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Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071472

Effect of a Positive Photo Appreciation Program on Depressive Mood in Older Adults: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

Center for Gerontology and Social Science, National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology, 7-430 Morioka-cho, Aichi 474-8511, Japan
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Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Collection Aging and Public Health)
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Abstract

Safer and more effective programs are required to cope with an increasing number of older people with depression. Hence, we developed the Positive Photo Appreciation (PPA) program. A three-month pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy Japanese individuals aged 65–84 years, assigned to a PPA group (n = 28) or Photo Correspondence Education (PCE) (control group) (n = 27). We used the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures, among others, were cognitive function and positive emotion. Data collected at baseline and post-intervention were analyzed using a linear mixed-effect model. Over 80% of the participants in the PPA group completed and were satisfied with the program. Compared with the PCE group, the CES-D score in the PPA group significantly improved (main effect of group: t = −4.30, p < 0.001; interaction effect of group by time: t = 4.39, p < 0.001), with an effect size of d = 1.23. Additionally, a positive significant interaction effect of group by time was found in the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (t = −2.33, p = 0.024). The PPA program might be promising for mitigating depressive mood in older adults. View Full-Text
Keywords: positive emotion; positive intervention; photography; positive psychotherapy; depression; positivity; randomized controlled trial; mood improvement; combination of multiple dimensions program; older adults positive emotion; positive intervention; photography; positive psychotherapy; depression; positivity; randomized controlled trial; mood improvement; combination of multiple dimensions program; older adults
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Ishihara, M.; Saito, T.; Sakurai, T.; Shimada, H.; Arai, H. Effect of a Positive Photo Appreciation Program on Depressive Mood in Older Adults: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15, 1472.

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