0.003), and CI (F(1.42) = 10.5, p = 0.002). The effect of the program was associated with an increase the level of the maximum LOS, and a decrease of the CI level, especially in the experimental group. Hence, the implementation of an innovative ERMP exercise program results in the improvement of the physical capabilities of senior subjects. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Effect of Nordic Walking Training Combined with Vitamin D Supplementation on Postural Control and Muscle Strength in Elderly People—A Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1951; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091951
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 2 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (360 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nordic Walking (NW) and Vitamin D concentration (Vit D) alone have been shown to contribute to the health and performance of elderly people. However, the interaction between these two factors has yet to be explored. In this study 42 women over 60 years [...] Read more.
Nordic Walking (NW) and Vitamin D concentration (Vit D) alone have been shown to contribute to the health and performance of elderly people. However, the interaction between these two factors has yet to be explored. In this study 42 women over 60 years of age (69.02 ± 5.56 years) were recruited and divided in two NW groups: a high-intensity interval training group (HI-NW) and a moderate-intensity continuous training group (MI-NW). Individuals from each group completed a 12-week NW training program (3 times a week/2 hours) combined with randomized Vitamin D supplementation (HD = high dose: 4000 IU/day or LD = low dose: 800 IU/day). Body composition, postural control, muscle strength and Vitamin D serum concentration were measured twice; before and after the intervention. To investigate the interaction between supplementation and training a mixed-design analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. The HI-NW group, regardless of supplementation dose, increased their Vit D and elbow torque performance. On the other hand, in the MI-NW group the same Vit D outcome was seen only with HD supplementation and was also associated with increased leg muscle mass. In conclusion, beneficial effects of both HI-NW and MI-NW training regimes were seen. The impact of the dose supplementation on Vit D and body composition was related to the type of NW training. Full article
Open AccessArticle Associations among Elder Abuse, Depression and PTSD in South Korean Older Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1948; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091948
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
PDF Full-text (265 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Increasing attention is being placed on the prevalence of elder abuse and its impact on mental health. This study conducted a survey of 172 elderly people in South Korea to determine the prevalence of elder abuse and the relationships involving elder abuse, depression [...] Read more.
Increasing attention is being placed on the prevalence of elder abuse and its impact on mental health. This study conducted a survey of 172 elderly people in South Korea to determine the prevalence of elder abuse and the relationships involving elder abuse, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires, which included the Korean Geriatric Depression Screening Scale (KGDS) and Impact of Event Scale-Revised Korean version (IES-R-K). Descriptive analyses were conducted to examine the frequency of specific forms of abuse. Logistic regression models were estimated to identify the factors that contributed to risk of abuse exposure and the relationship between exposure and PTSD or depression. The results indicated around 22% of the participants reported abuse exposure, which most commonly included being refused physical contact, verbal threats, and/or being excluded from decision-making about personal issues. Low education and being unmarried, separated or divorced was associated with an increased risk of abuse exposure. There were strong associations between elder abuse and PTSD symptoms, while comparable relationships with depression were weaker and were not robust to the inclusion of control variables. The findings provided empirical support for the relationship between abuse experiences of the elderly and poor mental health and raise important issues for the mental health care of the elderly. Full article
Open AccessArticle Use of an E2SFCA Method to Measure and Analyse Spatial Accessibility to Medical Services for Elderly People in Wuhan, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1503; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071503
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (21438 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Current studies on measuring the accessibility of medical services for the elderly (AMSE) have ignored the potential competition among supply and demand and the distance decay laws. Hence, an enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method (i.e., the road network-based Gaussian 2SFCA method) [...] Read more.
