Special Issue "Wind Turbine 2020"

A special issue of Energies (ISSN 1996-1073). This special issue belongs to the section "Wind, Wave and Tidal Energy".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 March 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Prof. Dr. Frede Blaabjerg
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Guest Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the last decade, wind power generation technology became more mature and competitive in utility scale. It is promising and could be viable in n the near term, including economic and policy analysis recommendations. Coupled with global environmental concern and desire of diversification in energy supply, wind energy is playing an important role in the future electricity market.

“Wind Turbine 2020” is a continuation of the previous and successful series of Special Issue with topic of “Wind Turbines”. This Special Issue offers a major forum for the reporting of advances in this rapidly developing technology with the goal of realizing the world-wide potential to harness clean energy from land-based and offshore wind. Similarly, this issue also focuses on recent advances in the wind energy sector on a wide range of topics, including:

  • wind resource mapping,
  • wind intermittency issues
  • wind turbine reliability, availability, safety and risk
  • aerodynamics, foundations, aeroelasticity
  • wind turbine technologies
  • control of wind turbines, diagnostics
  • generator concepts including gearless concepts
  • power electronic converters
  • grid interconnection, ride-through operation, protection
  • wind farm layouts - optimization and control, reliability, operations and maintenance
  • black start of wind farms
  • effects of wind farms on local and global climate
  • wind power stations
  • energy storage systems in wind farms
  • smart-grid and micro-grid related to wind turbine operation
  • cost and life cycle assessment of wind turbines

