Special Issue "Applications of Power Electronics"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Power Electronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Frede Blaabjerg

Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg 9220, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +4521292454
Fax: +45 9815 1411
Interests: power electronics and its applications in motor drives; wind turbines; PV systems; harmonics; reliability of power electronic systems
Guest Editor
Dr. Tomislav Dragicevic

The Faculty of Engineering and Science, Department of Energy Technology Power Electronic Systems, Aalborg University, Aalborg 9220, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Interests: microgrids; marine technology; renewable integration; energy storage; distributed control
Guest Editor
Dr. Pooya Davari

Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Interests: active front-end rectifiers; harmonic mitigation in adjustable-speed drives; electromagnetic interference in power electronics; high power density power electronic systems; pulsed power applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Power electronics technology has found its way into many applications, from renewable energy generation (i.e., wind power and solar power) to Electrical Vehicle (EV), biomedical and small appliances, such as laptop chargers. In a near future, electrical energy is provided by power electronics and is consumed by power electronics. This, not only intensifies the role of power electronics technology in power conversion processes, but also implies that power systems are undergoing a paradigm shift, from centralized distribution to distributed generation.

One emerging application that has put an imprint on this paradigm shift is the microgrid (MG). It is a small, power electronics intensive power system, which has been gaining continually-increasing interest over the past few years, both in academia and industry. The advantages of a microgrid are that it provides higher flexibility and easier management over renewable energy sources (RESs), electronic loads and energy storage systems (ESSs), rather than interfacing those resources individually to the grid. With the rapid emergence of power electronics, the importance of microgrids in today’s society is gradually being brought to a whole new level.

The main aim of this Special Issue is to seek high-quality submissions that highlight emerging applications, address recent breakthroughs in the power electronics application-oriented design, high-power density power converters, robust and reliable power electronics technologies, smart control of power electronics at device, microgrid and system levels. The topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Power electronics application in renewable energies
  • Power electronics application in electric vehicles
  • High power density dower electronic systems
  • Condition monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic of power electronics with enhanced control for reliable and robust applications
  • Application of power electronics in smart DC and AC distribution systems
  • Power electronics applications in electrical drives
  • Power electronics applications in lighting
  • Power electronics for biomedical applications
  • Power electronics for microgrids

Prof. Frede Blaabjerg
Dr. Tomislav Dragicevic
Dr. Pooya Davari
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Power electronics application in renewable energies
  • Power electronics application in electric vehicles
  • High power density dower electronic systems
  • Condition monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic of power electronics with enhanced control for reliable and robust applications
  • Application of power electronics in smart DC and AC distribution systems
  • Power electronics applications in electrical drives
  • Power electronics applications in lighting
  • Power electronics for biomedical applications
  • Power electronics for microgrids

Published Papers (49 papers)

View options order results:
result details:
Displaying articles 1-49
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle Generalized Cascaded Symmetric and Level Doubling Multilevel Converter Topology with Reduced THD for Photovoltaic Applications
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020161
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 31 December 2018 / Accepted: 11 January 2019 / Published: 1 February 2019
PDF Full-text (5394 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, two different converter topologies for a basic new switched capacitor diode converter with a reduced number of power electronics components, suitable for grid connected photovoltaic applications were proposed. The two different structures of switched diode multilevel converter proposed were: (i) [...] Read more.
In this paper, two different converter topologies for a basic new switched capacitor diode converter with a reduced number of power electronics components, suitable for grid connected photovoltaic applications were proposed. The two different structures of switched diode multilevel converter proposed were: (i) cascaded switched diode and (ii) cascaded switched diode with doubling circuit. The switched-diode multilevel converter was compared with other recent converters. In addition, a new dc offset nearest level modulation technique was proposed. This proposed dc offset technique offers low voltage total harmonic distortion (THD) and high RMS output voltage. The proposed modulation technique was compared with conventional nearest level modulation (NLM) and modified NLM control techniques. The performance of the proposed dc offset modulation technique was implemented using a FPGA Spartan 3E controller and tested with a novel switched capacitor-diode multilevel converter. However, to prove the authenticity of the switched-diode multilevel converter and modulation technique, a laboratory-based prototype model for 7-level and 13-level converters was developed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Analysis of Equivalent Inductance of Three-Phase Induction Motors in the Switching Frequency Range
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 120; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020120
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2019 / Accepted: 19 January 2019 / Published: 22 January 2019
PDF Full-text (3475 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The equivalent inductance of three-phase induction motors is experimentally investigated in this paper, with particular reference to the frequency range from 1 kHz to 20 kHz, typical for the switching frequency in inverter-fed electrical drives. The equivalent inductance is a basic parameter when [...] Read more.
The equivalent inductance of three-phase induction motors is experimentally investigated in this paper, with particular reference to the frequency range from 1 kHz to 20 kHz, typical for the switching frequency in inverter-fed electrical drives. The equivalent inductance is a basic parameter when determining the inverter-motor current distortion introduced by switching modulation, such as rms of current ripple, peak-to-peak current ripple amplitude, total harmonic distortion (THD), and synthesis of the optimal PWM strategy to minimize the THD itself. In case of squirrel-cage rotors, the experimental evidence shows that the equivalent inductance cannot be considered constant in the frequency range up to 20 kHz, and it considerably differs from the value measured at 50 Hz. This frequency-dependent behaviour can be justified mainly by the skin effect in rotor bars affecting the rotor leakage inductance in the considered frequency range. Experimental results are presented for a set of squirrel-cage induction motors with different rated power and one wound-rotor motor in order to emphasize the aforesaid phenomenon. The measurements were carried out by a three-phase sinusoidal generator with the maximum operating frequency of 5 kHz and a voltage source inverter operating in the six-step mode with the frequency up to 20 kHz. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Design, Simulation and Hardware Implementation of Shunt Hybrid Compensator Using Synchronous Rotating Reference Frame (SRRF)-Based Control Technique
Electronics 2019, 8(1), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8010042
Received: 26 September 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 1 January 2019
PDF Full-text (11715 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper deals with the design, simulation, and implementation of shunt hybrid compensator to maintain the power quality in three-phase distribution networks feeding different types balanced and unbalanced nonlinear loads. The configuration of the compensator consists of a selective harmonic elimination passive filter, [...] Read more.
This paper deals with the design, simulation, and implementation of shunt hybrid compensator to maintain the power quality in three-phase distribution networks feeding different types balanced and unbalanced nonlinear loads. The configuration of the compensator consists of a selective harmonic elimination passive filter, a series-connected conventional six-pulse IGBT inverter, acting as the active filter terminated with a DC link capacitor. The theory and modelling of the compensator based on current harmonic components at the load end and their decomposition in d-q axis frame of reference are utilized in the reference current generation algorithm. Accordingly, the source current waveform is made to follow the reference current waveform using a high-frequency, carrier-based controller. Further, this inner current control loop is supported by a slower outer voltage control loop for sustaining desirable DC link voltage. Performance of the compensator is evaluated through MATLAB simulation covering different types of loads and reduction of harmonic currents and THD at the supply side along with excellent regulation of DC link voltage are confirmed. The performance of a hybrid compensator designed and fabricated using the above principles is evaluated and corroborated with the simulation results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Design of A Novel Line Start Synchronous Motor Rotor
Electronics 2019, 8(1), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8010025
Received: 29 November 2018 / Revised: 13 December 2018 / Accepted: 21 December 2018 / Published: 26 December 2018
PDF Full-text (8166 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Line start permanent magnet synchronous motors (LS-PMSM) are preferred more and more in industrial applications, because they can start on their own and because of their high efficiency. In this study, a new LS-PMSM rotor typology is suggested, which is modelled using surface [...] Read more.