Current studies on measuring the accessibility of medical services for the elderly (AMSE) have ignored the potential competition among supply and demand and the distance decay laws. Hence, an enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method (i.e., the road network-based Gaussian 2SFCA method) is proposed to calculate AMSE scores after considering different types of roads, including urban rail transit, freeways, major roads, minor roads and rural roads. Based on the first National Geographic Conditions Monitoring (NGCM) data, this study took Wuhan, China, as a case study and assessed the variation of AMSE using two different threshold times (i.e., Platinum Ten and Golden Hour). Next, global (i.e., sensitivity and hot spot analysis) and local analyses (i.e., three regional area internal comparisons) of AMSE scores were conducted to accurately identify details in the variation of spatial accessibility. It was observed that the E2SFCA method could be easily applied to measure AMSE. The results showed that 48.63% of the elderly population in Wuhan had a higher or the highest level of medical accessibility in “Platinum Ten”, while 72.97% had a higher or the highest level in the “Golden Hour”, and hot spots of AMSE scores were located in central urban areas and presented an enclosure structure using both threshold travel times, which could provide guidance to governments or planners on issues of spatial planning and identifying elderly medical services shortage areas. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effect of a Positive Photo Appreciation Program on Depressive Mood in Older Adults: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071472
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
PDF Full-text (982 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Safer and more effective programs are required to cope with an increasing number of older people with depression. Hence, we developed the Positive Photo Appreciation (PPA) program. A three-month pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy Japanese individuals aged 65–84 years, assigned [...] Read more.
Safer and more effective programs are required to cope with an increasing number of older people with depression. Hence, we developed the Positive Photo Appreciation (PPA) program. A three-month pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy Japanese individuals aged 65–84 years, assigned to a PPA group (n = 28) or Photo Correspondence Education (PCE) (control group) (n = 27). We used the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures, among others, were cognitive function and positive emotion. Data collected at baseline and post-intervention were analyzed using a linear mixed-effect model. Over 80% of the participants in the PPA group completed and were satisfied with the program. Compared with the PCE group, the CES-D score in the PPA group significantly improved (main effect of group: t = −4.30, p < 0.001; interaction effect of group by time: t = 4.39, p < 0.001), with an effect size of d = 1.23. Additionally, a positive significant interaction effect of group by time was found in the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (t = −2.33, p = 0.024). The PPA program might be promising for mitigating depressive mood in older adults. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Cross-Disciplinary Successful Aging Intervention and Evaluation: Comparison of Person-to-Person and Digital-Assisted Approaches
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 913; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050913
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 29 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
PDF Full-text (577 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Successful aging has been the paradigm of old-age life. The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate a cross-disciplinary intervention program using two approaches for community-based older adults in Taichung, Taiwan. Methods: The content of the intervention included [...] Read more.
Background: Successful aging has been the paradigm of old-age life. The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate a cross-disciplinary intervention program using two approaches for community-based older adults in Taichung, Taiwan. Methods: The content of the intervention included successful aging concepts and preparation, physical activity, chronic disease and health management, dietary and nutrition information, cognitive training, emotional awareness and coping skills, family relationship and resilience, legal concepts regarding financial protection, and Internet use. The traditional person-to-person (P2P) intervention approach was implemented among participants at urban centers, and the personal-and-digital (P&D) intervention approach was implemented among participants at rural centers; before the P&D group received the intervention, participants were assessed as the control group for comparison. Results: Healthy behavior and nutrition improved for the P2P group, although not significantly. Strategies for adapting to old age and reducing ineffective coping were significantly improved in the P2P group. The ability to search for health information improved in the P&D group, and knowledge of finance-related law increased in the P2P group. Conclusion: A continuous, well-designed and evidence-based intervention program is beneficial for improving the health of older adults, or at least delaying its decline. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Relationship between Diabetes Mellitus and Respiratory Function in Patients Eligible for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050907
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 30 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
PDF Full-text (919 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Introduction: Spirometry performed prior to surgery provides information on the types of lung disorders in patients. The purpose of this study was to look for a relationship between the prevalence of diabetes and spirometry parameters. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in [...] Read more.
