Special Issue "Large Grid-Connected Wind Turbines"

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2018)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. S M Muyeen

Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Electrical Engineering and Computing, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia 6102, Australia
Website | E-Mail
Interests: renewable energy; energy storage; smart grid; power system; control applications in power system
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Frede Blaabjerg
Highly Cited - Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters)

Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg 9220, Denmark
Website | E-Mail
Fax: +45 9815 1411
Interests: power electronics and its applications in motor drives; wind turbines; PV systems; harmonics; reliability of power electronic systems

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The renewable energy penetration rate has increased rapidly since the last decade. Some countries are already generating more than 50% of their required energy from renewable sources and they are moving towards 100% renewables. Among the different renewable sources, such as wind, solar, biomass/biogas, tidal, geothermal, etc., wind energy is playing a vital role in the energy market and is competing with the traditional power industry. 10 MW class wind turbines will be available commercially in the near future and growth will continue.

To maximize the energy production from wind turbines, and transfer this power to the power grid, different types of power electronic converters are being used presently as interfacing devices. With increased turbine size, grid interfacing technologies are getting more complex. Large wind turbines are, not only supplying grid power, but are also supposed to provide some ancillary services to the grid. Controller and filter design tasks are becoming more complex. System stability is becoming a headache for transmission and distribution operators, when large scale wind farms are connected with existing weak networks. The energy storage system appears as a crucial part of grid tied to large scale wind turbine generator systems. This Special Issue aims to collect important works addressing the stability, variability, and scalability of large-scale, wind-turbine, grid-interfacing techniques and challenges.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. S. M. Muyeen
Prof. Dr. Frede Blaabjerg
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Wind Turbine Generator System
  • Offshore Wind Farm
  • Energy Storage System
  • Grid Interfacing Power Converters
  • Power Quality
  • Fault Ride Through
  • Synthetic Inertia