Line start permanent magnet synchronous motors (LS-PMSM) are preferred more and more in industrial applications, because they can start on their own and because of their high efficiency. In this study, a new LS-PMSM rotor typology is suggested, which is modelled using surface mount permanent magnets, in which two different slot types have been used together. The rotor of an asynchronous motor on the industrial market in the IE2 efficiency segment has been remodeled in the study, resulting in an increase in motor efficiency from 85% to 91.8%. A finite elements software was used for determining motor design and performance, in addition to analytical methods. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Automatic Fault Diagnostic System for Induction Motors under Transient Regime Optimized with Expert Systems
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 19 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
PDF Full-text (4421 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Induction machines (IMs) power most modern industrial processes (induction motors) and generate an increasing portion of our electricity (doubly fed induction generators). A continuous monitoring of the machine’s condition can identify faults at an early stage, and it can avoid costly, unexpected shutdowns [...] Read more.
Induction machines (IMs) power most modern industrial processes (induction motors) and generate an increasing portion of our electricity (doubly fed induction generators). A continuous monitoring of the machine’s condition can identify faults at an early stage, and it can avoid costly, unexpected shutdowns of production processes, with economic losses well beyond the cost of the machine itself. Machine current signature analysis (MCSA), has become a prominent technique for condition-based maintenance, because, in its basic approach, it is non-invasive, requires just a current sensor, and can process the current signal using a standard fast Fourier transform (FFT). Nevertheless, the industrial application of MCSA requires well-trained maintenance personnel, able to interpret the current spectra and to avoid false diagnostics that can appear due to electrical noise in harsh industrial environments. This task faces increasing difficulties, especially when dealing with machines that work under non-stationary conditions, such as wind generators under variable wind regime, or motors fed from variable speed drives. In these cases, the resulting spectra are no longer simple one-dimensional plots in the time domain; instead, they become two-dimensional images in the joint time-frequency domain, requiring highly specialized personnel to evaluate the machine condition. To alleviate these problems, supporting the maintenance staff in their decision process, and simplifying the correct use of fault diagnosis systems, expert systems based on neural networks have been proposed for automatic fault diagnosis. However, all these systems, up to the best knowledge of the authors, operate under steady-state conditions, and are not applicable in a transient regime. To solve this problem, this paper presents an automatic system for generating optimized expert diagnostic systems for fault detection when the machine works under transient conditions. The proposed method is first theoretically introduced, and then it is applied to the experimental diagnosis of broken bars in a commercial cage induction motor. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Small Signal Stability of a Balanced Three-Phase AC Microgrid Using Harmonic Linearization: Parametric-Based Analysis
Electronics 2019, 8(1), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8010012
Received: 31 October 2018 / Revised: 8 December 2018 / Accepted: 17 December 2018 / Published: 21 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1939 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The growth of power-electronic-based components is inescapable in future distribution grids (DGs). The introduction of these non-linear components poses many challenges, not only in terms of power quality, but also in terms of stability. These challenges become more acute when active loads are [...] Read more.
The growth of power-electronic-based components is inescapable in future distribution grids (DGs). The introduction of these non-linear components poses many challenges, not only in terms of power quality, but also in terms of stability. These challenges become more acute when active loads are behaving as generators and power is flowing in reverse direction. The frequency-domain-based impedance modeling methods are preferred for small signal stability analysis (SSSA) of DGs involving such non-linear components. The harmonic linearization method can be used for impedance estimation, and afterwards, the Nyquist stability criterion can be used for stability analysis. In this paper, a parametric-based stability analysis of grid-connected active loads at the point of common coupling (PCC) is done by changing the parallel clustering distance and size of active loads. The results verify a positive impact on the stability of increasing parallel clustering and distance from the PCC and a negative impact of increasing the size of individual active loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Reliability of Boost PFC Converters with Improved EMI Filters
Electronics 2018, 7(12), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7120413
Received: 9 November 2018 / Revised: 30 November 2018 / Accepted: 4 December 2018 / Published: 8 December 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4150 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The switching device in a power converter can produce very serious electromagnetic interference (EMI). In order to solve this problem and the associated reliability and stability issues, this article aimed to analyze and model the boost power factor correction (PFC) converter according to [...] Read more.
The switching device in a power converter can produce very serious electromagnetic interference (EMI). In order to solve this problem and the associated reliability and stability issues, this article aimed to analyze and model the boost power factor correction (PFC) converter according to the EMI conduction path. The sources of common-mode (CM) and differential-mode (DM) noise of the boost PFC converter were analyzed, and the DM and CM equivalent circuits were deduced. Furthermore, high-frequency modeling of the common-mode inductor was developed using a precise model, and the EMI filter was designed. According to the Class B standard for EMI testing, it is better to restrain the EMI noise in the frequency range (150 kHz to 30 MHz) of the EMI conducted disturbance test. Using this method, a 2.4-kW PFC motor driving supply was designed, and the experimental results validate the analysis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Novel Composite Equalizer Based on an Additional Cell for Series-Connected Lithium-Ion Cells
Electronics 2018, 7(12), 366; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7120366
Received: 1 October 2018 / Revised: 20 November 2018 / Accepted: 20 November 2018 / Published: 1 December 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4569 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Cell inconsistency can lead to poor performance and safety hazards. Therefore, cell equalizer is essentially required to prevent the series-connected cells from overcharging, undercharging, and overdischarging. Among current equalization schemes, passive equalizer has a continuously wasting energy with low equalization efficiency, and active [...] Read more.
Cell inconsistency can lead to poor performance and safety hazards. Therefore, cell equalizer is essentially required to prevent the series-connected cells from overcharging, undercharging, and overdischarging. Among current equalization schemes, passive equalizer has a continuously wasting energy with low equalization efficiency, and active equalizer has high cost with complex circuit structure. In this study, a novel composite equalizer based on an additional cell with low complexity is presented. This method combines a passive equalizer and an active equalizer. Firstly, the configuration and circuit of our proposed composite equalizer are introduced, and the equalization principle is analyzed. On this basis, the control strategy and algorithm of the composite equalizer are further proposed. Finally, the composite equalizer is verified through simulation and experiment in various cases. The study results show that this method improves both the consistency level and the available capacity of the battery pack. Moreover, our proposed equalizer can overcome the shortcomings of commonly used equalizer and combining the advantages of different equalizer to maximize the equalization efficiency with a simpler equalizer structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Robust DC-Link Voltage Tracking Controller with Variable Control Gain for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators
Electronics 2018, 7(11), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7110339
Received: 9 October 2018 / Revised: 8 November 2018 / Accepted: 16 November 2018 / Published: 21 November 2018
PDF Full-text (825 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study develops a robust DC-link voltage tracking controller with variable control gain for permanent magnet synchronous generators. The first feature is to suggest an auto-tuning algorithm to drive the control gain to update the closed-loop cut-off frequency. The second one is to [...] Read more.
This study develops a robust DC-link voltage tracking controller with variable control gain for permanent magnet synchronous generators. The first feature is to suggest an auto-tuning algorithm to drive the control gain to update the closed-loop cut-off frequency. The second one is to prove that the proposed controller incorporating auto-tuner and disturbance observer (DOB) coerces the closed-loop system to achieve the desired voltage tracking behavior, exponentially, with the steady-state rejection property. The control performance is demonstrated by emulating a wind-turbine power system using the powerSIM (PSIM) software. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle An All-Region State-of-Charge Estimator Based on Global Particle Swarm Optimization and Improved Extended Kalman Filter for Lithium-Ion Batteries
Electronics 2018, 7(11), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7110321
Received: 29 October 2018 / Revised: 5 November 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 14 November 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (4367 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a novel model parameter identification method and a state-of-charge (SOC) estimator for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are proposed to improve the global accuracy of SOC estimation in the all SOC range (0–100%). Firstly, a subregion optimization method based on particle swarm [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel model parameter identification method and a state-of-charge (SOC) estimator for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are proposed to improve the global accuracy of SOC estimation in the all SOC range (0–100%). Firstly, a subregion optimization method based on particle swarm optimization is developed to find the optimal model parameters of LIBs in each subregion, and the optimal number of subregions is investigated from the perspective of accuracy and computation time. Then, to solve the problem of a low accuracy of SOC estimation caused by large model error in the low SOC range, an improved extended Kalman filter (IEKF) algorithm with variable noise covariance is proposed. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed methods are verified by experiments on two kinds of batteries under three working cycles, and case studies show that the proposed IEKF has better accuracy and robustness than the traditional extended Kalman filter (EKF) in the all SOC range. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Novel Synchronization Technique for Wireless Power Transfer Systems
Electronics 2018, 7(11), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7110319
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 2 November 2018 / Accepted: 6 November 2018 / Published: 13 November 2018
PDF Full-text (12656 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, wireless power transfer (WPT) systems with active receivers have been proposed for conduction loss reduction, bidirectional power transfer and efficiency improvement. However, the synchronization of WPT systems is complex in nature with the selection of high operating frequencies. Without proper synchronization, power [...] Read more.