Introduction: Spirometry performed prior to surgery provides information on the types of lung disorders in patients. The purpose of this study was to look for a relationship between the prevalence of diabetes and spirometry parameters. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in patients with coronary artery disease who were eligible for an isolated coronary artery bypass graft in 2013. The study group included 367 patients (287 men and 80 women) aged 68.7 ± 8.4 years. They were divided into those with diagnosed diabetes (group I, n = 138, 37.6%) and without diabetes (group II, n = 229, 62.4%). Spirometry tests were performed on the day of admission to the hospital. Results: Patients with diabetes (group I) had a significantly higher body mass index than those without diabetes (group II). Spirometry tests also showed that patients with diabetes had statistically significantly lower forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0). Both FVC and FEV1.0 were also statistically significantly lower for overweight and obese individuals in group I than those in group II. Conclusion: Patients with diabetes eligible for coronary artery bypass grafting with concurrent overweight or obesity are more likely to have lower spirometry parameters than those without diabetes. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Impact of a Translated Disease Self-Management Program on Employee Health and Productivity: Six-Month Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050851
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (716 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Disease management is gaining importance in workplace health promotion given the aging workforce and rising chronic disease prevalence. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) is an effective intervention widely offered in diverse community settings; however, adoption remains low in workplace settings. As part [...] Read more.
Disease management is gaining importance in workplace health promotion given the aging workforce and rising chronic disease prevalence. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) is an effective intervention widely offered in diverse community settings; however, adoption remains low in workplace settings. As part of a larger NIH-funded randomized controlled trial, this study examines the effectiveness of a worksite-tailored version of CDSMP (wCDSMP [n = 72]) relative to CDSMP (‘Usual Care’ [n = 109]) to improve health and work performance among employees with one or more chronic conditions. Multiple-group latent-difference score models with sandwich estimators were fitted to identify changes from baseline to 6-month follow-up. Overall, participants were primarily female (87%), non-Hispanic white (62%), and obese (73%). On average, participants were age 48 (range: 23–72) and self-reported 3.25 chronic conditions (range: 1–16). The most commonly reported conditions were high cholesterol (45%), high blood pressure (45%), anxiety/emotional/mental health condition (26%), and diabetes (25%). Among wCDSMP participants, significant improvements were observed for physically unhealthy days (uΔ = −2.07, p = 0.018), fatigue (uΔ = −2.88, p = 0.002), sedentary behavior (uΔ = −4.49, p = 0.018), soda/sugar beverage consumption (uΔ = −0.78, p = 0.028), and fast food intake (uΔ = −0.76, p = 0.009) from baseline to follow-up. Significant improvements in patient–provider communication (uΔ = 0.46, p = 0.031) and mental work limitations (uΔ = −8.89, p = 0.010) were also observed from baseline to follow-up. Relative to Usual Care, wCDSMP participants reported significantly larger improvements in fatigue, physical activity, soda/sugar beverage consumption, and mental work limitations (p < 0.05). The translation of Usual Care (content and format) has potential to improve health among employees with chronic conditions and increase uptake in workplace settings. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Elderly Perceived Meanings and Values of Virtual Reality Leisure Activities: A Means-End Chain Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040663
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (518 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study uses means-end chain (MEC) techniques to examine the awareness, decision-making procedure, and personal values of the elderly with regard to virtual reality leisure activities. The results of the study show that elderly respondents value virtual reality leisure activities that are fun, [...] Read more.