Published Papers (9 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Optimal Power Reserve of a Wind Turbine System Participating in Primary Frequency Control
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2022; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112022
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 18 October 2018 / Accepted: 18 October 2018 / Published: 23 October 2018
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Abstract
Participation of a wind turbine (WT) in primary frequency control (PFC) requires reserving some active power. The reserved power can be used to support the grid frequency. To maintain the required amount of reserve power, the WT is de-loaded to operate under its
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Participation of a wind turbine (WT) in primary frequency control (PFC) requires reserving some active power. The reserved power can be used to support the grid frequency. To maintain the required amount of reserve power, the WT is de-loaded to operate under its maximum power. The objective of this article is to design a control method for a WT system to maintain the reserved power of the WT, by controlling both pitch angle and rotor speed simultaneously in order to optimize the operation of the WT system. The pitch angle is obtained such that the stator current of the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is reduced. Therefore, the resistive losses in the machine and the conduction losses of the converter are minimized. To avoid an excessive number of pitch motor operations, the wind forecast is implemented in order to predict consistent pitch angle valid for longer timeframe. Then, the selected pitch angle and the known curtailed power are used to find the optimal rotor speed by applying a nonlinear equation solver. To validate the proposed de-loading approach and control method, a detailed WT system is modeled in Matlab/Simulink (The Mathworks, Natick, MA, USA, 2017). Then, the proposed control scheme is validated using hardware-in-the-loop and real time simulation built in Opal-RT (10.4.14, Opal-RT Inc., Montreal, PQ, Canada). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Grid-Connected Wind Turbines)
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Open AccessArticle LPV Model Based Sensor Fault Diagnosis and Isolation for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator in Wind Energy Conversion Systems
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1816; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101816
Received: 10 September 2018 / Revised: 29 September 2018 / Accepted: 1 October 2018 / Published: 3 October 2018
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Abstract
This paper deals with the current sensor fault diagnosis and isolation (FDI) problem for a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based wind system. An observer based scheme is presented to detect and isolate both additive and multiplicative faults in current sensors, under varying
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This paper deals with the current sensor fault diagnosis and isolation (FDI) problem for a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) based wind system. An observer based scheme is presented to detect and isolate both additive and multiplicative faults in current sensors, under varying torque and speed. This scheme includes a robust residual generator and a fault estimation based isolator. First, the PMSG system model is reformulated as a linear parameter varying (LPV) model by incorporating the electromechanical dynamics into the current dynamics. Then, polytopic decomposition is introduced for H design of an LPV residual generator and fault estimator in the form of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). The proposed gain-scheduled FDI is capable of online monitoring three-phase currents and isolating multiple sensor faults by comparing the diagnosis variables with the predefined thresholds. Finally, a MATLAB/SIMULINK model of wind conversion system is established to illustrate FDI performance of the proposed method. The results show that multiple sensor faults are isolated simultaneously with varying input torque and mechanical power. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Grid-Connected Wind Turbines)
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Open AccessArticle Optimisation of the Structure of a Wind Farm—Kinetic Energy Storage for Improving the Reliability of Electricity Supplies
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(9), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8091439
Received: 15 July 2018 / Revised: 15 August 2018 / Accepted: 20 August 2018 / Published: 23 August 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (2590 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An important issue in the correct operation of the power system is the reliability of the electricity supply from generation systems. This particular problem especially concerns renewable sources, the output power of which is variable over time and additionally has a stochastic character.
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An important issue in the correct operation of the power system is the reliability of the electricity supply from generation systems. This particular problem especially concerns renewable sources, the output power of which is variable over time and additionally has a stochastic character. The solution used in the work to improve the reliability indicators of wind farm sources is the partial stabilization of their output power achieved through cooperation with the kinetic energy storage. Excessive increase in storage capacity is associated with a large increase in investment and operating costs. It is therefore important to determine the minimum storage capacity required to maintain the accepted criteria for the reliability of energy supply. In this paper, a population meta-heuristics algorithm was used for this purpose. The obtained results confirm the possibility of limiting the energy capacity of the flywheels, they also indicate its non-linear character as a function of selected parameters of the reliability of energy supplies from wind farms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Grid-Connected Wind Turbines)
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Open AccessArticle Output Power Smoothing Control for a Wind Farm Based on the Allocation of Wind Turbines
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(6), 980; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8060980
Received: 18 May 2018 / Revised: 5 June 2018 / Accepted: 13 June 2018 / Published: 15 June 2018
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (15499 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper presents a new output power smoothing control strategy for a wind farm based on the allocation of wind turbines. The wind turbines in the wind farm are divided into control wind turbines (CWT) and power wind turbines (PWT), separately. The PWTs
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This paper presents a new output power smoothing control strategy for a wind farm based on the allocation of wind turbines. The wind turbines in the wind farm are divided into control wind turbines (CWT) and power wind turbines (PWT), separately. The PWTs are expected to output as much power as possible and a maximum power point tracking (MPPT) control strategy combining the rotor inertia based power smoothing method is adopted. The CWTs are in charge of the output power smoothing for the whole wind farm by giving the calculated appropriate power. The battery energy storage system (BESS) with small capacity is installed to be the support and its charge and discharge times are greatly reduced comparing with the traditional ESSs based power smoothing strategies. The simulation model of the permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) based wind farm by considering the wake effect is built in Matlab/Simulink to test the proposed power smoothing method. Three different working modes of the wind farm are given in the simulation and the simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed power smoothing control strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Grid-Connected Wind Turbines)
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Open AccessArticle Fault Studies and Distance Protection of Transmission Lines Connected to DFIG-Based Wind Farms
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(4), 562; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8040562
Received: 12 February 2018 / Revised: 30 March 2018 / Accepted: 31 March 2018 / Published: 5 April 2018
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Abstract
Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind farms are being increasingly integrated into power grids with transmission lines, and distance protection is usually used as either the main or the backup protection for the transmission line. This paper analyzes the composition of a
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Doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) based wind farms are being increasingly integrated into power grids with transmission lines, and distance protection is usually used as either the main or the backup protection for the transmission line. This paper analyzes the composition of a DFIG short circuit current and indicates the existence of a rotor speed frequency component. By analyzing several real fault cases of the DFIG-based wind farms connected to transmission lines, the weak power supply system and current frequency deviation of the wind farm side are illustrated. When a fault occurs on the transmission line, the short circuit current on the wind farm side is small and its frequency may no longer be nominal due to the existence of rotor speed frequency component, whereas the voltage frequency remains nominal frequency because of the grid support. As a result, the conventional distance protection cannot accurately measure the impedance, which can result in unnecessary circuit breaker tripping. Therefore, a time-domain distance protection method combined with the least-squares algorithm is proposed to address the problem. The efficacy of the proposed method is validated with real fault cases and simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Grid-Connected Wind Turbines)
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Open AccessArticle Wind Power Forecasting Using Multi-Objective Evolutionary Algorithms for Wavelet Neural Network-Optimized Prediction Intervals
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 185; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8020185
Received: 12 December 2017 / Revised: 22 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 26 January 2018
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (2087 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The intermittency of renewable energy will increase the uncertainty of the power system, so it is necessary to predict the short-term wind power, after which the electrical power system can operate reliably and safely. Unlike the traditional point forecasting, the purpose of this
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The intermittency of renewable energy will increase the uncertainty of the power system, so it is necessary to predict the short-term wind power, after which the electrical power system can operate reliably and safely. Unlike the traditional point forecasting, the purpose of this study is to quantify the potential uncertainties of wind power and to construct prediction intervals (PIs) and prediction models using wavelet neural network (WNN). Lower upper bound estimation (LUBE) of the PIs is achieved by minimizing a multi-objective function covering both interval width and coverage probabilities. Considering the influence of the points out of the PIs to shorten the width of PIs without compromising coverage probability, a new, improved, multi-objective artificial bee colony (MOABC) algorithm combining multi-objective evolutionary knowledge, called EKMOABC, is proposed for the optimization of the forecasting model. In this paper, some comparative simulations are carried out and the results show that the proposed model and algorithm can achieve higher quality PIs for wind power forecasting. Taking into account the intermittency of renewable energy, such a type of wind power forecast can actually provide a more reliable reference for dispatching of the power system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Grid-Connected Wind Turbines)
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Open AccessArticle Stability Augmentation of a Grid-Connected Wind Farm by Fuzzy-Logic-Controlled DFIG-Based Wind Turbines
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8010020
Received: 30 November 2017 / Revised: 17 December 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published: 24 December 2017
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (11049 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wind farm (WF) grid codes require wind generators to have low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability, which means that normal power production should be resumed quickly once the nominal grid voltage has been recovered. However, WFs with fixed-speed wind turbines with squirrel cage
[...] Read more.
Wind farm (WF) grid codes require wind generators to have low voltage ride through (LVRT) capability, which means that normal power production should be resumed quickly once the nominal grid voltage has been recovered. However, WFs with fixed-speed wind turbines with squirrel cage induction generators (FSWT-SCIGs) have failed to fulfill the LVRT requirement, which has a significant impact on power system stability. On the other hand, variable-speed wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators (VSWT-DFIGs) have sufficient LVRT augmentation capability and can control the active and reactive power delivered to the grid. However, the DFIG is more expensive than the SCIG due to its AC/DC/AC converter. Therefore, the combined use of SCIGs and DFIGs in a WF could be an effective solution. The design of the rotor-side converter (RSC) controller is crucial because the RSC controller contributes to the system stability. The cascaded control strategy based on four conventional PI controllers is widely used to control the RSC of the DFIG, which can inject only a small amount of reactive power during fault conditions. Therefore, the conventional strategy can stabilize the lower rating of the SCIG. In the present paper, a new control strategy based on fuzzy logic is proposed in the RSC controller of the DFIG in order to enhance the LVRT capability of the SCIG in a WF. The proposed fuzzy logic controller (FLC) is used to control the reactive power delivered to the grid during fault conditions. Moreover, reactive power injection can be increased in the proposed control strategy. Extensive simulations executed in the PSCAD/EMTDC environment for both the proposed and conventional PI controllers of the RSC of the DFIG reveal that the proposed control strategy can stabilize the higher rating of the SCIG. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Grid-Connected Wind Turbines)
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Review

