Anthropometry and Body Composition for Health, Disease and Sport: Application and Technologies

A special issue of Applied Sciences (ISSN 2076-3417). This special issue belongs to the section "Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2023) | Viewed by 84734

Special Issue Editors


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Nursing Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Alicante, 03690 Alicante, Spain
Interests: sport nutrition, body composition; supplements; legislation; nutrition software and tools
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Department of Sport Science, Faculty of Sport Science, Catholic University of Murcia (UCAM), 30107 Murcia, Spain
Interests: anthropometry; biomechanics; body composition; exercise adaptations; health; training
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Anthropometric and body composition analysis could be done via different techniques and based on different body compartments. Currently, there is a growing interest in generating new applications and software or establishing a comparison between the methods used more often with the aim of finding optimal values of body composition to establish reference values for both health and sport performance. In this sense, anthropometric assessment and body composition are related to health status. On the one hand, cross-body composition analysis could detect obesity and pathologies including cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, sarcopenia, amenorrhea, osteopenia, and eating disorders. On the other hand, in sport, certain anthropometric variables could contribute to sport performance, and its detection across anthropometry could be useful. In addition, sport performance has been associated with a specific body composition, especially in sport modalities that require a high level of sport economy and sport modalities with categories based on body weight, such as combat sports or weightlifting modalities. Additionally, the use of applications, software or new technologies to monitor changes in body composition will be useful when nutritional or physical exercise interventions are carried out for better health or sport performance.

This Special Issue seeks to provide educational innovation and technologies in body composition to stabilize the accordance between different methods of determination and establish reference values related to health in different types of population, such as the effect of different intervention of lifestyle, dietetic–nutritional, and/or physical activity intervention in body composition. Additionally, this Special Issue seeks to establish possible anthropometric measurements that could be associated with sport performance and/or detection of sport talent, such as the effect of different intervention focused on provoke changes in body composition. As Chief Editors of this Special Issue titled “Anthropometry and Body Composition for Health, Disease, and Sport: Application and Technologies”, we would like to make a call for original research articles, cohort studies, cases studies, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses focused on this topic.

José Miguel Martínez-Sanz, Antonio Jesús Sánchez-Oliver, Raquel Vaquero-Cristóbal and Raúl Domínguez

Dr. José Miguel Martínez-Sanz
Dr. Antonio Jesús Sanchez-Oliver
Dr. Raquel Vaquero-Cristobal
Dr. Raul Domínguez Herrera
Guest Editors

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Keywords

  • Anthropometry
  • Body Composition
  • Technologies
  • Applications
  • Software
  • Biomechanics
  • Sport Performance
  • Disease
  • Health
  • Educational Innovation

Published Papers (35 papers)

