Next Article in Journal
Evolution of the Pattern of Spatial Expansion of Urban Land Use in the Poyang Lake Ecological Economic Zone
Next Article in Special Issue
The Association between Social Support and Incident Dementia: A 10-Year Follow-Up Study in Japan
Previous Article in Journal
Socioeconomic Inequalities of Undiagnosed Diabetes in a Resource-Poor Setting: Insights from the Cross-Sectional Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey 2011
Previous Article in Special Issue
Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Health Management Program for the Elderly on Health-Related Quality of Life among Elderly People in China: Findings from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January-1) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Waist Circumference and All-Cause Mortality among Older Adults in Rural Indonesia

Department of Epidemiology and Global Health, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(1), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16010116
Received: 15 November 2018 / Revised: 26 December 2018 / Accepted: 28 December 2018 / Published: 3 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Collection Aging and Public Health)
  |  
PDF [1294 KB, uploaded 3 January 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

Waist circumference, a measure of abdominal obesity, is associated with all-cause mortality in general adult population. However, the link between abdominal obesity with all-cause mortality in the studies of older adults is unclear. This study aims to determine the association between waist circumference and all-cause mortality in older adults in Indonesia. The association between waist circumference and all-cause mortality was examined in 10,997 men and women aged 50 years and older, in the World Health Organization (WHO) and International Network of field sites for continuous Demographic Evaluation of Populations and their Health in developing countries (INDEPTH) collaboration Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) in Purworejo District Central Java, Indonesia during 2007–2010. Multivariate Cox regression analysis with restricted cubic splines was used to assess the non-linear association between waist circumference and all-cause mortality. During the 3-year follow-up, a total of 511 men and 470 women died. The hazard ratio plot shows a pattern of U-shape relationship between waist circumference and all-cause mortality among rich women, though the result was significant only for women in the lower end of waist circumference distribution (p < 0.05). Poor men with a low waist circumference (5th percentile) have a two times higher mortality risk (HR = 2.1; 95% CI = 1.3, 3.3) relative to those with a waist circumference of 90 cm. Poor women with a low waist circumference (25th percentile) have a 1.4 times higher mortality risk (HR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.8) relative to those with a waist circumference of 80 cm. This study shows a significant association between low waist circumference measure and mortality, particularly among poor men and women. Though the association between large waist circumference and mortality was not significant, we observed a trend of higher mortality risk particularly among rich women with large waist circumference measure. Public health intervention should include efforts to improve nutritional status among older people and promoting healthy lifestyle behaviours including healthy food and active lifestyle. View Full-Text
Keywords: abdominal obesity; deaths; Indonesia; older people; waist circumference abdominal obesity; deaths; Indonesia; older people; waist circumference
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Pujilestari, C.U.; Nyström, L.; Norberg, M.; Ng, N. Waist Circumference and All-Cause Mortality among Older Adults in Rural Indonesia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 116.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health EISSN 1660-4601 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top