Special Issue "Applications of Power Electronics"

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section "Power Electronics".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 31 October 2018

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Frede Blaabjerg
Highly Cited - Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters)

Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg 9220, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +45 9815 1411
Interests: power electronics and its applications in motor drives; wind turbines; PV systems; harmonics; reliability of power electronic systems
Guest Editor
Dr. Tomislav Dragicevic

The Faculty of Engineering and Science, Department of Energy Technology Power Electronic Systems, Aalborg University, Aalborg 9220, Denmark
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Interests: Micro Grids, Marine Technology, Renewable Integration, Energy Storage, Distributed Control
Guest Editor
Dr. Pooya Davari

Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Interests: active front-end rectifiers; harmonic mitigation in adjustable-speed drives; electromagnetic interference in power electronics; high power density power electronic systems; pulsed power applications

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Power electronics technology has found its way into many applications, from renewable energy generation (i.e., wind power and solar power) to Electrical Vehicle (EV), biomedical and small appliances, such as laptop chargers. In a near future, electrical energy is provided by power electronics and is consumed by power electronics. This, not only intensifies the role of power electronics technology in power conversion processes, but also implies that power systems are undergoing a paradigm shift, from centralized distribution to distributed generation.

One emerging application that has put an imprint on this paradigm shift is the microgrid (MG). It is a small, power electronics intensive power system, which has been gaining continually-increasing interest over the past few years, both in academia and industry. The advantages of a microgrid are that it provides higher flexibility and easier management over renewable energy sources (RESs), electronic loads and energy storage systems (ESSs), rather than interfacing those resources individually to the grid. With the rapid emergence of power electronics, the importance of microgrids in today’s society is gradually being brought to a whole new level.

The main aim of this Special Issue is to seek high-quality submissions that highlight emerging applications, address recent breakthroughs in the power electronics application-oriented design, high-power density power converters, robust and reliable power electronics technologies, smart control of power electronics at device, microgrid and system levels. The topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Power electronics application in renewable energies
  • Power electronics application in electric vehicles
  • High power density dower electronic systems
  • Condition monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic of power electronics with enhanced control for reliable and robust applications
  • Application of power electronics in smart DC and AC distribution systems
  • Power electronics applications in electrical drives
  • Power electronics applications in lighting
  • Power electronics for biomedical applications
  • Power electronics for microgrids

Prof. Frede Blaabjerg
Dr. Tomislav Dragicevic
Dr. Pooya Davari
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Electronics is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 850 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Power electronics application in renewable energies
  • Power electronics application in electric vehicles
  • High power density dower electronic systems
  • Condition monitoring, prognostic and diagnostic of power electronics with enhanced control for reliable and robust applications
  • Application of power electronics in smart DC and AC distribution systems
  • Power electronics applications in electrical drives
  • Power electronics applications in lighting
  • Power electronics for biomedical applications
  • Power electronics for microgrids

Published Papers (28 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Fixed-Frequency Sliding-Mode Controller for Fourth-Order Class-D Amplifier
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 261; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100261
Received: 20 September 2018 / Revised: 16 October 2018 / Accepted: 17 October 2018 / Published: 19 October 2018
PDF Full-text (1599 KB)
Abstract
Since the parasitic voltage ringing and switching power losses limit the operation of active devices at elevated frequencies; therefore, a higher‐order inductor‐capacitor (LC) filter is commonly used, which offers extended attenuation above the cutoff frequency and thus, improves the total harmonic distortion (THD)
[...] Read more.
Since the parasitic voltage ringing and switching power losses limit the operation of active devices at elevated frequencies; therefore, a higher‐order inductor‐capacitor (LC) filter is commonly used, which offers extended attenuation above the cutoff frequency and thus, improves the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the amplifier. This paper applies the concept of integral sliding‐mode control to a fourth‐order class‐D amplifier. Two fixed‐frequency double integral sliding‐mode (FFDISM) controllers are proposed, where one uses the inductor current while the other involves the capacitor current feedback. Their equivalent control equations are derived, but from the realization viewpoint, the controller using the capacitor current feedback is advantageous and, therefore, is selected for final implementation. The performance of the proposed FFDISM controller for fourth‐order GaN class‐D amplifier is confirmed using simulation and experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
Open AccessArticle Simulation Model of a 2-kW IPT Charger with Phase-Shift Control: Validation through the Tuning of the Coupling Factor
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 255; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100255
Received: 5 September 2018 / Revised: 28 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
When applied to road vehicle electrification, inductive power transfer (IPT) technology has the potential to boost the transition from combustion engines to electric motors powered by a battery pack. This work focuses on the validation of a PSpice circuit model developed as a
[...] Read more.