This study uses means-end chain (MEC) techniques to examine the awareness, decision-making procedure, and personal values of the elderly with regard to virtual reality leisure activities. The results of the study show that elderly respondents value virtual reality leisure activities that are fun, safe, and easy. In terms of outcome benefits, elderly respondents value feeling physically and mentally healthy, firsthand experience, and satisfied curiosity. In value terms, elderly respondents hope that their chosen virtual reality leisure activities improve not only their relationships with others, but also their enjoyment, quality of life, and sense of belonging. The results show that, while consumers with different awarenesses of virtual reality leisure activities have different decision-making processes, they share creating “good memories” as the terminal value with the most significant effect. This presents a potential opportunity to promote virtual reality leisure activities. Relevant bodies or enterprises can seek to create good memories in consumers by developing activities that are safe and fun, promote good health, and provide good service, thereby attracting the interest of elderly consumers. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Effect of Leisure Activity Diversity and Exercise Time on the Prevention of Depression in the Middle-Aged and Elderly Residents of Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040654
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 1 April 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (347 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Previous studies have confirmed that activity participation is beneficial to mental health, but few studies focus on older adults’ depression. Based on the theory of social integration, this study examined the effects of leisure activity diversity and exercise time on depression in late [...] Read more.
Previous studies have confirmed that activity participation is beneficial to mental health, but few studies focus on older adults’ depression. Based on the theory of social integration, this study examined the effects of leisure activity diversity and exercise time on depression in late adulthood. Subjects in the 2011 Survey of Health and Living Status of the Middle-Aged and Elderly in Taiwan were extracted. A series of logistic regressions were conducted to discern factors related to the odds of having depression. Among study subjects (N = 3727; age ≥ 58), 20.9% indicated an inclination of having depression (CESD-10 score ≥ 8). This study found that participating in diverse leisure activities and longer exercise time decreases older adults’ risk of having depression. Additionally, the results confirmed that depression is positively correlated with chronic diseases. Consequently, efforts should be continually spent on encouraging older adults’ participation in activities to reduce the prevalence of depression. Full article
Open AccessArticle Importance of Footwear for Preventing Xerosis and Hyperkeratosis in Older People with Psychiatric Disorders Living in an Institution
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040584
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
PDF Full-text (372 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Few studies have focused on the relation between the use and characteristics of footwear and the presence of foot lesions in people with psychiatric disorders. This work analyzes the influence of different footwear habits on the presence of deformities and ungueal and dermal [...] Read more.
Few studies have focused on the relation between the use and characteristics of footwear and the presence of foot lesions in people with psychiatric disorders. This work analyzes the influence of different footwear habits on the presence of deformities and ungueal and dermal pathologies of the foot of institutionalized people with psychiatric disorders compared to people without these disorders. A transversal and observational study was conducted on 107 participants, divided into two groups who have used different types of shoes throughout their lives. The control group comprised 63 autonomous people who mainly use leather footwear and a study group of 44 institutionalized people with intellectual disabilities and psychiatric disorders who mainly use textile footwear. There were significant differences between populations. The group with psychiatric disorders presented more xerosis and hyperkeratosis. Footwear with inappropriate characteristics is a possible causal agent of skin alterations. Wearing footwear with quality textile uppers, e.g., fabric or felt, could influence the appearance of these alterations. Leather footwear is recommended for institutionalized people to reduce symptoms of xerosis and improve their quality of life. Full article
Open AccessArticle Internet Use and Psychological Well-Being at Advanced Age: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030480
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 4 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
PDF Full-text (300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This work explores the connection between psychological well-being and Internet use in older adults. The study is based on a sample of 2314 participants in the English Longitudinal Study of Aging. The subjects, aged 50 years and older, were interviewed every two years [...] Read more.
This work explores the connection between psychological well-being and Internet use in older adults. The study is based on a sample of 2314 participants in the English Longitudinal Study of Aging. The subjects, aged 50 years and older, were interviewed every two years over the 2006–2007 to 2014–2015 period. The connection between the use of Internet/Email and the main dimensions of psychological well-being (evaluative, hedonic and eudaimonic) was analyzed by means of three generalized estimating equation models that were fitted on 2-year lagged repeated measurements. The outcome variables, the scores on three well-being scales, were explained in terms of Internet/Email use, controlling for covariates that included health and socioeconomic indicators. The results support the existence of a direct relationship between Internet/Email use and psychological well-being. The connection between the main predictor and the score of the participants on the scale used to measure the eudaimonic aspect was positive and statistically significant at conventional levels (p-value: 0.015). However, the relevance of digital literacy on the evaluative and the hedonic components could not be confirmed (p-values for evaluative and hedonic dimensions were 0.078 and 0.192, respectively). Full article
Open AccessArticle Community Readiness for the Promotion of Physical Activity in Older Adults—A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Rural and Urban Communities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030453
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 24 February 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (631 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Communities can play an important role in delivering public health programs to older adults, but they differ in the provision of local structures and resources. The community readiness (CR) approach applies a stage model of change to the community level and analyzes structures [...] Read more.