Prof. Frede Blaabjerg
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Energies is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Published Papers (6 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle
Fault Detection Algorithm for Wind Turbines’ Pitch Actuator Systems
Energies 2020, 13(11), 2861; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13112861 - 04 Jun 2020
Abstract
A fault detection innovation to wind turbines’ pitch actuators is an important subject to guarantee the efficiency wind energy conversion and long lifetime operation of these rotatory machines. Therefore, a recent and effective fault detection algorithm is conceived to detect faults on wind [...] Read more.
A fault detection innovation to wind turbines’ pitch actuators is an important subject to guarantee the efficiency wind energy conversion and long lifetime operation of these rotatory machines. Therefore, a recent and effective fault detection algorithm is conceived to detect faults on wind turbine pitch actuators. This approach is based on the interval observer framework theory that has proved to be an efficient tool to measure dynamic uncertainties in dynamical systems. It is evident that almost any fault in any actuator may affect its historical-time behavior. Hence, and properly conceptualized, a fault detection system can be successfully designed based on interval observer dynamics. This is precisely our main contribution. Additionally, we realize a numerical analysis to evaluate the performance of our approach by using a dynamic model of a pitch actuator device with faults. The numerical experiments support our main contribution. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Voltage Fed Control of Distributed Power Generation Inverters with Inherent Service to Grid Stability
Energies 2020, 13(10), 2579; https://doi.org/10.3390/en13102579 - 19 May 2020
Abstract
In many countries the percentage of power electronic interfaced power sources (PEIPS), especially renewable energies like wind power and photovoltaic (PV), has increased significantly during the last decade.Retaining system stability with a declining number of conventional synchronous generators is a new challenge that [...] Read more.
In many countries the percentage of power electronic interfaced power sources (PEIPS), especially renewable energies like wind power and photovoltaic (PV), has increased significantly during the last decade.Retaining system stability with a declining number of conventional synchronous generators is a new challenge that starts to be addressed by Grid Operators. The existing control schemes used in distributed energy generation inverters generally do not provide significant services to grid stability. This paper focuses on a control scheme that is in many ways similar to the control of conventional power plants, but avoids a higher rating of the inverters which is often required by control approaches emulating the response of a synchronous generator. The control parameters of the proposed scheme are derived analytically and their main dependencies from major system parameters are discussed. An add-on to achieve fault ride through capability for both balanced and unbalanced faults for voltage controlled inverters is presented. Model validation results in a laboratory setup show very good correlation and have proven practicability of the theory as well as fault ride through and islanding capability. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Hybrid Energy Management System for Operation of Wind Farm System Considering Grid-Code Constraints
Energies 2019, 12(24), 4672; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12244672 - 09 Dec 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, a hybrid energy management system is developed to optimize the operation of a wind farm (WF) by combining centralized and decentralized approaches. A two-stage optimization strategy, including distributed information sharing (stage 1); and centralized optimization (stage 2) is proposed to [...] Read more.
In this paper, a hybrid energy management system is developed to optimize the operation of a wind farm (WF) by combining centralized and decentralized approaches. A two-stage optimization strategy, including distributed information sharing (stage 1); and centralized optimization (stage 2) is proposed to find out the optimal set-points of wind turbine generators (WTGs) considering grid-code constraints. In stage 1, cluster energy management systems (CEMSs) and transmission system operator (TSO) interact with their neighboring agents to share information using diffusion strategy and then determine the mismatch power amount between the current output power of WF and the required power from TSO. This amount of mismatch power is optimally allocated to all clusters through the CEMSs. In stage 2, a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP)-based optimization model is developed for each CEMS to find out the optimal set-points of WTGs in the corresponding cluster. The CEMSs are responsible for ensuring the operation of WF in accordance with the requirements of TSO (i.e., grid-code constraints) and also minimizing the power deviation for the set-points of WTGs in each cluster. The minimization of power deviation helps to reduce the internal power fluctuations inside each cluster. Finally, to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, several case studies are analyzed in the simulations section for operation of a WF with 20 WTGs in four different clusters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Multi-Objective Optimization for Determining Trade-Off between Output Power and Power Fluctuations in Wind Farm System
Energies 2019, 12(22), 4242; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12224242 - 07 Nov 2019
Cited by 1
Abstract
In this paper, a multi-objective optimization method is proposed to determine trade-off between conflicting operation objectives of wind farm (WF) systems, i.e., maximizing the output power and minimizing the output power fluctuation of the WF system. A detailed analysis of the effects of [...] Read more.
In this paper, a multi-objective optimization method is proposed to determine trade-off between conflicting operation objectives of wind farm (WF) systems, i.e., maximizing the output power and minimizing the output power fluctuation of the WF system. A detailed analysis of the effects of different objective’s weight values and battery size on the operation of the WF system is also carried out. This helps the WF operator to decide on an optimal operation point for the whole system to increase its profit and improve output power quality. In order to find out the optimal solution, a two-stage optimization is also developed to determine the optimal output power of the entire system as well as the optimal set-points of wind turbine generators (WTGs). In stage 1, the WF operator performs multi-objective optimization to determine the optimal output power of the WF system based on the relevant information from WTGs’ and battery’s controllers. In stage 2, the WF operator performs optimization to determine the optimal set-points of WTGs for minimizing the power deviation and fulfilling the required output power from the previous stage. The minimization of the power deviation for the set-points of WTGs helps the output power of WTGs much smoother and therefore avoids unnecessary internal power fluctuations. Finally, different case studies are also analyzed to show the effectiveness of the proposed method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine 2020)
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Open AccessArticle
Optimized Placement of Onshore Wind Farms Considering Topography
Energies 2019, 12(15), 2944; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12152944 - 31 Jul 2019
Cited by 4
Abstract
As the scale of onshore wind farms are increasing, the influence of wake behavior on power production becomes increasingly significant. Wind turbines sittings in onshore wind farms should take terrain into consideration including height change and slope curvature. However, optimized wind turbine (WT) [...] Read more.
As the scale of onshore wind farms are increasing, the influence of wake behavior on power production becomes increasingly significant. Wind turbines sittings in onshore wind farms should take terrain into consideration including height change and slope curvature. However, optimized wind turbine (WT) placement for onshore wind farms considering both topographic amplitude and wake interaction is realistic. In this paper, an approach for optimized placement of onshore wind farms considering the topography as well as the wake effect is proposed. Based on minimizing the levelized production cost (LPC), the placement of WTs was optimized considering topography and the effect of this on WTs interactions. The results indicated that the proposed method was effective for finding the optimized layout for uneven onshore wind farms. The optimization method is applicable for optimized placement of onshore wind farms and can be extended to different topographic conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine 2020)
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Wind Farm Layout Upgrade Optimization
Energies 2019, 12(13), 2465; https://doi.org/10.3390/en12132465 - 26 Jun 2019
Abstract
The problem of optimally increasing the size of existing wind farms has not been investigated in the literature. In this paper, a proposed wind farm layout upgrade by adding different (in type and/or hub height) commercial turbines to an existing farm is introduced [...] Read more.
The problem of optimally increasing the size of existing wind farms has not been investigated in the literature. In this paper, a proposed wind farm layout upgrade by adding different (in type and/or hub height) commercial turbines to an existing farm is introduced and optimized. Three proposed upgraded layouts are considered: internal grid, external grid, and external unstructured. The manufacturer’s power curve and a general representation for thrust coefficient are used in power and wake calculations, respectively. A simple field-based model is implemented and both offshore and onshore conditions are considered. A genetic algorithm is used for the optimization. The trade-off range between energy production and cost of energy is investigated by considering three objective functions, individually: (1) annual energy production; (2) cost of added energy; and (3) cost of total energy. The proposed upgraded layouts are determined for the Horns Rev 1 offshore wind farm. The results showed a wide range of suitable upgrade scenarios depending on the upgraded layout and the optimization objective. The farm energy production is increased by 190–336% with a corresponding increase in the total cost by 147–720%. The external upgrade offers more energy production but with much more cost. The unstructured layouts showed clear superiority over the grid ones by providing much lower cost of energy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wind Turbine 2020)
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