When applied to road vehicle electrification, inductive power transfer (IPT) technology has the potential to boost the transition from combustion engines to electric motors powered by a battery pack. This work focuses on the validation of a PSpice circuit model developed as a replica of a 2-kW IPT prototype with series-series compensation operating at 18.65 kHz. The laboratory prototype has the three stages commonly found in an IPT system: an inverter, controlled by the phase-shift technique, a coil coupling and a load. Simulations were run with the circuit model for three different distances between the two coils of the inductive coupling, all of which are of interest for practical chargers: 125, 150 and 175 mm. The validation approach was based on tuning the magnetic coupling factor for each distance and a set of ten load resistances, until the best match between the simulated and the experimental peak currents supplied by the inverter was found in each case. The coupling factors obtained from the simulation work are in good agreement with their experimental counterparts for the three distances, provided the duty cycle of the inverter output voltage is not too small. The circuit model developed is, therefore, able to reproduce the behavior of the laboratory prototype with sufficient accuracy over a wide range of distances between coils and loading conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Active EMI Reduction Using Chaotic Modulation in a Buck Converter with Relaxed Output LC Filter
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 254; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100254
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 15 October 2018 / Accepted: 16 October 2018 / Published: 16 October 2018
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Abstract
DC-DC buck converters are widely used in portable applications because of their high power efficiency. However, their inherent fast switching releases electromagnetic emissions, making them prominent sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper proposes a voltage-controlled buck converter that reduces EMI by using
[...] Read more.
DC-DC buck converters are widely used in portable applications because of their high power efficiency. However, their inherent fast switching releases electromagnetic emissions, making them prominent sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI). This paper proposes a voltage-controlled buck converter that reduces EMI by using a chaotic pulse-width modulation (PWM) technique based on a chaotic triangular ramp generator. The chaotic triangular ramp generator is constructed from a simple on-chip chaotic circuit linked with a symmetrically triangular ramp circuit. The proposed converter can thus operate in the chaotic mode reducing the EMI without requiring any EMI filters. Additionally, using the triangular ramp signal can relax the requirement for a large LC output filter in chaotic mode. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme was experimentally verified with a chaotic triangular ramp generator embedded in a voltage-mode controller buck converter using a 0.18 µm Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) process. The measurement results from a prototype showed that the EMI improvement from the proposed scheme is approximately 14.53 dB at the fundamental switching frequency with respect to the standard fixed-frequency PWM reference case. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle 4T Analog MOS Control-High Voltage High Frequency (HVHF) Plasma Switching Power Supply for Water Purification in Industrial Applications
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100245
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 8 October 2018 / Published: 11 October 2018
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Abstract
High-power plasma power supply is very useful for many industrial and medical applications. Plasma is generated artificially in the laboratory or industry by applying the electric or magnetic field. In this manuscript, we presented the simple 4T analog MOS control high voltage high
[...] Read more.
High-power plasma power supply is very useful for many industrial and medical applications. Plasma is generated artificially in the laboratory or industry by applying the electric or magnetic field. In this manuscript, we presented the simple 4T analog MOS control high voltage high frequency inverter circuit as a plasma power supply using modulation index technique. The presented plasma power supply operated at 25 kHz frequency and 10 kV peak to peak voltage. It generates a 0 V to 10 kV controllable electric field. The generated electric field is applied and produces plasma, which can be used for many industrial applications. A 10 kV to 5 kW plasma power supply has been practically developed based on the proposed topology and experimentally tested and, additionally, excellent output power conversion efficiency is achieved. From these results, the 4T analog MOS control high voltage high frequency (HVHF) plasma switching power supply is verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle SHIL and DHIL Simulations of Nonlinear Control Methods Applied for Power Converters Using Embedded Systems
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100241
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 11 September 2018 / Accepted: 30 September 2018 / Published: 6 October 2018
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Abstract
In this work, a new real-time Simulation method is designed for nonlinear control techniques applied to power converters. We propose two different implementations: in the first one (Single Hardware in The Loop: SHIL), both model and control laws are inserted in the same
[...] Read more.
In this work, a new real-time Simulation method is designed for nonlinear control techniques applied to power converters. We propose two different implementations: in the first one (Single Hardware in The Loop: SHIL), both model and control laws are inserted in the same Digital Signal Processor (DSP), and in the second approach (Double Hardware in The Loop: DHIL), the equations are loaded in different embedded systems. With this methodology, linear and nonlinear control techniques can be designed and compared in a quick and cheap real-time realization of the proposed systems, ideal for both students and engineers who are interested in learning and validating converters performance. The methodology can be applied to buck, boost, buck-boost, flyback, SEPIC and 3-phase AC-DC boost converters showing that the new and high performance embedded systems can evaluate distinct nonlinear controllers. The approach is done using matlab-simulink over commodity Texas Instruments Digital Signal Processors (TI-DSPs). The main purpose is to demonstrate the feasibility of proposed real-time implementations without using expensive HIL systems such as Opal-RT and Typhoon-HL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Improving Performance of Three-Phase Slim DC-Link Drives Utilizing Virtual Positive Impedance-Based Active Damping Control
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100234
Received: 3 September 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 4 October 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, a virtual positive impedance (VPI) based active damping control for a slim DC-link motor drive with 24 section space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) is proposed. Utilizing the proposed control and modulation strategy can improve the input of current total
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a virtual positive impedance (VPI) based active damping control for a slim DC-link motor drive with 24 section space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) is proposed. Utilizing the proposed control and modulation strategy can improve the input of current total harmonic distortion (THD) while maintaining the cogging torque of the motor. The proposed system is expected to reduce the front-end current THD according to international standards, as per IEC 61000 and IEEE-519. It is also expected to achieve lower cost, longer lifetime, and fewer losses. A permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is fed by the inverter, which adopts the 24 section SVPWM technique. The VPI based active damping control for the slim DC-link drive with/without the 24 section SVPWM are compared to confirm the performance of the proposed method. The simulation results based on MATLAB are provided to validate the proposed control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Exploring the Limits of Floating-Point Resolution for Hardware-In-the-Loop Implemented with FPGAs
Electronics 2018, 7(10), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7100219
Received: 7 September 2018 / Revised: 24 September 2018 / Accepted: 26 September 2018 / Published: 27 September 2018
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Abstract
As the performance of digital devices is improving, Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) techniques are being increasingly used. HIL systems are frequently implemented using FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Array) as they allow faster calculations and therefore smaller simulation steps. As the simulation step is reduced, the
[...] Read more.