Communities can play an important role in delivering public health programs to older adults, but they differ in the provision of local structures and resources. The community readiness (CR) approach applies a stage model of change to the community level and analyzes structures and the degree of willingness to take action on a health issue. This study compared the CR regarding the promotion of physical activity as part of healthy ageing for older adults among urban and rural communities in North-West Germany. A cross-sectional CR assessment with key respondents in 23 municipalities (11 urban and 12 rural communities) was conducted using a semi-structured interview. Interviews were scored across the five CR dimensions and global CR score was calculated (scores between 1 = no awareness and 9 = professionalization). Wilcoxon rank-sum test and hierarchical regression models were used to compare urban and rural communities. In total, 118 interviews were conducted (response rate 69.8%). On average, the communities showed moderate CR scores (4.9 ± 0.3; Range: 4.3–5.4; preplanning or preparation phase). The global CR score was slightly higher in rural than in urban communities (regression coefficient = 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.02–0.59). The rural communities showed significantly higher CR scores in the ‘Knowledge of efforts’ dimension (0.70, 95% CI: 0.26–1.14) and in the ‘Knowledge of the issue’ (0.37, 95% CI: 0.04–0.70). Rural communities display a slightly higher CR level than urban communities. In the next step, targeted capacity building activities will be initiated among communities with low CR levels. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Evaluation of a Computer-Tailored Healthy Ageing Intervention to Promote Physical Activity among Single Older Adults with a Chronic Disease
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020346
Received: 17 January 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (543 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study explores the effectiveness of the Active Plus65 intervention designed to stimulate physical activity among single older adults with a chronic physical impairment. A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test study was performed. The intervention group (n = 411; mean age = 76.75; SD [...] Read more.
This study explores the effectiveness of the Active Plus65 intervention designed to stimulate physical activity among single older adults with a chronic physical impairment. A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test study was performed. The intervention group (n = 411; mean age = 76.75; SD = 7.75) was assessed at baseline, three months, and six months. Data of comparable older adults who completed the original Active Plus intervention served as reference group (n = 87; mean age = 74.36; SD = 6.26). Multilevel regression analyses were applied: outcome measures were weekly minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and days per week with at least 30 min of MVPA. Although Active Plus65 did not outperform the original intervention, in itself Active Plus65 effectuated a significant increase in the weekly minutes of MVPA (B = 208.26; p < 0.001; Effect Size (ES) = 0.45) and in the days per week with sufficient MVPA (B = 1.20; p < 0.001; ES = 0.61) after three months. After six months, it effectuated a significant increase in the days per week with sufficient MVPA (B = 0.67; p = 0.001; ES = 0.34) but not for the weekly minutes of MVPA (p = 0.745). As Active Plus65 increased MVPA at three months with a higher ES than average interventions for this vulnerable target group, it potentially makes an interesting intervention. Further development should focus on long-term maintenance of effects. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle The Role of Motivation to Reduce Obesity among Elderly People: Response to Priming Temptation in Obese Individuals
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020244
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (606 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The risk of obesity-related disorders is increased among the elderly, so changing eating habits can be an important element of prevention. The main aim of this article is to consider whether looking at pictures that present either fattening food or healthy food may [...] Read more.