Recently, wireless power transfer (WPT) systems with active receivers have been proposed for conduction loss reduction, bidirectional power transfer and efficiency improvement. However, the synchronization of WPT systems is complex in nature with the selection of high operating frequencies. Without proper synchronization, power oscillations appear and the system can become unstable. In this paper, a detailed analysis of different WPT systems is presented and the essence of the synchronization technique is derived as being composed of two functions: independent frequency locking and reference phase calibration. The voltage across the receiver-side compensation capacitor is divided and utilized for frequency locking, whereas the reference phase calibration is realized through software code. The proposed method is effective and easy to implement, with a lower overall cost due to its simplicity. The technique can work effectively at high frequency and withstand large variations of operating frequency, load and mutual inductance. In addition, it can address the synchronization problem of multiple active receiver WPT systems with and without cross coupling among the receiving coils. Theoretical analysis and experimental results validate the proposed technique. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle EMI Filter Design for a Single-stage Bidirectional and Isolated AC–DC Matrix Converter
Electronics 2018, 7(11), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7110318
Received: 17 September 2018 / Revised: 24 October 2018 / Accepted: 9 November 2018 / Published: 12 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (9742 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes the design of an electromagnetic interference (EMI) filter for the high-frequency link matrix converter (HFLMC). The proposed method aims to systematize the design process for pre-compliance with CISPR 11 Class B standard in the frequency range 150 kHz to 30 [...] Read more.
This paper describes the design of an electromagnetic interference (EMI) filter for the high-frequency link matrix converter (HFLMC). The proposed method aims to systematize the design process for pre-compliance with CISPR 11 Class B standard in the frequency range 150 kHz to 30 MHz. This approach can be extended to other current source converters which allows time-savings during the project of the filter. Conducted emissions are estimated through extended simulation and take into account the effect of the measurement apparatus. Differential-mode (DM) and common-mode (CM) filtering stages are projected separately and then integrated in a synergistic way in a single PCB to reduce volume and weight. A prototype of the filter was constructed and tested in the laboratory. Experimental results with the characterization of the insertion losses following the CISPR 17 standard are provided. The attenuation capability of the filter was demonstrated in the final part of the paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Open Circuit Fault Diagnosis and Fault Tolerance of Three-Phase Bridgeless Rectifier
Electronics 2018, 7(11), 291; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7110291
Received: 5 October 2018 / Revised: 30 October 2018 / Accepted: 30 October 2018 / Published: 1 November 2018
PDF Full-text (6174 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bridgeless rectifiers are widely used in many applications due to a unity power factor, lower conduction loss and high efficiency, which does not need bidirectional energy transmission. In this case, the potential failures are threatening the reliability of these converters in critical applications [...] Read more.
Bridgeless rectifiers are widely used in many applications due to a unity power factor, lower conduction loss and high efficiency, which does not need bidirectional energy transmission. In this case, the potential failures are threatening the reliability of these converters in critical applications such as power supply and electric motor driver. In this paper, open circuit fault is analyzed, taking a three-phase bridgeless as an example. Interference on both the input and output side are considered. Then, the fault diagnosis method including detection and location, and fault tolerance through additional switches are proposed. At last, simulation and experiments based on the hardware in loop technology are used to validate the feasibility of fault diagnosis and fault tolerance methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle FPGA Implementation of a Three-Level Boost Converter-fed Seven-Level DC-Link Cascade H-Bridge inverter for Photovoltaic Applications
Electronics 2018, 7(11), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7110282
Received: 3 October 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 24 October 2018 / Published: 29 October 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (7155 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents an optimized single-phase three-level boost DC-link cascade H-bridge multilevel inverter (TLBDCLCHB MLI) system to generate a seven-level stepped output voltage waveform for photovoltaic (PV) applications. The proposed TLBDCLCHB MLI system is obtained by integrating a three-level boost converter (TLBC) with [...] Read more.
This paper presents an optimized single-phase three-level boost DC-link cascade H-bridge multilevel inverter (TLBDCLCHB MLI) system to generate a seven-level stepped output voltage waveform for photovoltaic (PV) applications. The proposed TLBDCLCHB MLI system is obtained by integrating a three-level boost converter (TLBC) with a seven-level DC-link cascade H-bridge (DCLCHB) inverter. It consists of a TLBC, level generation unit (LGU) and phase sequence generation unit (PSGU). When compared with traditional boost converter-fed multilevel inverter systems, the proposed TLBDCLCHB MLI system requires a single DC source, fewer power switches and gate drivers. Reduction in the switch count and number of DC sources makes the system cost effective and requires a smaller installation area. Pulse generation for the power switches of an LGU in a DCLCHB inverter is accomplished by providing proper conducting angles that are generated by optimized conducting angle determination (CAD) techniques. In this paper two CAD techniques i.e., equal-phase CAD (EPCAD) and step pulse wave CAD (SPWCAD) techniques are proposed to evaluate the performance of the proposed system in terms of the total harmonic distortion (THD) and the quality of the stepped output voltage waveform. The proposed system has been modeled and simulated using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. Results are presented and discussed. Also, a prototype model of a single-phase TLBDCLCHB MLI system is developed using a field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based pulse generation with a resistive load and its performance is analyzed for various operating conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Novel Single-switch Phase Controlled Wireless Power Transfer System
Electronics 2018, 7(11), 281; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7110281
Received: 6 October 2018 / Revised: 22 October 2018 / Accepted: 25 October 2018 / Published: 29 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7956 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Battery charging is a fundamental application of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) systems that requires effective implementation of Constant Current (CC) and Constant Voltage (CV) power conduction modes. DC-DC converters used in WPT systems utilize large inductors and capacitors that increase the size and [...] Read more.
Battery charging is a fundamental application of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) systems that requires effective implementation of Constant Current (CC) and Constant Voltage (CV) power conduction modes. DC-DC converters used in WPT systems utilize large inductors and capacitors that increase the size and volume of the system in addition to causing higher DC losses. This work proposes a novel single-switch active rectifier for phase controlled WPT systems that is smaller in volume and weight as compared to conventional WPT topologies. The proposed method simplifies the control scheme using improved Digital Phase Control (DPC) and Analog Phase Control (APC) to realize the CC and CV power transfer modes. Furthermore, it prevents forward voltage losses in Silicon Carbide (SiC) switches and shoot through states with improved switching patterns. Simulation studies and experimental results are added to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methodology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Comparative Analysis of Two and Four Current Loops for Vector Controlled Dual-Three Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor
Electronics 2018, 7(11), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7110269
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 10 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
PDF Full-text (4676 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Dual three-phase (DTP) permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) are specialized machines which are commonly used for high power density applications. These machines offer the merits of high efficiency, high torque density, and superior supervisor fault tolerant capability compared to conventional three-phase AC-machines. However, [...] Read more.