As the performance of digital devices is improving, Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) techniques are being increasingly used. HIL systems are frequently implemented using FPGAs (Field Programmable Gate Array) as they allow faster calculations and therefore smaller simulation steps. As the simulation step is reduced, the incremental values for the state variables are reduced proportionally, increasing the difference between the current value of the state variable and its increments. This difference can lead to numerical resolution issues when both magnitudes cannot be stored simultaneously in the state variable. FPGA-based HIL systems generally use 32-bit floating-point due to hardware and timing restrictions but they may suffer from these resolution problems. This paper explores the limits of 32-bit floating-point arithmetics in the context of hardware-in-the-loop systems, and how a larger format can be used to avoid resolution problems. The consequences in terms of hardware resources and running frequency are also explored. Although the conclusions reached in this work can be applied to any digital device, they can be directly used in the field of FPGAs, where the designer can easily use custom floating-point arithmetics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Optimized Design of Modular Multilevel DC De-Icer for High Voltage Transmission Lines
Electronics 2018, 7(9), 204; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7090204
Received: 17 August 2018 / Revised: 8 September 2018 / Accepted: 14 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
Ice covering on overhead transmission lines would cause damage to transmission system and long-term power outage. Among various de-icing devices, a modular multilevel converter based direct-current (DC)de-icer (MMC-DDI) is recognized as a promising solution due to its excellent technical performance. Its principle feasibility
[...] Read more.
Ice covering on overhead transmission lines would cause damage to transmission system and long-term power outage. Among various de-icing devices, a modular multilevel converter based direct-current (DC)de-icer (MMC-DDI) is recognized as a promising solution due to its excellent technical performance. Its principle feasibility has been well studied, but only a small amount of literature discusses its economy or hardware optimization. To fill this gap, this paper presents a quantitative analysis and calculation on the converter characteristics of MMC-DDI. It reveals that, for a given DC de-icing requirement, the converter rating varies greatly with its alternating-current (AC) -side voltage, and it sometimes far exceeds the melting power. To reduce converter rating and improve its economy, an optimized configuration is proposed in which a proper transformer should be configured on the input AC-side of converter under certain conditions. This configuration is verified in an MMC-DDI for a 500 kV transmission line as a case study. The result shows, in the case of outputting the same de-icing characteristics, the optimized converter is reduced from 151 MVA to 68 MVA, and the total cost of the MMC-DDI system is reduced by 48%. This conclusion is conducive to the design optimization of multilevel DC de-icer and then to its engineering application. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Line Frequency Instability of One-Cycle-Controlled Boost Power Factor Correction Converter
Electronics 2018, 7(9), 203; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7090203
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 17 September 2018
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Abstract
Power Factor Correction (PFC) converters are widely used in engineering. A classical PFC control circuit employs two complicated feedback control loops and a multiplier, while the One-Cycle-Controlled (OCC) PFC converter has a simple control circuit. In OCC PFC converters, the voltage loop is
[...] Read more.
Power Factor Correction (PFC) converters are widely used in engineering. A classical PFC control circuit employs two complicated feedback control loops and a multiplier, while the One-Cycle-Controlled (OCC) PFC converter has a simple control circuit. In OCC PFC converters, the voltage loop is implemented with a PID control and the multiplier is not needed. Although linear theory is used in designing the OCC PFC converter control circuit, it cannot be used in predicting non-linear phenomena in the converter. In this paper, a non-linear model of the OCC PFC Boost converter is proposed based on the double averaging method. The line frequency instability of the converter is predicted by studying the DC component, the first harmonic component and the second harmonic component of the main circuit and the control circuit. The effect of the input voltage and the output capacitance on the stability of the converter is studied. The correctness of the proposed model is verified with numerical simulations and experimental measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Improved Step Load Response of a Dual-Active-Bridge DC–DC Converter
Electronics 2018, 7(9), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7090185
Received: 10 August 2018 / Revised: 3 September 2018 / Accepted: 6 September 2018 / Published: 9 September 2018
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Abstract
This paper proposes a fast load transient control for a bidirectional dual-active-bridge (DAB) DC/DC converter. It is capable of maintaining voltage–time balance during a step load change process so that no overshoot current and DC offset current exist. The transient control has been
[...] Read more.