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Open AccessFeature PaperReview A Review on Fault Current Limiting Devices to Enhance the Fault Ride-Through Capability of the Doubly-Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Turbine
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(11), 2059; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8112059
Received: 27 September 2018 / Revised: 19 October 2018 / Accepted: 23 October 2018 / Published: 25 October 2018
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Abstract
The doubly-fed induction generator has significant features compared to the fixed speed wind turbine, which has popularised its application in power systems. Due to partial rated back-to-back converters in the doubly-fed induction generator, fault ride-through capability improvement is one of the important subjects
[...] Read more.
The doubly-fed induction generator has significant features compared to the fixed speed wind turbine, which has popularised its application in power systems. Due to partial rated back-to-back converters in the doubly-fed induction generator, fault ride-through capability improvement is one of the important subjects in relation to new grid code requirements. To enhance the fault ride-through capability of the doubly-fed induction generator, many studies have been carried out. Fault current limiting devices are one of the techniques utilised to limit the current level and protect the switches, of the back-to-back converter, from over-current damage. In this paper, a review is carried out based on the fault current limiting characteristic of fault current limiting devices, utilised in the doubly-fed induction generator. Accordingly, fault current limiters and series dynamic braking resistors are mainly considered. Operation of all configurations, including their advantages and disadvantages, is explained. Impedance type and the location of the fault current limiting devices are two important factors, which significantly affect the behaviour of the doubly-fed induction generator in the fault condition. These two factors are studied by way of simulation, basically, and their effects on the key parameters of the doubly-fed induction generator are investigated. Finally, future works, in respect to the application of the fault current limiter for the improvement of the fault ride-through of the doubly-fed induction generator, have also been discussed in the conclusion section. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Grid-Connected Wind Turbines)
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Open AccessReview On the Contribution of Wind Farms in Automatic Generation Control: Review and New Control Approach
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(10), 1848; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8101848
Received: 18 September 2018 / Revised: 30 September 2018 / Accepted: 3 October 2018 / Published: 9 October 2018
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Abstract
Wind farms can contribute to ancillary services to the power system, by advancing and adopting new control techniques in existing, and also in new, wind turbine generator systems. One of the most important aspects of ancillary service related to wind farms is frequency
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Wind farms can contribute to ancillary services to the power system, by advancing and adopting new control techniques in existing, and also in new, wind turbine generator systems. One of the most important aspects of ancillary service related to wind farms is frequency regulation, which is partitioned into inertial response, primary control, and supplementary control or automatic generation control (AGC). The contribution of wind farms for the first two is well addressed in literature; however, the AGC and its associated controls require more attention. In this paper, in the first step, the contribution of wind farms in supplementary/load frequency control of AGC is overviewed. As second step, a fractional order proportional-integral-differential (FOPID) controller is proposed to control the governor speed of wind turbine to contribute to the AGC. The performance of FOPID controller is compared with classic proportional-integral-differential (PID) controller, to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed control method in the frequency regulation of a two-area power system. Furthermore, the effect of penetration level of wind farms on the load frequency control is analyzed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Large Grid-Connected Wind Turbines)
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