Dual three-phase (DTP) permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs) are specialized machines which are commonly used for high power density applications. These machines offer the merits of high efficiency, high torque density, and superior supervisor fault tolerant capability compared to conventional three-phase AC-machines. However, the electrical structure of such machines is very complicated, and as such, control becomes challenging. In conventional vector controlled DTP-PMSMs drives, the components of the dq-subspace are associated with electromechanical energy conversion, and two currents, i.e., Id and Iq belonging to this subspace, are used in feedback-loops for control. Such orthodox control methods can cause some anomalies e.g., the voltage source inverter’s (VSI) dead time effect and other nonlinear factors, and can induce large harmonics. These glitches can be greatly alleviated by the introduction of the two-extra current loops to directly control the currents in Z1Z2-subspace in order to suppress the insertion of harmonics. In this paper, two approaches—one with two-current loops and other with four-current loops—for vector controlled DTP-PMSMs are investigated with the aid of different MATLAB-based simulations. Furthermore, in the paper, the influence of additional current loops is quantified using simulation-based results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Performance Improvement for PMSM DTC System through Composite Active Vectors Modulation
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 263; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100263
Received: 19 September 2018 / Revised: 1 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 22 October 2018
PDF Full-text (4953 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a novel direct torque control (DTC) scheme based on composite active vectors modulation (CVM) is proposed for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The precondition of the accurate compensations of torque error and flux linkage error is that the errors can [...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel direct torque control (DTC) scheme based on composite active vectors modulation (CVM) is proposed for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). The precondition of the accurate compensations of torque error and flux linkage error is that the errors can be compensated fully during the entire control period. Therefore, the compensational effects of torque error and flux linkage error in different operating conditions of the PMSM are analyzed firstly, and then, the operating conditions of the PMSM are divided into three cases according to the error compensational effects. To bring the novel composite active vectors modulation strategy smoothly, the effect factors are used to represent the error compensational effects provided by the applied active vectors. The error compensational effects supplied by single active vector or synthetic voltage vector are analyzed while the PMSM is operated in three different operating conditions. The effectiveness of the proposed CVM-DTC is verified through the experimental results on a 100-W PMSM drive system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Fixed-Frequency Sliding-Mode Controller for Fourth-Order Class-D Amplifier
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100261
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4925 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Since the parasitic voltage ringing and switching power losses limit the operation of active devices at elevated frequencies; therefore, a higher-order inductor-capacitor (LC) filter is commonly used, which offers extended attenuation above the cutoff frequency and thus, improves the total harmonic distortion (THD) [...] Read more.
Since the parasitic voltage ringing and switching power losses limit the operation of active devices at elevated frequencies; therefore, a higher-order inductor-capacitor (LC) filter is commonly used, which offers extended attenuation above the cutoff frequency and thus, improves the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the amplifier. This paper applies the concept of integral sliding-mode control to a fourth-order class-D amplifier. Two fixed-frequency double integral sliding-mode (FFDISM) controllers are proposed, where one uses the inductor current while the other involves the capacitor current feedback. Their equivalent control equations are derived, but from the realization viewpoint, the controller using the capacitor current feedback is advantageous and, therefore, is selected for final implementation. The performance of the proposed FFDISM controller for fourth-order GaN class-D amplifier is confirmed using simulation and experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Simulation Model of a 2-kW IPT Charger with Phase-Shift Control: Validation through the Tuning of the Coupling Factor
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100255
Received: 5 September 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3949 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Correction
Abstract
When applied to road vehicle electrification, inductive power transfer (IPT) technology has the potential to boost the transition from combustion engines to electric motors powered by a battery pack. This work focuses on the validation of a PSpice circuit model developed as a [...] Read more.
When applied to road vehicle electrification, inductive power transfer (IPT) technology has the potential to boost the transition from combustion engines to electric motors powered by a battery pack. This work focuses on the validation of a PSpice circuit model developed as a replica of a 2-kW IPT prototype with series-series compensation operating at 18.65 kHz. The laboratory prototype has the three stages commonly found in an IPT system: an inverter, controlled by the phase-shift technique, a coil coupling and a load. Simulations were run with the circuit model for three different distances between the two coils of the inductive coupling, all of which are of interest for practical chargers: 125, 150 and 175 mm. The validation approach was based on tuning the magnetic coupling factor for each distance and a set of ten load resistances, until the best match between the simulated and the experimental peak currents supplied by the inverter was found in each case. The coupling factors obtained from the simulation work are in good agreement with their experimental counterparts for the three distances, provided the duty cycle of the inverter output voltage is not too small. The circuit model developed is, therefore, able to reproduce the behavior of the laboratory prototype with sufficient accuracy over a wide range of distances between coils and loading conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Active EMI Reduction Using Chaotic Modulation in a Buck Converter with Relaxed Output LC Filter
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100254
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (7481 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
DC-DC buck converters are widely used in portable applications because of their high power efficiency. However, their inherent fast switching releases electromagnetic emissions, making them prominent sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper proposes a voltage-controlled buck converter that reduces EMI by using [...] Read more.
DC-DC buck converters are widely used in portable applications because of their high power efficiency. However, their inherent fast switching releases electromagnetic emissions, making them prominent sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper proposes a voltage-controlled buck converter that reduces EMI by using a chaotic pulse-width modulation (PWM) technique based on a chaotic triangular ramp generator. The chaotic triangular ramp generator is constructed from a simple on-chip chaotic circuit linked with a symmetrically triangular ramp circuit. The proposed converter can thus operate in the chaotic mode reducing the EMI without requiring any EMI filters. Additionally, using the triangular ramp signal can relax the requirement for a large LC output filter in chaotic mode. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme was experimentally verified with a chaotic triangular ramp generator embedded in a voltage-mode controller buck converter using a 0.18 µm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process. The measurement results from a prototype showed that the EMI improvement from the proposed scheme is approximately 14.53 dB at the fundamental switching frequency with respect to the standard fixed-frequency PWM reference case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle 4T Analog MOS Control-High Voltage High Frequency (HVHF) Plasma Switching Power Supply for Water Purification in Industrial Applications
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100245
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
PDF Full-text (5224 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
High-power plasma power supply is very useful for many industrial and medical applications. Plasma is generated artificially in the laboratory or industry by applying the electric or magnetic field. In this manuscript, we presented the simple 4T analog MOS control high voltage high [...] Read more.
High-power plasma power supply is very useful for many industrial and medical applications. Plasma is generated artificially in the laboratory or industry by applying the electric or magnetic field. In this manuscript, we presented the simple 4T analog MOS control high voltage high frequency inverter circuit as a plasma power supply using modulation index technique. The presented plasma power supply operated at 25 kHz frequency and 10 kV peak to peak voltage. It generates a 0 V to 10 kV controllable electric field. The generated electric field is applied and produces plasma, which can be used for many industrial applications. A 10 kV to 5 kW plasma power supply has been practically developed based on the proposed topology and experimentally tested and, additionally, excellent output power conversion efficiency is achieved. From these results, the 4T analog MOS control high voltage high frequency (HVHF) plasma switching power supply is verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle SHIL and DHIL Simulations of Nonlinear Control Methods Applied for Power Converters Using Embedded Systems
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100241
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 30 September 2018 / Published: 6 October 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4607 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, a new real-time Simulation method is designed for nonlinear control techniques applied to power converters. We propose two different implementations: in the first one (Single Hardware in The Loop: SHIL), both model and control laws are inserted in the same [...] Read more.
In this work, a new real-time Simulation method is designed for nonlinear control techniques applied to power converters. We propose two different implementations: in the first one (Single Hardware in The Loop: SHIL), both model and control laws are inserted in the same Digital Signal Processor (DSP), and in the second approach (Double Hardware in The Loop: DHIL), the equations are loaded in different embedded systems. With this methodology, linear and nonlinear control techniques can be designed and compared in a quick and cheap real-time realization of the proposed systems, ideal for both students and engineers who are interested in learning and validating converters performance. The methodology can be applied to buck, boost, buck-boost, flyback, SEPIC and 3-phase AC-DC boost converters showing that the new and high performance embedded systems can evaluate distinct nonlinear controllers. The approach is done using matlab-simulink over commodity Texas Instruments Digital Signal Processors (TI-DSPs). The main purpose is to demonstrate the feasibility of proposed real-time implementations without using expensive HIL systems such as Opal-RT and Typhoon-HL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Improving Performance of Three-Phase Slim DC-Link Drives Utilizing Virtual Positive Impedance-Based Active Damping Control
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100234
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
PDF Full-text (5432 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a virtual positive impedance (VPI) based active damping control for a slim DC-link motor drive with 24 section space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) is proposed. Utilizing the proposed control and modulation strategy can improve the input of current total [...] Read more.