This paper proposes a fast load transient control for a bidirectional dual-active-bridge (DAB) DC/DC converter. It is capable of maintaining voltage–time balance during a step load change process so that no overshoot current and DC offset current exist. The transient control has been applied for all possible transition cases and the calculation of intermediate switching angles referring to the fixed reference points is independent from the converter parameters and the instantaneous current. The results have been validated by extended experimental tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Performance Evaluation of a Semi-Dual-Active-Bridge with PPWM Plus SPS Control
Electronics 2018, 7(9), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7090184
Received: 24 August 2018 / Revised: 5 September 2018 / Accepted: 7 September 2018 / Published: 9 September 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, a semi-dual-active-bridge (S-DAB) DC/DC converter with primary pulse-width modulation plus secondary phase-shifted (PPWM + SPS) control for boost conversion is analyzed in detail. Under the new control scheme, all effective operation modes are identified at first. Then, the working principle,
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a semi-dual-active-bridge (S-DAB) DC/DC converter with primary pulse-width modulation plus secondary phase-shifted (PPWM + SPS) control for boost conversion is analyzed in detail. Under the new control scheme, all effective operation modes are identified at first. Then, the working principle, switching behaviour, and operation range in each mode are discussed. Compared with conventional secondary phase-shifted control, PPWM + SPS control with two controllable phase-shift angles can extend the zero-voltage switching (ZVS) range and enhance control flexibility. In addition, an effective control route is also given that can make the converter achieve at the global minimum root-mean-square (RMS) current across the whole power range and avoid the voltage ringing on the transformer secondary-side at a light load. Finally, a 200 W prototype circuit is built and tested to verify correctness and effectiveness of theoretical results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Wireless Power Transfer for Battery Powering System
Electronics 2018, 7(9), 178; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7090178
Received: 18 August 2018 / Revised: 30 August 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
The LCL topology (formed by an LC tank with a transmitting coil) is extensively utilized in wireless power transfer (WPT) systems with the features of a constant resonant current and ability to disconnect load abruptly. However, it requires high input voltage, which limits
[...] Read more.
The LCL topology (formed by an LC tank with a transmitting coil) is extensively utilized in wireless power transfer (WPT) systems with the features of a constant resonant current and ability to disconnect load abruptly. However, it requires high input voltage, which limits its utilization in battery powering scenarios (12~24 V). A current-fed inverter (CFI) is applied to the LCL-S (a compensation capacitor in series with the receiving coil) WPT systems to boost the input voltage, thereby getting a higher resonant current in the transmitting side (Tx). To facilitate the voltage regulation in the receiving side (Rx), a semi-active bridge (SAB) is introduced into the system, which further boosts the output voltage by a lower frequency switching at different duty ratios. Rigorous mathematical analysis of the proposed system is carried out and design guidelines are subsequently derived. Moreover, a power loss reduction is realized by zero voltage switch (ZVS) of the four switches in the Tx which are deduced and presented. Simulations and experiments are added to verify the proposed system. Consequently, a 93.3% system efficiency (DC-to-DC efficiency) is obtained using the proposed topology. Optimization techniques for a higher efficiency are included in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle New Fault-Tolerant Control Strategy of Five-Phase Induction Motor with Four-Phase and Three-Phase Modes of Operation
Electronics 2018, 7(9), 159; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7090159
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 3 August 2018 / Accepted: 7 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
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Abstract
The developed torque with minimum oscillations is one of the difficulties faced when designing drive systems. High ripple torque contents result in fluctuations and acoustic noise that impact the life of a drive system. A multiphase machine can offer a better alternative to
[...] Read more.
The developed torque with minimum oscillations is one of the difficulties faced when designing drive systems. High ripple torque contents result in fluctuations and acoustic noise that impact the life of a drive system. A multiphase machine can offer a better alternative to a conventional three-phase machine in faulty situations by reducing the number of interruptions in industrial operation. This paper proposes a unique fault-tolerant control strategy for a five-phase induction motor. The paper considers a variable-voltage, variable-frequency control five-phase induction motor in one- and two-phase open circuit faults. The four-phase and three-phase operation modes for these faults are utilized with a modified voltage reference signal. The suggested remedial strategy is the method for compensating a faulty open phase of the machine through a modified reference signal. A modified voltage reference signal can be efficiently executed by a carrier-based pulse width modulation (PWM) system. A test bench for the execution of the fault-tolerant control strategy of the motor drive system is presented in detail along with the experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Energy Management and Switching Control of PHEV Charging Stations in a Hybrid Smart Micro-Grid System
Electronics 2018, 7(9), 156; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7090156
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 13 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 22 August 2018
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Abstract
In this study, the energy management and switching control of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in a hybrid smart micro-grid system was designed. The charging station in this research consists of real market PHEVs of different companies with different sizes. The rate of
[...] Read more.