The risk of obesity-related disorders is increased among the elderly, so changing eating habits can be an important element of prevention. The main aim of this article is to consider whether looking at pictures that present either fattening food or healthy food may motivate elderly people to change their nutrition habits. Might priming different kinds of food influence the attractiveness of the food for people in late adulthood undergoing obesity therapy? Based on priming theories, we analysed the effects of the conscious processing of stimuli associated with dietary habits in individuals aged with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Our experiments confirmed the influence of a higher-priority goal of “slimming” on the perception and internalization of nutrition-related stimuli. In response to such stimuli, individuals who are actively involved in weight reduction and health-oriented programs use strategies for resisting temptation and to effectively “slim”. We present our findings in the context of their theoretical background and practical application. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Use of an Integrated Research-Practice Partnership to Improve Outcomes of a Community-Based Strength-Training Program for Older Adults: Reach and Effect of Lifelong Improvements through Fitness Together (LIFT)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020237
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 25 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Only 17% of older adults meet the recommendations for two days of full body strength training that is associated with improved functional fitness; reduced risk of falls; and reduced morbidity and mortality rates. Community-based interventions are recommended as they provide supportive infrastructure to [...] Read more.
Only 17% of older adults meet the recommendations for two days of full body strength training that is associated with improved functional fitness; reduced risk of falls; and reduced morbidity and mortality rates. Community-based interventions are recommended as they provide supportive infrastructure to reach older adults and impact strength training behaviors. Scalability and sustainability of these interventions is directly linked with setting-level buy-in. Adapting an intervention through an integrated research–practice partnership may improve individual and setting-level outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the initial reach and effect of a locally adapted, health educator-led strength-training intervention; Lifelong Improvements through Fitness Together (LIFT). LIFT was compared to an evidence-based exercise program, Stay Strong; Stay Healthy (SSSH). Intervention dose and mode were the same for LIFT and SSSH, but LIFT included behavioral change strategies. Older adult functional fitness was assessed before and after the 8-week strength training intervention. Health educators who delivered LIFT and SSSH were able to reach 80 and 33 participants, respectively. Participants in LIFT were able to significantly improve in all functional fitness measures whereas SSSH participants were only able to significantly improve in 5 of the 7 functional fitness measures. In conclusion, this study provides preliminary evidence that the locally adapted program reached more individuals and had improvements in functional fitness. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Effectiveness of a Lifestyle Intervention on Social Support, Self-Efficacy, and Physical Activity among Older Adults: Evaluation of Texercise Select
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020234
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1272 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Despite the well-recognized benefits of physical activity across the life course, older adults are more inactive than other age groups. The current study examines the effects of Texercise Select participation on self-reported sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity. Secondarily, this study examined [...] Read more.
Despite the well-recognized benefits of physical activity across the life course, older adults are more inactive than other age groups. The current study examines the effects of Texercise Select participation on self-reported sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity. Secondarily, this study examined intervention effects on two potential facilitators of physical activity: (1) self-efficacy for being more physically active and (2) social support received for physical activity. This study used a non-equivalent group design with self-reported surveys administered at baseline, three-month (immediate post for cases) and six-month follow-ups for the intervention (n = 163) and a comparison group (n = 267). Multivariable mixed model analyses were conducted controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, comorbid conditions, and site. Among the intervention group, the program had significant immediate effects on most primary outcomes (p < 0.05) at three months. Furthermore, significant improvements were observed for all physical activity intensity levels at six months (p < 0.05). The reduction in sedentary behavior and increases in all physical activity intensity levels were significantly greater from baseline to three-month and baseline to six-month follow-ups among intervention group participants relative to those in the comparison group. This study confirms the effectiveness of Texercise Select to reduce sedentary behavior and improve physicality, supporting the intervention’s robustness as a scalable and sustainable evidence-based program. It also counters negative stereotypes that older adults are not interested in attending multi-modal lifestyle intervention programs nor able to make health behavior changes that can improve health and overall functioning. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Association between Social Activities and Cognitive Function among the Elderly in China: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020231
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (291 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Participation in social activities is one of important factors for older adults’ health. The present study aims to examine the cross-sectional association between social activities and cognitive function among Chinese elderly. A total of 8966 individuals aged 60 and older from the 2015 [...] Read more.