In this paper, a virtual positive impedance (VPI) based active damping control for a slim DC-link motor drive with 24 section space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) is proposed. Utilizing the proposed control and modulation strategy can improve the input of current total harmonic distortion (THD) while maintaining the cogging torque of the motor. The proposed system is expected to reduce the front-end current THD according to international standards, as per IEC 61000 and IEEE-519. It is also expected to achieve lower cost, longer lifetime, and fewer losses. A permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is fed by the inverter, which adopts the 24 section SVPWM technique. The VPI based active damping control for the slim DC-link drive with/without the 24 section SVPWM are compared to confirm the performance of the proposed method. The simulation results based on MATLAB are provided to validate the proposed control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Exploring the Limits of Floating-Point Resolution for Hardware-In-the-Loop Implemented with FPGAs
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100219
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2260 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
As the performance of digital devices is improving, Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) techniques are being increasingly used. HIL systems are frequently implemented using FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Array) as they allow faster calculations and therefore smaller simulation steps. As the simulation step is reduced, the [...] Read more.
As the performance of digital devices is improving, Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) techniques are being increasingly used. HIL systems are frequently implemented using FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Array) as they allow faster calculations and therefore smaller simulation steps. As the simulation step is reduced, the incremental values for the state variables are reduced proportionally, increasing the difference between the current value of the state variable and its increments. This difference can lead to numerical resolution issues when both magnitudes cannot be stored simultaneously in the state variable. FPGA-based HIL systems generally use 32-bit floating-point due to hardware and timing restrictions but they may suffer from these resolution problems. This paper explores the limits of 32-bit floating-point arithmetics in the context of hardware-in-the-loop systems, and how a larger format can be used to avoid resolution problems. The consequences in terms of hardware resources and running frequency are also explored. Although the conclusions reached in this work can be applied to any digital device, they can be directly used in the field of FPGAs, where the designer can easily use custom floating-point arithmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Optimized Design of Modular Multilevel DC De-Icer for High Voltage Transmission Lines
Electronics 2018, 7(9), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7090204
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2972 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ice covering on overhead transmission lines would cause damage to transmission system and long-term power outage. Among various de-icing devices, a modular multilevel converter based direct-current (DC)de-icer (MMC-DDI) is recognized as a promising solution due to its excellent technical performance. Its principle feasibility [...] Read more.
Ice covering on overhead transmission lines would cause damage to transmission system and long-term power outage. Among various de-icing devices, a modular multilevel converter based direct-current (DC)de-icer (MMC-DDI) is recognized as a promising solution due to its excellent technical performance. Its principle feasibility has been well studied, but only a small amount of literature discusses its economy or hardware optimization. To fill this gap, this paper presents a quantitative analysis and calculation on the converter characteristics of MMC-DDI. It reveals that, for a given DC de-icing requirement, the converter rating varies greatly with its alternating-current (AC) -side voltage, and it sometimes far exceeds the melting power. To reduce converter rating and improve its economy, an optimized configuration is proposed in which a proper transformer should be configured on the input AC-side of converter under certain conditions. This configuration is verified in an MMC-DDI for a 500 kV transmission line as a case study. The result shows, in the case of outputting the same de-icing characteristics, the optimized converter is reduced from 151 MVA to 68 MVA, and the total cost of the MMC-DDI system is reduced by 48%. This conclusion is conducive to the design optimization of multilevel DC de-icer and then to its engineering application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Line Frequency Instability of One-Cycle-Controlled Boost Power Factor Correction Converter
Electronics 2018, 7(9), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7090203
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2895 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Power Factor Correction (PFC) converters are widely used in engineering. A classical PFC control circuit employs two complicated feedback control loops and a multiplier, while the One-Cycle-Controlled (OCC) PFC converter has a simple control circuit. In OCC PFC converters, the voltage loop is [...] Read more.
Power Factor Correction (PFC) converters are widely used in engineering. A classical PFC control circuit employs two complicated feedback control loops and a multiplier, while the One-Cycle-Controlled (OCC) PFC converter has a simple control circuit. In OCC PFC converters, the voltage loop is implemented with a PID control and the multiplier is not needed. Although linear theory is used in designing the OCC PFC converter control circuit, it cannot be used in predicting non-linear phenomena in the converter. In this paper, a non-linear model of the OCC PFC Boost converter is proposed based on the double averaging method. The line frequency instability of the converter is predicted by studying the DC component, the first harmonic component and the second harmonic component of the main circuit and the control circuit. The effect of the input voltage and the output capacitance on the stability of the converter is studied. The correctness of the proposed model is verified with numerical simulations and experimental measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Improved Step Load Response of a Dual-Active-Bridge DC–DC Converter
Electronics 2018, 7(9), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7090185
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 9 September 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (1751 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper proposes a fast load transient control for a bidirectional dual-active-bridge (DAB) DC/DC converter. It is capable of maintaining voltage–time balance during a step load change process so that no overshoot current and DC offset current exist. The transient control has been [...] Read more.
This paper proposes a fast load transient control for a bidirectional dual-active-bridge (DAB) DC/DC converter. It is capable of maintaining voltage–time balance during a step load change process so that no overshoot current and DC offset current exist. The transient control has been applied for all possible transition cases and the calculation of intermediate switching angles referring to the fixed reference points is independent from the converter parameters and the instantaneous current. The results have been validated by extended experimental tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Performance Evaluation of a Semi-Dual-Active-Bridge with PPWM Plus SPS Control
Electronics 2018, 7(9), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7090184
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 9 September 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (5823 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a semi-dual-active-bridge (S-DAB) DC/DC converter with primary pulse-width modulation plus secondary phase-shifted (PPWM + SPS) control for boost conversion is analyzed in detail. Under the new control scheme, all effective operation modes are identified at first. Then, the working principle, [...] Read more.
In this paper, a semi-dual-active-bridge (S-DAB) DC/DC converter with primary pulse-width modulation plus secondary phase-shifted (PPWM + SPS) control for boost conversion is analyzed in detail. Under the new control scheme, all effective operation modes are identified at first. Then, the working principle, switching behaviour, and operation range in each mode are discussed. Compared with conventional secondary phase-shifted control, PPWM + SPS control with two controllable phase-shift angles can extend the zero-voltage switching (ZVS) range and enhance control flexibility. In addition, an effective control route is also given that can make the converter achieve at the global minimum root-mean-square (RMS) current across the whole power range and avoid the voltage ringing on the transformer secondary-side at a light load. Finally, a 200 W prototype circuit is built and tested to verify correctness and effectiveness of theoretical results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Wireless Power Transfer for Battery Powering System
Electronics 2018, 7(9), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7090178
Received: 18 August 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (8477 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The LCL topology (formed by an LC tank with a transmitting coil) is extensively utilized in wireless power transfer (WPT) systems with the features of a constant resonant current and ability to disconnect load abruptly. However, it requires high input voltage, which limits [...] Read more.
The LCL topology (formed by an LC tank with a transmitting coil) is extensively utilized in wireless power transfer (WPT) systems with the features of a constant resonant current and ability to disconnect load abruptly. However, it requires high input voltage, which limits its utilization in battery powering scenarios (12~24 V). A current-fed inverter (CFI) is applied to the LCL-S (a compensation capacitor in series with the receiving coil) WPT systems to boost the input voltage, thereby getting a higher resonant current in the transmitting side (Tx). To facilitate the voltage regulation in the receiving side (Rx), a semi-active bridge (SAB) is introduced into the system, which further boosts the output voltage by a lower frequency switching at different duty ratios. Rigorous mathematical analysis of the proposed system is carried out and design guidelines are subsequently derived. Moreover, a power loss reduction is realized by zero voltage switch (ZVS) of the four switches in the Tx which are deduced and presented. Simulations and experiments are added to verify the proposed system. Consequently, a 93.3% system efficiency (DC-to-DC efficiency) is obtained using the proposed topology. Optimization techniques for a higher efficiency are included in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle New Fault-Tolerant Control Strategy of Five-Phase Induction Motor with Four-Phase and Three-Phase Modes of Operation
Electronics 2018, 7(9), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7090159
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (3717 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The developed torque with minimum oscillations is one of the difficulties faced when designing drive systems. High ripple torque contents result in fluctuations and acoustic noise that impact the life of a drive system. A multiphase machine can offer a better alternative to [...] Read more.