In this study, the energy management and switching control of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) in a hybrid smart micro-grid system was designed. The charging station in this research consists of real market PHEVs of different companies with different sizes. The rate of charging of PHEVs is managed via switching control to receive maximum benefits from renewable energy sources and reduce the consumption of electricity from the grid. To support the optimum utilization of sustainable power, charging time and network stability, seven scenarios were developed for different interaction among the proposed micro-grid system and PHEVs. The proposed hybrid smart micro-grid system consists of three renewable energy sources: photovoltaic (PV) array controlled via an intelligent fuzzy control maximum power point subsystem, a fuel cell stack and a microturbine set controlled by proportional integral differential/proportional integral subsystems. A hybrid energy storage system (super-capacitor, battery storage bank and hydrogen) and residential load are also included in the proposed architecture. The hybrid smart micro-grid system is checked in terms of voltage regulation, frequency deviation and total harmonic distortion (THD). It was found that these are in limits according to the international standards. The simulations verify the feasibility of the proposed system and fulfill the requirement of vehicle-to-grid and grid-to-vehicle operations in a smart grid environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle On-Line Application of SHEM by Particle Swarm Optimization to Grid-Connected, Three-Phase, Two-Level VSCs with Variable DC Link Voltage
Electronics 2018, 7(8), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7080151
Received: 4 July 2018 / Revised: 10 August 2018 / Accepted: 16 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
This paper is devoted to an otablen-line application of the selective harmonic elimination method (SHEM) to three-phase, two-level, grid-connected voltage source converters (VSCs) by particle swarm optimization (PSO). In such systems, active power can be controlled by the phase shift angle, and reactive
[...] Read more.
This paper is devoted to an otablen-line application of the selective harmonic elimination method (SHEM) to three-phase, two-level, grid-connected voltage source converters (VSCs) by particle swarm optimization (PSO). In such systems, active power can be controlled by the phase shift angle, and reactive power by the modulation index, against variations in the direct current (DC) link voltage. Some selected, low-odd-order harmonic components in the line-to-neutral output voltage waveforms are eliminated by calculating the SHEM angle set continuously through the developed PSO algorithm on field-programmable gate array (FPGA)-based computing hardware as the modulation index is varied. The use of powerful computing hardware permits the elimination of all harmonics up to 50th. The cost function of the developed PSO algorithm is formulated by using an optimum number of particles to obtain a global optimum solution with a small fitness value in each half-cycle of the grid voltage and then updating the SHEM angle set at the beginning of the next full-cycle. Since the convergence of the solution to a global minimum point depends upon the use of correct initial values especially for a large number of SHEM angles, a generalized initialization procedure is also described in the paper. Theoretical results are verified initially using hardware co-simulation. They are also tested using a small scale photovoltaic (PV) supply prototype developed specifically for this purpose. It is demonstrated that the 5th, 7th, 11th, 13th, 17th, and 19th sidekick harmonics are eliminated by on-line calculation of seven SHEM angles through the developed PSO algorithm on a moderately powerful XEM6010-LX150, USB-2.0-integrated FPGA module. All control and protection actions and the calculation of SHEM angles are achieved by a single FPGA chip and its peripherals within the FPGA board. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Series Active Filter Design Based on Asymmetric Hybrid Modular Multilevel Converter for Traction System
Electronics 2018, 7(8), 134; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7080134
Received: 30 June 2018 / Revised: 25 July 2018 / Accepted: 30 July 2018 / Published: 1 August 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents a comparative analysis of a new topology based on an asymmetric hybrid modular multilevel converter (AHMMC) with recently proposed multilevel converter topologies. The analysis is based on various parameters for medium voltage-high power electric traction system. Among recently proposed topologies,
[...] Read more.
This paper presents a comparative analysis of a new topology based on an asymmetric hybrid modular multilevel converter (AHMMC) with recently proposed multilevel converter topologies. The analysis is based on various parameters for medium voltage-high power electric traction system. Among recently proposed topologies, few converters have been analysed through simulation results. In addition, the study investigates AHMMC converter which is a cascade arrangement of H-bridge with five-level cascaded converter module (FCCM) in more detail. The key features of the proposed AHMMC includes: reduced switch losses by minimizing the switching frequency as well as the components count, and improved power factor with minimum harmonic distortion. Extensive simulation results and low voltage laboratory prototype validates the working principle of the proposed converter topology. Furthermore, the paper concludes with the comparison factors evaluation of the discussed converter topologies for medium voltage traction applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle A Reduced Switch AC-AC Converter with the Application of D-STATCOM and Induction Motor Drive
Electronics 2018, 7(7), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7070110
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 3 July 2018 / Accepted: 5 July 2018 / Published: 10 July 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, a reduced switch AC-DC-AC converter is used as a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) and induction motor drive. The AC-DC-AC nine switch converter (NSC) is a reduced switch topology of conventional 12-switch back to back converter. With a 25% reduced switch
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In this paper, a reduced switch AC-DC-AC converter is used as a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) and induction motor drive. The AC-DC-AC nine switch converter (NSC) is a reduced switch topology of conventional 12-switch back to back converter. With a 25% reduced switch count, NSC has lower losses when operated at constant frequency mode compared to twelve switch converter (TSC). The idea is to operate NSC input terminal as an active front-end rectifier to mimic synchronous generator (SG) operation. The induction motor is connected at the output of the NSC for irrigation application where no speed regulation is required. In distribution generation (DG), a large capacitor bank is used to deliver required reactive power. This may lead to over-voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC) when the load is turned off. To manage reactive power transfer at PCC, a control scheme is developed for NSC such that it can absorb or deliver reactive power with induction motor drive. Similar to SG, V-curve and inverted V-curve is plotted. The simulation and hardware results prove the feasibility of the proposed system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle A Variable Speed Pumped Storage System Based on Droop-Fed Vector Control Strategy for Grid Frequency and AC-Bus Voltage Stability