Participation in social activities is one of important factors for older adults’ health. The present study aims to examine the cross-sectional association between social activities and cognitive function among Chinese elderly. A total of 8966 individuals aged 60 and older from the 2015 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were obtained for this study. Telephone interviews of cognitive status, episodic memory, and visuospatial abilities were assessed by questionnaire. We used the sum of all three of the above measures to represent the respondent’s cognitive status as a whole. Types and frequencies of participation in social groups were used to measure social activities. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between social activities and cognitive function. After adjustment for demographics, smoking, drinking, depression, hypertension, diabetes, basic activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and self-rated health, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that interaction with friends, participating in hobby groups, and sports groups were associated with better cognitive function among both men and women (p < 0.05); doing volunteer work was associated with better cognitive function among women but not among men (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that there is a cross-sectional association between participation in social activities and cognitive function among Chinese elderly. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine the effects of social activities on cognitive function. Full article
Open AccessArticle Restricted Social Engagement among Adults Living with Chronic Conditions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010158
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 6 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (480 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Background: Social engagement is key to health and quality of life. Little is known about social engagement patterns of middle-aged and older adults who live with one or more chronic illnesses. This study investigated social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults [...] Read more.
Background: Social engagement is key to health and quality of life. Little is known about social engagement patterns of middle-aged and older adults who live with one or more chronic illnesses. This study investigated social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions and factors associated with these restrictions. Methods: Cross-sectional representative data from the National Council on Aging Chronic Care Survey were examined for relationships between social engagement restrictions and chronic conditions, health status, support, quality of life implications, self-care barriers, caregiving, and demographics. Associations were tested using bivariate analyses and binary logistic regression. Results: Participants were 793 middle-aged (age 44–64) and older adults (age 65+) with one or more chronic conditions. Factors associated with social engagement restrictions included having higher education, receiving care, having more physician visits and hospitalizations, being disabled, being unemployed, and having higher Emotional and Physical Problems Scale scores. Conclusions: Findings reveal the prevalence of social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions. Results highlight the importance of promoting research, assessments, and interventions to increase social engagement among this aging population. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

2017

Jump to: 2019, 2018

Open AccessArticle Grip Strength as an Indicator of Health-Related Quality of Life in Old Age—A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1447; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121447
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (305 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Over the last century life expectancy has increased dramatically nearly all over the world. This dramatic absolute and relative increase of the old aged people component of the population has influenced not only population structure but also has dramatic implications for the individuals [...] Read more.
Over the last century life expectancy has increased dramatically nearly all over the world. This dramatic absolute and relative increase of the old aged people component of the population has influenced not only population structure but also has dramatic implications for the individuals and public health services. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine the impact of physical well-being assessed by hand grip strength and social factors estimated by social contact frequency on health-related quality of life among 22 men and 41 women ranging in age between 60 and 94 years. Physical well-being was estimated by hand grip strength, data concerning subjective wellbeing and health related quality of life were collected by personal interviews based on the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. Number of offspring and intergenerational contacts were not related significantly to health-related quality of life, while social contacts with non-relatives and hand grip strength in contrast had a significant positive impact on health related quality of life among old aged men and women. Physical well-being and in particular muscle strength—estimated by grip strength—may increase health-related quality of life and is therefore an important source for well-being during old age. Grip strength may be used as an indicator of health-related quality of life. Full article
Open AccessArticle FRED: Exergame to Prevent Dependence and Functional Deterioration Associated with Ageing. A Pilot Three-Week Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121439
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 4 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (6578 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Introduction: Frailty syndrome and advanced age may decrease the acceptance of illness and quality of life, and worsen patients’ existing health conditions, as well as leading to an increase in health care expenses. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to reduce frailty [...] Read more.