The developed torque with minimum oscillations is one of the difficulties faced when designing drive systems. High ripple torque contents result in fluctuations and acoustic noise that impact the life of a drive system. A multiphase machine can offer a better alternative to a conventional three-phase machine in faulty situations by reducing the number of interruptions in industrial operation. This paper proposes a unique fault-tolerant control strategy for a five-phase induction motor. The paper considers a variable-voltage, variable-frequency control five-phase induction motor in one- and two-phase open circuit faults. The four-phase and three-phase operation modes for these faults are utilized with a modified voltage reference signal. The suggested remedial strategy is the method for compensating a faulty open phase of the machine through a modified reference signal. A modified voltage reference signal can be efficiently executed by a carrier-based pulse width modulation (PWM) system. A test bench for the execution of the fault-tolerant control strategy of the motor drive system is presented in detail along with the experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Energy Management and Switching Control of PHEV Charging Stations in a Hybrid Smart Micro-Grid System
Electronics 2018, 7(9), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7090156
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3733 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this study, the energy management and switching control of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in a hybrid smart micro-grid system was designed. The charging station in this research consists of real market PHEVs of different companies with different sizes. The rate of [...] Read more.
In this study, the energy management and switching control of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in a hybrid smart micro-grid system was designed. The charging station in this research consists of real market PHEVs of different companies with different sizes. The rate of charging of PHEVs is managed via switching control to receive maximum benefits from renewable energy sources and reduce the consumption of electricity from the grid. To support the optimum utilization of sustainable power, charging time and network stability, seven scenarios were developed for different interaction among the proposed micro-grid system and PHEVs. The proposed hybrid smart micro-grid system consists of three renewable energy sources: photovoltaic (PV) array controlled via an intelligent fuzzy control maximum power point subsystem, a fuel cell stack and a microturbine set controlled by proportional integral differential/proportional integral subsystems. A hybrid energy storage system (super-capacitor, battery storage bank and hydrogen) and residential load are also included in the proposed architecture. The hybrid smart micro-grid system is checked in terms of voltage regulation, frequency deviation and total harmonic distortion (THD). It was found that these are in limits according to the international standards. The simulations verify the feasibility of the proposed system and fulfill the requirement of vehicle-to-grid and grid-to-vehicle operations in a smart grid environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle On-Line Application of SHEM by Particle Swarm Optimization to Grid-Connected, Three-Phase, Two-Level VSCs with Variable DC Link Voltage
Electronics 2018, 7(8), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7080151
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (7390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper is devoted to an otablen-line application of the selective harmonic elimination method (SHEM) to three-phase, two-level, grid-connected voltage source converters (VSCs) by particle swarm optimization (PSO). In such systems, active power can be controlled by the phase shift angle, and reactive [...] Read more.
This paper is devoted to an otablen-line application of the selective harmonic elimination method (SHEM) to three-phase, two-level, grid-connected voltage source converters (VSCs) by particle swarm optimization (PSO). In such systems, active power can be controlled by the phase shift angle, and reactive power by the modulation index, against variations in the direct current (DC) link voltage. Some selected, low-odd-order harmonic components in the line-to-neutral output voltage waveforms are eliminated by calculating the SHEM angle set continuously through the developed PSO algorithm on field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based computing hardware as the modulation index is varied. The use of powerful computing hardware permits the elimination of all harmonics up to 50th. The cost function of the developed PSO algorithm is formulated by using an optimum number of particles to obtain a global optimum solution with a small fitness value in each half-cycle of the grid voltage and then updating the SHEM angle set at the beginning of the next full-cycle. Since the convergence of the solution to a global minimum point depends upon the use of correct initial values especially for a large number of SHEM angles, a generalized initialization procedure is also described in the paper. Theoretical results are verified initially using hardware co-simulation. They are also tested using a small scale photovoltaic (PV) supply prototype developed specifically for this purpose. It is demonstrated that the 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, 17th, and 19th sidekick harmonics are eliminated by on-line calculation of seven SHEM angles through the developed PSO algorithm on a moderately powerful XEM6010-LX150, USB-2.0-integrated FPGA module. All control and protection actions and the calculation of SHEM angles are achieved by a single FPGA chip and its peripherals within the FPGA board. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Series Active Filter Design Based on Asymmetric Hybrid Modular Multilevel Converter for Traction System
Electronics 2018, 7(8), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7080134
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3209 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a comparative analysis of a new topology based on an asymmetric hybrid modular multilevel converter (AHMMC) with recently proposed multilevel converter topologies. The analysis is based on various parameters for medium voltage-high power electric traction system. Among recently proposed topologies, [...] Read more.
This paper presents a comparative analysis of a new topology based on an asymmetric hybrid modular multilevel converter (AHMMC) with recently proposed multilevel converter topologies. The analysis is based on various parameters for medium voltage-high power electric traction system. Among recently proposed topologies, few converters have been analysed through simulation results. In addition, the study investigates AHMMC converter which is a cascade arrangement of H-bridge with five-level cascaded converter module (FCCM) in more detail. The key features of the proposed AHMMC includes: reduced switch losses by minimizing the switching frequency as well as the components count, and improved power factor with minimum harmonic distortion. Extensive simulation results and low voltage laboratory prototype validates the working principle of the proposed converter topology. Furthermore, the paper concludes with the comparison factors evaluation of the discussed converter topologies for medium voltage traction applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Reduced Switch AC-AC Converter with the Application of D-STATCOM and Induction Motor Drive
Electronics 2018, 7(7), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7070110
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
PDF Full-text (8118 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a reduced switch AC-DC-AC converter is used as a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) and induction motor drive. The AC-DC-AC nine switch converter (NSC) is a reduced switch topology of conventional 12-switch back to back converter. With a 25% reduced switch [...] Read more.
In this paper, a reduced switch AC-DC-AC converter is used as a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) and induction motor drive. The AC-DC-AC nine switch converter (NSC) is a reduced switch topology of conventional 12-switch back to back converter. With a 25% reduced switch count, NSC has lower losses when operated at constant frequency mode compared to twelve switch converter (TSC). The idea is to operate NSC input terminal as an active front-end rectifier to mimic synchronous generator (SG) operation. The induction motor is connected at the output of the NSC for irrigation application where no speed regulation is required. In distribution generation (DG), a large capacitor bank is used to deliver required reactive power. This may lead to over-voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC) when the load is turned off. To manage reactive power transfer at PCC, a control scheme is developed for NSC such that it can absorb or deliver reactive power with induction motor drive. Similar to SG, V-curve and inverted V-curve is plotted. The simulation and hardware results prove the feasibility of the proposed system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Variable Speed Pumped Storage System Based on Droop-Fed Vector Control Strategy for Grid Frequency and AC-Bus Voltage Stability
Electronics 2018, 7(7), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7070108
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 7 July 2018
PDF Full-text (10993 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Harnessing wind energy is the most rapidly growing amongst renewable energy sources. However, because of its intermittency in nature, wind power results in unfavorable influences on power system control, operation and stability. The voltage sag and flicker and grid frequency fluctuation are significant [...] Read more.
Harnessing wind energy is the most rapidly growing amongst renewable energy sources. However, because of its intermittency in nature, wind power results in unfavorable influences on power system control, operation and stability. The voltage sag and flicker and grid frequency fluctuation are significant in this regard. To minimize the effect of wind power fluctuations and other contingencies on the grid frequency and AC-bus voltage, this paper presents a droop-fed vector control strategy based variable speed pumped storage (VSPS) system comprising the doubly fed induction machine. Modelling of the system is undertaken based on a phasor model technique. The case study is made by considering the droop-controlled VSPS plant in a grid containing conventional synchronous machines for hydropower and thermal power plants and an induction machine wind farm. The performance is validated and analyzed using a MATLAB/Simulink platform. The proposed droop-fed control model is compared with the conventional control strategy (without being droop-fed) and tested to wind power fluctuations, start-up transients, load variations and three-phase fault. The results show that the droop-fed vector control strategy of the VSPS plant achieves better dynamic and steady state controlling responses for grid frequency and AC-bus voltage in the power system than the conventional vector control scheme during wind power fluctuations and contingencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Virtual Micro-Islanding-Based Control Paradigm for Renewable Microgrids
Electronics 2018, 7(7), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7070105
Received: 27 May 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (3940 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Improvements in control of renewable energy-based microgrids are a growing area of interest. A hierarchical control structure is popularly implemented to regulate key parameters such as power sharing between generation sources, system frequency and node voltages. A distributed control infrastructure is realized by [...] Read more.