Electronics 2018, 7(7), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7070108
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 3 July 2018 / Published: 7 July 2018
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Abstract
Harnessing wind energy is the most rapidly growing amongst renewable energy sources. However, because of its intermittency in nature, wind power results in unfavorable influences on power system control, operation and stability. The voltage sag and flicker and grid frequency fluctuation are significant
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Harnessing wind energy is the most rapidly growing amongst renewable energy sources. However, because of its intermittency in nature, wind power results in unfavorable influences on power system control, operation and stability. The voltage sag and flicker and grid frequency fluctuation are significant in this regard. To minimize the effect of wind power fluctuations and other contingencies on the grid frequency and AC-bus voltage, this paper presents a droop-fed vector control strategy based variable speed pumped storage (VSPS) system comprising the doubly fed induction machine. Modelling of the system is undertaken based on a phasor model technique. The case study is made by considering the droop-controlled VSPS plant in a grid containing conventional synchronous machines for hydropower and thermal power plants and an induction machine wind farm. The performance is validated and analyzed using a MATLAB/Simulink platform. The proposed droop-fed control model is compared with the conventional control strategy (without being droop-fed) and tested to wind power fluctuations, start-up transients, load variations and three-phase fault. The results show that the droop-fed vector control strategy of the VSPS plant achieves better dynamic and steady state controlling responses for grid frequency and AC-bus voltage in the power system than the conventional vector control scheme during wind power fluctuations and contingencies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle A Virtual Micro-Islanding-Based Control Paradigm for Renewable Microgrids
Electronics 2018, 7(7), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7070105
Received: 27 May 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 4 July 2018
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Abstract
Improvements in control of renewable energy-based microgrids are a growing area of interest. A hierarchical control structure is popularly implemented to regulate key parameters such as power sharing between generation sources, system frequency and node voltages. A distributed control infrastructure is realized by
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Improvements in control of renewable energy-based microgrids are a growing area of interest. A hierarchical control structure is popularly implemented to regulate key parameters such as power sharing between generation sources, system frequency and node voltages. A distributed control infrastructure is realized by means of a communication network that spans the micro-distribution grid. Measured and estimated values, as well as corrective signals are transmitted across this network to effect required system regulation. However, intermittent latencies and failures of component communication links may result in power imbalances between generation sources, deviations in node voltages and system frequency. This paper proposes a hierarchical control structure to regulate the operation of an islanded AC microgrid experiencing communication link failures. The proposed strategy aims to virtually sub-divide the microgrid into controllable “islands”. Thereafter, active power sharing, frequency and voltage restoration is achieved by competing converter systems through multi-agent consensus. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology has been verified through stability analyses using system wide mathematical small signal models and case study simulations in MATLAB, Simpower systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle A Control Methodology for Load Sharing System Restoration in Islanded DC Micro Grid with Faulty Communication Links
Electronics 2018, 7(6), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7060090
Received: 4 April 2018 / Revised: 25 May 2018 / Accepted: 31 May 2018 / Published: 4 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3328 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Communication-based distributed secondary control is extensively used in DC microgrids. Compared to centralized control, it can provide better voltage regulation and load sharing in microgrids. A conventional secondary control technique that converges the system to a common operating point is improved by using
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Communication-based distributed secondary control is extensively used in DC microgrids. Compared to centralized control, it can provide better voltage regulation and load sharing in microgrids. A conventional secondary control technique that converges the system to a common operating point is improved by using the control methodology to detect the communication link failure and stabilize the system operation during communication islanding. Recently, more robust control schemes have been proposed to improve resilience, but communication islanding has not been addressed at the secondary level control for which the system requires additional tertiary control. However, link failure is a possibility in the microgrid, so this paper proposes a control scheme at the secondary level to detect communication islanding. Communication islanding may lead the system to unpredictable behavior, which may cause the system to become unstable and may further lead to a cascading failure. The proposed control scheme sustains the stability and operation of a DC microgrid. Voltage and current observer works in a parallel manner with the proposed secondary control to achieve a correction term for global operating points. The proposed control scheme has been verified through analysis and simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle All SiC Grid-Connected PV Supply with HF Link MPPT Converter: System Design Methodology and Development of a 20 kHz, 25 kVA Prototype
Electronics 2018, 7(6), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7060085
Received: 7 May 2018 / Revised: 23 May 2018 / Accepted: 28 May 2018 / Published: 31 May 2018
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Abstract
Design methodology and implementation of an all SiC power semiconductor-based, grid-connected multi-string photovoltaic (PV) supply with an isolated high frequency (HF) link maximum power point tracker (MPPT) have been described. This system configuration makes possible the use of a simple and reliable two-level