Introduction: Frailty syndrome and advanced age may decrease the acceptance of illness and quality of life, and worsen patients’ existing health conditions, as well as leading to an increase in health care expenses. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to reduce frailty risk via the use of a FRED game which has been expressly designed and put together for the study. Materials and methods: A total of 40 frail volunteers with a score of <10 points in the short physical performance battery (SPPB) took part in a feasibility study in order to validate the FRED game. Following randomisation, the study group (20 subjects) took part in nine sessions of 20 min each over a three-week period. The control group (19 subjects) continued to lead their daily lives in the course of which they had no physical activity scheduled; Results: After three weeks and having taken part in nine physical activity sessions with the FRED game, 60% of subjects from the study group (12/20) obtained a score of ≥10 points at the end of the study, i.e., less risk of evidencing frailty. This result proved to be statistically significant (p < 0.001). The degree of compliance with and adherence to the game was confirmed by 100% attendance of the sessions. Discussion: Our findings support the hypothesis that FRED, an ad hoc designed exergame, significantly reduced the presence and severity of frailty in a sample of sedentary elders, thus potentially modifying their risk profile. Conclusions: The FRED game is a tool that shows a 99% certain improvement in the degree of frailty in frail elderly subjects. The effectiveness of the design of ad hoc games in a certain pathology or population group is therefore evidenced. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Comparison of Summer and Winter Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Older Adults: Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Reykjavik Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101268
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In Iceland, there is a large variation in daylight between summer and winter. The aim of the study was to identify how this large variation influences physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Free living PA was measured by a waist-worn accelerometer for [...] Read more.
In Iceland, there is a large variation in daylight between summer and winter. The aim of the study was to identify how this large variation influences physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Free living PA was measured by a waist-worn accelerometer for one week during waking hours in 138 community-dwelling older adults (61.1% women, 80.3 ± 4.9 years) during summer and winter months. In general, SB occupied about 75% of the registered wear-time and was highly correlated with age (β = 0.36). Although the differences were small, more time was spent during the summer in all PA categories, except for the moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and SB was reduced. More lifestyle PA (LSPA) was accumulated in ≥5-min bouts during summer than winter, especially among highly active participants. This information could be important for policy makers and health professionals working with older adults. Accounting for seasonal difference is necessary in analyzing SB and PA data. Full article
Open AccessReview Community Capacity Building for Physical Activity Promotion among Older Adults—A Literature Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1058; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091058
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
PDF Full-text (498 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Community-based interventions to promote physical activity (PA) among older adults are of high interest in health promotion since they promise to be effective strategies to reach this population group. Community capacity building, that is, the local promotion of knowledge, skills, commitment, structures, and [...] Read more.
Community-based interventions to promote physical activity (PA) among older adults are of high interest in health promotion since they promise to be effective strategies to reach this population group. Community capacity building, that is, the local promotion of knowledge, skills, commitment, structures, and leadership, is among the recommended core strategies. However, little guidance is provided on how to achieve a high degree of community capacity. This study aims to identify practical strategies to enhance community capacities for PA promotion among older adults (50 years or older) and to evaluate their success. A literature review was conducted using scientific databases (PsycInfo and Web of Sciences) and grey literature (national and international project databases), and 14 studies (16 articles) were identified. Five groups of capacity building strategies emerged from the literature: (1) building community coalitions and networks, (2) training of professionals, (3) training of laypersons, (4) strengthening competence and awareness in the target population, and (5) allocation of financial resources. All studies used more than one strategy. Coalition building and strengthening competence and awareness were most frequently used. Feasibility and acceptability of the capacity building strategies were demonstrated. However, intervention effects on PA behavior and other relevant outcomes were inconsistent. The one study that systematically compared different capacity building approaches did not find any evidence for beneficial effects of intensified capacity building. More rigorous research evaluating the efficacy of specific strategies to enhance community capacities for PA promotion is needed. Full article
Figures

Figure 1

Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top