Improvements in control of renewable energy-based microgrids are a growing area of interest. A hierarchical control structure is popularly implemented to regulate key parameters such as power sharing between generation sources, system frequency and node voltages. A distributed control infrastructure is realized by means of a communication network that spans the micro-distribution grid. Measured and estimated values, as well as corrective signals are transmitted across this network to effect required system regulation. However, intermittent latencies and failures of component communication links may result in power imbalances between generation sources, deviations in node voltages and system frequency. This paper proposes a hierarchical control structure to regulate the operation of an islanded AC microgrid experiencing communication link failures. The proposed strategy aims to virtually sub-divide the microgrid into controllable “islands”. Thereafter, active power sharing, frequency and voltage restoration is achieved by competing converter systems through multi-agent consensus. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology has been verified through stability analyses using system wide mathematical small signal models and case study simulations in MATLAB, Simpower systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle A Control Methodology for Load Sharing System Restoration in Islanded DC Micro Grid with Faulty Communication Links
Electronics 2018, 7(6), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7060090
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (3328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Communication-based distributed secondary control is extensively used in DC microgrids. Compared to centralized control, it can provide better voltage regulation and load sharing in microgrids. A conventional secondary control technique that converges the system to a common operating point is improved by using [...] Read more.
Communication-based distributed secondary control is extensively used in DC microgrids. Compared to centralized control, it can provide better voltage regulation and load sharing in microgrids. A conventional secondary control technique that converges the system to a common operating point is improved by using the control methodology to detect the communication link failure and stabilize the system operation during communication islanding. Recently, more robust control schemes have been proposed to improve resilience, but communication islanding has not been addressed at the secondary level control for which the system requires additional tertiary control. However, link failure is a possibility in the microgrid, so this paper proposes a control scheme at the secondary level to detect communication islanding. Communication islanding may lead the system to unpredictable behavior, which may cause the system to become unstable and may further lead to a cascading failure. The proposed control scheme sustains the stability and operation of a DC microgrid. Voltage and current observer works in a parallel manner with the proposed secondary control to achieve a correction term for global operating points. The proposed control scheme has been verified through analysis and simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle All SiC Grid-Connected PV Supply with HF Link MPPT Converter: System Design Methodology and Development of a 20 kHz, 25 kVA Prototype
Electronics 2018, 7(6), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7060085
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (8964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Design methodology and implementation of an all SiC power semiconductor-based, grid-connected multi-string photovoltaic (PV) supply with an isolated high frequency (HF) link maximum power point tracker (MPPT) have been described. This system configuration makes possible the use of a simple and reliable two-level [...] Read more.
Design methodology and implementation of an all SiC power semiconductor-based, grid-connected multi-string photovoltaic (PV) supply with an isolated high frequency (HF) link maximum power point tracker (MPPT) have been described. This system configuration makes possible the use of a simple and reliable two-level voltage source inverter (VSI) topology for grid connection, owing to the galvanic isolation provided by the HF transformer. This topology provides a viable alternative to the commonly used non-isolated PV supplies equipped with Si-based boost MPPT converters cascaded with relatively more complex inverter topologies, at competitive efficiency figures and a higher power density. A 20 kHz, 25 kVA prototype system was designed based on the dynamic model of the multi-string PV panels obtained from field tests. Design parameters such as input DC link capacitance, switching frequencies of MPPT converter and voltage source inverter, size and performance of HF transformer with nanocrystalline core, DC link voltage, and LCL filter of the VSI were optimized in view of the site dependent parameters such as the variation ranges of solar insolation, module surface temperature, and grid voltage. A modified synchronous reference frame control was implemented in the VSI by applying the grid voltage feedforward to the reference voltages in abc axes directly, so that zero-sequence components of grid voltages are taken into account in the case of an unbalanced grid. The system was implemented and the proposed design methodology verified satisfactorily in the field on a roof-mounted 23.7 kW multi-string PV system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Extended Kalman Filter Based Sliding Mode Control of Parallel-Connected Two Five-Phase PMSM Drive System
Electronics 2018, 7(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7020014
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2697 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents sliding mode control of sensor-less parallel-connected two five-phase permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) fed by a single five-leg inverter. For both machines, the rotor speeds and rotor positions as well as load torques are estimated by using Extended Kalman Filter [...] Read more.
This paper presents sliding mode control of sensor-less parallel-connected two five-phase permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) fed by a single five-leg inverter. For both machines, the rotor speeds and rotor positions as well as load torques are estimated by using Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) scheme. Fully decoupled control of both machines is possible via an appropriate phase transposition while connecting the stator windings parallel and employing proposed speed sensor-less method. In the resulting parallel-connected two-machine drive, the independent control of each machine in the group is achieved by controlling the stator currents and speed of each machine under vector control consideration. The effectiveness of the proposed Extended Kalman Filter in conjunction with the sliding mode control is confirmed through application of different load torques for wide speed range operation. Comparison between sliding mode control and PI control of the proposed two-motor drive is provided. The speed response shows a short rise time, an overshoot during reverse operation and settling times is 0.075 s when PI control is used. The speed response obtained by SMC is without overshoot and follows its reference and settling time is 0.028 s. Simulation results confirm that, in transient periods, sliding mode controller remarkably outperforms its counterpart PI controller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Analyzing the Profile Effects of the Various Magnet Shapes in Axial Flux PM Motors by Means of 3D-FEA
Electronics 2018, 7(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7020013
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (5889 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Axial flux machines have positive sides on the power and torque density profile. However, the price of this profile is paid by the torque ripples and irregular magnetic flux density production. To gather higher efficiency, torque ripples should close to the zero and [...] Read more.
Axial flux machines have positive sides on the power and torque density profile. However, the price of this profile is paid by the torque ripples and irregular magnetic flux density production. To gather higher efficiency, torque ripples should close to the zero and the stator side iron should be unsaturated. Torque ripples mainly occur due to the interaction between the rotor poles and the stator teeth. In this study, different rotor poles are investigated in contrast to stator magnetic flux density and the torque ripple effects. Since the components of the axial flux machines vary by the radius, analysis of the magnetic resources is more complicated. Thus, 3D-FEA (finite element analysis) is used to simulate the effects. The infrastructure of the characteristics which are obtained from the 3D-FEA analysis is built by the magnetic equivalent circuit (MAGEC) analysis to understand the relationships of the parameters. The principal goal of this research is a smoother distribution of the magnetic flux density and lower torque ripples. As the result, the implementations on the rotor poles have interesting influences on the torque ripple and flux density profiles. The MAGEC and 3D-FEA results validate each other. The torque ripple is reduced and the magnetic flux density is softened on AFPM irons. In conclusion, the proposed rotors have good impacts on the motor performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Automatic EMI Filter Design for Power Electronic Converters Oriented to High Power Density
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 3 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (4300 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a complete computer aided procedure based on the power density concept and aimed at the automatic design of EMI filters for power electronic converters is presented. It is rule-based, and it uses suitable databases built-up by considering information on passive [...] Read more.
In this paper, a complete computer aided procedure based on the power density concept and aimed at the automatic design of EMI filters for power electronic converters is presented. It is rule-based, and it uses suitable databases built-up by considering information on passive components available from commercial datasheets. The power density constraint is taken into consideration by imposing the minimization of the filter volume and/or weight; nevertheless, the system in which the automatically designed filter is included satisfies the electromagnetic compatibility standards limits. Experimental validations of the proposed procedure are presented for two real case studies, for which the performance and the size of the best filter design are compared with those related to a conventionally designed one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle Online Optimal Switching Frequency Selection for Grid-Connected Voltage Source Inverters
Electronics 2017, 6(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics6040110
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 2 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3975 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Enhancing the performance of the voltage source inverters (VSIs) without changing the hardware structure has recently acquired an increased amount of interest. In this study, an optimization algorithm, enhancing the quality of the output power and the efficiency of three-phase grid connected VSIs [...] Read more.