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Design methodology and implementation of an all SiC power semiconductor-based, grid-connected multi-string photovoltaic (PV) supply with an isolated high frequency (HF) link maximum power point tracker (MPPT) have been described. This system configuration makes possible the use of a simple and reliable two-level voltage source inverter (VSI) topology for grid connection, owing to the galvanic isolation provided by the HF transformer. This topology provides a viable alternative to the commonly used non-isolated PV supplies equipped with Si-based boost MPPT converters cascaded with relatively more complex inverter topologies, at competitive efficiency figures and a higher power density. A 20 kHz, 25 kVA prototype system was designed based on the dynamic model of the multi-string PV panels obtained from field tests. Design parameters such as input DC link capacitance, switching frequencies of MPPT converter and voltage source inverter, size and performance of HF transformer with nanocrystalline core, DC link voltage, and LCL filter of the VSI were optimized in view of the site dependent parameters such as the variation ranges of solar insolation, module surface temperature, and grid voltage. A modified synchronous reference frame control was implemented in the VSI by applying the grid voltage feedforward to the reference voltages in abc axes directly, so that zero-sequence components of grid voltages are taken into account in the case of an unbalanced grid. The system was implemented and the proposed design methodology verified satisfactorily in the field on a roof-mounted 23.7 kW multi-string PV system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Extended Kalman Filter Based Sliding Mode Control of Parallel-Connected Two Five-Phase PMSM Drive System
Electronics 2018, 7(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7020014
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 16 January 2018 / Accepted: 19 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
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Abstract
This paper presents sliding mode control of sensor-less parallel-connected two five-phase permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) fed by a single five-leg inverter. For both machines, the rotor speeds and rotor positions as well as load torques are estimated by using Extended Kalman Filter
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This paper presents sliding mode control of sensor-less parallel-connected two five-phase permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSMs) fed by a single five-leg inverter. For both machines, the rotor speeds and rotor positions as well as load torques are estimated by using Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) scheme. Fully decoupled control of both machines is possible via an appropriate phase transposition while connecting the stator windings parallel and employing proposed speed sensor-less method. In the resulting parallel-connected two-machine drive, the independent control of each machine in the group is achieved by controlling the stator currents and speed of each machine under vector control consideration. The effectiveness of the proposed Extended Kalman Filter in conjunction with the sliding mode control is confirmed through application of different load torques for wide speed range operation. Comparison between sliding mode control and PI control of the proposed two-motor drive is provided. The speed response shows a short rise time, an overshoot during reverse operation and settling times is 0.075 s when PI control is used. The speed response obtained by SMC is without overshoot and follows its reference and settling time is 0.028 s. Simulation results confirm that, in transient periods, sliding mode controller remarkably outperforms its counterpart PI controller. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Analyzing the Profile Effects of the Various Magnet Shapes in Axial Flux PM Motors by Means of 3D-FEA
Electronics 2018, 7(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7020013
Received: 14 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 25 January 2018
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Abstract
Axial flux machines have positive sides on the power and torque density profile. However, the price of this profile is paid by the torque ripples and irregular magnetic flux density production. To gather higher efficiency, torque ripples should close to the zero and
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Axial flux machines have positive sides on the power and torque density profile. However, the price of this profile is paid by the torque ripples and irregular magnetic flux density production. To gather higher efficiency, torque ripples should close to the zero and the stator side iron should be unsaturated. Torque ripples mainly occur due to the interaction between the rotor poles and the stator teeth. In this study, different rotor poles are investigated in contrast to stator magnetic flux density and the torque ripple effects. Since the components of the axial flux machines vary by the radius, analysis of the magnetic resources is more complicated. Thus, 3D-FEA (finite element analysis) is used to simulate the effects. The infrastructure of the characteristics which are obtained from the 3D-FEA analysis is built by the magnetic equivalent circuit (MAGEC) analysis to understand the relationships of the parameters. The principal goal of this research is a smoother distribution of the magnetic flux density and lower torque ripples. As the result, the implementations on the rotor poles have interesting influences on the torque ripple and flux density profiles. The MAGEC and 3D-FEA results validate each other. The torque ripple is reduced and the magnetic flux density is softened on AFPM irons. In conclusion, the proposed rotors have good impacts on the motor performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Automatic EMI Filter Design for Power Electronic Converters Oriented to High Power Density
Received: 18 December 2017 / Revised: 3 January 2018 / Accepted: 16 January 2018 / Published: 18 January 2018
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Abstract
In this paper, a complete computer aided procedure based on the power density concept and aimed at the automatic design of EMI filters for power electronic converters is presented. It is rule-based, and it uses suitable databases built-up by considering information on passive
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In this paper, a complete computer aided procedure based on the power density concept and aimed at the automatic design of EMI filters for power electronic converters is presented. It is rule-based, and it uses suitable databases built-up by considering information on passive components available from commercial datasheets. The power density constraint is taken into consideration by imposing the minimization of the filter volume and/or weight; nevertheless, the system in which the automatically designed filter is included satisfies the electromagnetic compatibility standards limits. Experimental validations of the proposed procedure are presented for two real case studies, for which the performance and the size of the best filter design are compared with those related to a conventionally designed one. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessArticle Online Optimal Switching Frequency Selection for Grid-Connected Voltage Source Inverters
Electronics 2017, 6(4), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics6040110
Received: 27 October 2017 / Revised: 2 December 2017 / Accepted: 11 December 2017 / Published: 15 December 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3975 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Enhancing the performance of the voltage source inverters (VSIs) without changing the hardware structure has recently acquired an increased amount of interest. In this study, an optimization algorithm, enhancing the quality of the output power and the efficiency of three-phase grid connected VSIs