Enhancing the performance of the voltage source inverters (VSIs) without changing the hardware structure has recently acquired an increased amount of interest. In this study, an optimization algorithm, enhancing the quality of the output power and the efficiency of three-phase grid connected VSIs is proposed. Towards that end, the proposed algorithm varies the switching frequency (fsw) to maintain the best balance between switching losses of the insulated-gate-bipolar-transistor (IGBT) power module as well as the output power quality under all loading conditions, including the ambient temperature effect. Since there is a contradiction with these two measures in relation to the switching frequency, the theory of multi-objective optimization is employed. The proposed algorithm is executed on the platform of Altera® DE2-115 field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA) in which the optimal value of the switching frequency is determined online without the need for heavy offline calculations and/or lookup tables. With adopting the proposed algorithm, there is an improvement in the VSI efficiency without degrading the output power quality. Therefore, the proposed algorithm enhances the lifetime of the IGBT power module because of reduced variations in the module’s junction temperature. An experimental prototype is built, and experimental tests are conducted for the verification of the viability of the proposed algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview Control Strategies of Mitigating Dead-time Effect on Power Converters: An Overview
Electronics 2019, 8(2), 196; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics8020196
Received: 24 December 2018 / Revised: 22 January 2019 / Accepted: 26 January 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2837 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
To prevent short-circuits between the upper and lower switches of power converters from over-current protection, the dead time is mandatory in the switching gating signal for voltage source converters. However, this results in many negative effects on system operations, such as output voltage [...] Read more.
To prevent short-circuits between the upper and lower switches of power converters from over-current protection, the dead time is mandatory in the switching gating signal for voltage source converters. However, this results in many negative effects on system operations, such as output voltage and current distortions (e.g., increased level of fifth and seventh harmonics), zero-current-clamping phenomenon, and output fundamental-frequency voltage reduction. Many solutions have been presented to cope with this problem. First, the dead-time effect is analyzed by taking into account factors such as the zero-clamping phenomenon, voltage drops on diodes and transistors, and the parameters of inverter loads, as well as the parasitic nature of semiconductor switches. Second, the state-of-the-art dead-time compensation algorithms are presented in this paper. Third, the advantages and disadvantages of existing algorithms are discussed, together with the future trends of dead-time compensation algorithms. This article provides a complete scenario of dead-time compensation with control strategies for voltage source converters for researchers to identify suitable solutions based on demand and application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Magnetically Coupled Resonance WPT: Review of Compensation Topologies, Resonator Structures with Misalignment, and EMI Diagnostics
Electronics 2018, 7(11), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7110296
Received: 11 September 2018 / Revised: 11 October 2018 / Accepted: 22 October 2018 / Published: 2 November 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (16078 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Magnetically coupled resonance wireless power transfer systems (MCR WPT) have been developed in recent years. There are several key benefits of such systems, including dispensing with power cords, being able to charge multiple devices simultaneously, and having a wide power range. Hence, WPT [...] Read more.
Magnetically coupled resonance wireless power transfer systems (MCR WPT) have been developed in recent years. There are several key benefits of such systems, including dispensing with power cords, being able to charge multiple devices simultaneously, and having a wide power range. Hence, WPT systems have been used to supply the power for many applications, such as electric vehicles (EVs), implantable medical devices (IMDs), consumer electronics, etc. The literature has reported numerous topologies, many structures with misalignment effects, and various standards related to WPT systems; they are usually confusing and difficult to follow. To provide a clearer picture, this paper aims to provide comprehensive classifications for the recent contributions to the current state of MCR WPT. This paper sets a benchmark in order to provide a deep comparison between different WPT systems according to different criteria: (1) compensation topologies; (2) resonator structures with misalignment effects; and, (3) electromagnetic field (EMF) diagnostics and electromagnetic field interference (EMI), including the WPT-related standards and EMI and EMF reduction methods. Finally, WPT systems are arranged according to the application type. In addition, a WPT case study is proposed, an algorithm design is given, and experiments are conducted to validate the results obtained by simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Graphical abstract

Open AccessReview Electrical Circuit Modelling of Double Layer Capacitors for Power Electronics and Energy Storage Applications: A Review
Electronics 2018, 7(11), 268; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7110268
Received: 31 August 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 19 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2277 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
There has been increasing interests in the use of double layer capacitors (DLCs)—most commonly referred to as supercapacitors (SCs), ultra-capacitors (UCs), or hybrid capacitors (HCs)—in the field of power electronics. This increased interest in the hybridization of energy storages for automotive applications over [...] Read more.
There has been increasing interests in the use of double layer capacitors (DLCs)—most commonly referred to as supercapacitors (SCs), ultra-capacitors (UCs), or hybrid capacitors (HCs)—in the field of power electronics. This increased interest in the hybridization of energy storages for automotive applications over the past few years is because of their advantage of high power density over traditional battery technologies. To facilitate accurate design and simulation of these systems, there is a need to make use of accurate and well validated models. Several models have been postulated in literature, however, these models have various limitations and strengths, ranging from the ease of use down to the complexity of characterization and parameter identification. The aim of this paper is to review and compare these models, specifically focusing on the models that predict the electrical characteristics of DLCs. The uniqueness of this review is that it focusses on the electrical circuit models of DLCs, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of the different available models and the various areas for improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Review on Health Management System for Lithium-Ion Batteries of Electric Vehicles
Electronics 2018, 7(5), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7050072
Received: 15 April 2018 / Revised: 6 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (3308 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The battery is the most ideal power source of the twenty-first century, and has a bright future in many applications, such as portable consumer electronics, electric vehicles (EVs), military and aerospace systems, and power storage for renewable energy sources, because of its many [...] Read more.
The battery is the most ideal power source of the twenty-first century, and has a bright future in many applications, such as portable consumer electronics, electric vehicles (EVs), military and aerospace systems, and power storage for renewable energy sources, because of its many advantages that make it the most promising technology. EVs are viewed as one of the novel solutions to land transport systems, as they reduce overdependence on fossil energy. With the current growth of EVs, it calls for innovative ways of supplementing EVs power, as overdependence on electric power may add to expensive loads on the power grid. However lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for EVs have high capacity, and large serial/parallel numbers, when coupled with problems like safety, durability, uniformity, and cost imposes limitations on the wide application of lithium-ion batteries in EVs. These LIBs face a major challenge of battery life, which research has shown can be extended by cell balancing. The common areas under which these batteries operate with safety and reliability require the effective control and management of battery health systems. A great deal of research is being carried out to see that this technology does not lead to failure in the applications, as its failure may lead to catastrophes or lessen performance. This paper, through an analytical review of the literature, gives a brief introduction to battery management system (BMS), opportunities, and challenges, and provides a future research agenda on battery health management. With issues raised in this review paper, further exploration is essential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview Digital Control Techniques Based on Voltage Source Inverters in Renewable Energy Applications: A Review
Electronics 2018, 7(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7020018
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (7177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the modern era, distributed generation is considered as an alternative source for power generation. Especially, need of the time is to provide the three-phase loads with smooth sinusoidal voltages having fixed frequency and amplitude. A common solution is the integration of power [...] Read more.
In the modern era, distributed generation is considered as an alternative source for power generation. Especially, need of the time is to provide the three-phase loads with smooth sinusoidal voltages having fixed frequency and amplitude. A common solution is the integration of power electronics converters in the systems for connecting distributed generation systems to the stand-alone loads. Thus, the presence of suitable control techniques, in the power electronic converters, for robust stability, abrupt response, optimal tracking ability and error eradication are inevitable. A comprehensive review based on design, analysis, validation of the most suitable digital control techniques and the options available for the researchers for improving the power quality is presented in this paper with their pros and cons. Comparisons based on the cost, schemes, performance, modulation techniques and coordinates system are also presented. Finally, the paper describes the performance evaluation of the control schemes on a voltage source inverter (VSI) and proposes the different aspects to be considered for selecting a power electronics inverter topology, reference frames, filters, as well as control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Figures

Figure 1