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Enhancing the performance of the voltage source inverters (VSIs) without changing the hardware structure has recently acquired an increased amount of interest. In this study, an optimization algorithm, enhancing the quality of the output power and the efficiency of three-phase grid connected VSIs is proposed. Towards that end, the proposed algorithm varies the switching frequency (fsw) to maintain the best balance between switching losses of the insulated-gate-bipolar-transistor (IGBT) power module as well as the output power quality under all loading conditions, including the ambient temperature effect. Since there is a contradiction with these two measures in relation to the switching frequency, the theory of multi-objective optimization is employed. The proposed algorithm is executed on the platform of Altera® DE2-115 field-programmable-gate-array (FPGA) in which the optimal value of the switching frequency is determined online without the need for heavy offline calculations and/or lookup tables. With adopting the proposed algorithm, there is an improvement in the VSI efficiency without degrading the output power quality. Therefore, the proposed algorithm enhances the lifetime of the IGBT power module because of reduced variations in the module’s junction temperature. An experimental prototype is built, and experimental tests are conducted for the verification of the viability of the proposed algorithm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Review on Health Management System for Lithium-Ion Batteries of Electric Vehicles
Electronics 2018, 7(5), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7050072
Received: 15 April 2018 / Revised: 6 May 2018 / Accepted: 10 May 2018 / Published: 15 May 2018
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Abstract
The battery is the most ideal power source of the twenty-first century, and has a bright future in many applications, such as portable consumer electronics, electric vehicles (EVs), military and aerospace systems, and power storage for renewable energy sources, because of its many
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The battery is the most ideal power source of the twenty-first century, and has a bright future in many applications, such as portable consumer electronics, electric vehicles (EVs), military and aerospace systems, and power storage for renewable energy sources, because of its many advantages that make it the most promising technology. EVs are viewed as one of the novel solutions to land transport systems, as they reduce overdependence on fossil energy. With the current growth of EVs, it calls for innovative ways of supplementing EVs power, as overdependence on electric power may add to expensive loads on the power grid. However lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) for EVs have high capacity, and large serial/parallel numbers, when coupled with problems like safety, durability, uniformity, and cost imposes limitations on the wide application of lithium-ion batteries in EVs. These LIBs face a major challenge of battery life, which research has shown can be extended by cell balancing. The common areas under which these batteries operate with safety and reliability require the effective control and management of battery health systems. A great deal of research is being carried out to see that this technology does not lead to failure in the applications, as its failure may lead to catastrophes or lessen performance. This paper, through an analytical review of the literature, gives a brief introduction to battery management system (BMS), opportunities, and challenges, and provides a future research agenda on battery health management. With issues raised in this review paper, further exploration is essential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessReview Digital Control Techniques Based on Voltage Source Inverters in Renewable Energy Applications: A Review
Electronics 2018, 7(2), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics7020018
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 2 February 2018 / Published: 7 February 2018
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (7177 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In the modern era, distributed generation is considered as an alternative source for power generation. Especially, need of the time is to provide the three-phase loads with smooth sinusoidal voltages having fixed frequency and amplitude. A common solution is the integration of power
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In the modern era, distributed generation is considered as an alternative source for power generation. Especially, need of the time is to provide the three-phase loads with smooth sinusoidal voltages having fixed frequency and amplitude. A common solution is the integration of power electronics converters in the systems for connecting distributed generation systems to the stand-alone loads. Thus, the presence of suitable control techniques, in the power electronic converters, for robust stability, abrupt response, optimal tracking ability and error eradication are inevitable. A comprehensive review based on design, analysis, validation of the most suitable digital control techniques and the options available for the researchers for improving the power quality is presented in this paper with their pros and cons. Comparisons based on the cost, schemes, performance, modulation techniques and coordinates system are also presented. Finally, the paper describes the performance evaluation of the control schemes on a voltage source inverter (VSI) and proposes the different aspects to be considered for selecting a power electronics inverter topology, reference frames, filters, as well as control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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Open AccessReview SoC Estimation for Lithium-ion Batteries: Review and Future Challenges
Electronics 2017, 6(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/electronics6040102
Received: 18 October 2017 / Revised: 3 November 2017 / Accepted: 8 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (3169 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Energy storage emerged as a top concern for the modern cities, and the choice of the lithium-ion chemistry battery technology as an effective solution for storage applications proved to be a highly efficient option. State of charge (SoC) represents the available battery capacity
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Energy storage emerged as a top concern for the modern cities, and the choice of the lithium-ion chemistry battery technology as an effective solution for storage applications proved to be a highly efficient option. State of charge (SoC) represents the available battery capacity and is one of the most important states that need to be monitored to optimize the performance and extend the lifetime of batteries. This review summarizes the methods for SoC estimation for lithium-ion batteries (LiBs). The SoC estimation methods are presented focusing on the description of the techniques and the elaboration of their weaknesses for the use in on-line battery management systems (BMS) applications. SoC estimation is a challenging task hindered by considerable changes in battery characteristics over its lifetime due to aging and to the distinct nonlinear behavior. This has led scholars to propose different methods that clearly raised the challenge of establishing a relationship between the accuracy and robustness of the methods, and their low complexity to be implemented. This paper publishes an exhaustive review of the works presented during the last five years, where the tendency of the estimation techniques has been oriented toward a mixture of probabilistic techniques and some artificial intelligence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applications of Power Electronics)
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