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12 pages, 1243 KiB  
Article
Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) and Somatotype in Female Rugby Players
by Beatriz de Mateo Silleras, Guillermo Casas Ares, Sandra de la Cruz Marcos, Laura Carreño Enciso, Emiliano Quinto Fernández and Paz Redondo del Río
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(9), 5242; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13095242 - 22 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1675
Abstract
Body composition (BC) determines strength, power, and agility in sports such as rugby. Not only is the study of morphology and BC essential to establish player positions, but it also allows the optimisation of competitive performance. The aim of this study was to [...] Read more.
Body composition (BC) determines strength, power, and agility in sports such as rugby. Not only is the study of morphology and BC essential to establish player positions, but it also allows the optimisation of competitive performance. The aim of this study was to analyse different BC models (anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA)) in a female rugby team. Their somatotype was also compared with a bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) graph. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 19 women (8 forwards and 11 backs). Anthropometric and BIA (50 kHz, tetrapolar electrode configuration) measurements were taken using standard protocols and BC was estimated. Somatotype was calculated using the Heath–Carter method. Classic and specific BIVA were applied. Student’s t, Mann–Whitney, or Chi-squared tests were used for variable comparisons. Agreement was determined via intraclass coefficient correlations. Forwards showed a higher BMI and fat mass, but there were no differences in skeletal muscle masses. Most of the players were of an endomorphic mesomorph somatotype. Specific BIVA, but not classic BIVA, detected BC differences according to player position. Moreover, an individual’s interpretation of BIVA was consistent with their somatotype. In a female rugby team, BC and morphology are different according to position. This was detected in both the somatotype and specific BIVA. The application of BIVA (classic and specific) may yet prove to be a very useful strategy for the study of BC in sports. Full article
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12 pages, 616 KiB  
Article
Effect of a 12-Week Football Programme on Body Composition, Physical Condition, and Analysis of Physical Demands in Young Male Children
by Antonio Hernandez-Martin, Javier Sanchez-Sanchez, Jose Luis Felipe, Samuel Manzano-Carrasco, Leonor Gallardo and Jorge Garcia-Unanue
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(6), 3661; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13063661 - 13 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1546
Abstract
The aim of this study was to describe and analyse the effects of a 12-week football programme on body composition (fat mass, muscle mass, and bone mass) in children compared to a sedentary lifestyle, as well as the physical demands and loads required [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to describe and analyse the effects of a 12-week football programme on body composition (fat mass, muscle mass, and bone mass) in children compared to a sedentary lifestyle, as well as the physical demands and loads required in training and matches in young football players (U10–U12). Forty children were included, divided into two groups: a football group (FG; n = 20) and a control group (CG; n = 20). Body composition was analysed using DXA and physical demands were analysed using GPS, with a total of 504 observations. Total bone mineral content (BMC) was significantly increased in FG-U12 (p = 0.025) after training. Total bone mineral density (BMD) was increased after the 12 weeks in FG-U10 (p = 0.001) and FG-U12 (p = 0.002). Leg BMC in FG-U10 (p < 0.05; 2.2 to 7.1 g) and FG-U12 (p < 0.05; 2.0 to 17.0 g) was increased after 12 weeks. VO2 max after training was significantly improved in FG-U10 (p < 0.05; ES: 1.7 to 5.2 mL/kg/min) and FG-U12 (p < 0.05; 0.3 to 3.8 mL/kg/min). Among U10s, midfielders covered greater distances and had higher intensity accelerations (p < 0.05; ES: 1.05 to 2.00) than forwards and defenders. Among U12s, midfielders in matches covered greater distances and at higher intensity than in training (p < 0.05; ES: 1.05 to 2.39). Football practice produces benefits in total and lower limb BMC, BMD, and VO2 max. The training and position of midfielders require higher physical demands. Full article
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12 pages, 1027 KiB  
Article
Anthropometric and Kinanthropometric Distinctive Profile of a Sedentary Population Compared with an Amateur Athlete Population
by Daniel Jonathan Navas Harrison, Ana María Pérez Pico, Francisco Manuel García Blázquez and Raquel Mayordomo Acevedo
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 2951; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13052951 - 24 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1189
Abstract
Anthropometry and kinanthropometry are sciences that measure variations in the physical dimensions and composition of the human body. There are studies that analyze these parameters individually, but we believe that it is much better to analyze them globally. We realized a multivariate analysis, [...] Read more.
Anthropometry and kinanthropometry are sciences that measure variations in the physical dimensions and composition of the human body. There are studies that analyze these parameters individually, but we believe that it is much better to analyze them globally. We realized a multivariate analysis, to determine which variables could explain the profiles of the subjects depending on sex, lifestyle, and type of sports modality. We analyzed 25 variables in a population of 574 people aged between 18 and 42 years. A multivariate statistical analysis was performed using exploratory factor analysis, and then we obtained five differentiating variables: fat mass, muscle mass, bone mass, skinfolds, and robustness. We classified the population into sedentary lifestyle, amateur athletes with predominance of the upper and lower train, and amateur athletes with predominance mainly of the lower train, in an attempt to analyze the existence of statistical significance between them. Amateur athletes with a predominance of the upper and lower train have a higher Body Mass Index and a lower Relative Index of the Lower Limbs, in addition to greater muscle mass and robustness than those athletes with a predominance mainly of the lower train. The sedentary control group presented higher values in terms of skinfolds and fat mass. This work could help people to choose the best sport according to their morphotype, and also could be used to plan sports training to potentiate different body regions, injury recovery, selection of talented athletes, etc. Full article
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13 pages, 633 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Body Composition Changes by Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis in Volleyball Athletes Following Mediterranean Diet Recommendations during Italian Championship: A Pilot Study
by Giovanna Caparello, Angelo Galluccio, Fabrizio Ceraudo, Claudio Pecorella, Fabio Buzzanca, Francesco Cuccomarino, Daniela Bonofiglio and Ennio Avolio
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 2794; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13052794 - 22 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1938
Abstract
In a volleyball team, an optimal body composition might be reachable by monitoring both training plan and nutritional habits to obtain success in competitions. The Mediterranean Diet (MD) may represent a good choice to cover the nutritional needs of those practicing competitive sports. [...] Read more.
In a volleyball team, an optimal body composition might be reachable by monitoring both training plan and nutritional habits to obtain success in competitions. The Mediterranean Diet (MD) may represent a good choice to cover the nutritional needs of those practicing competitive sports. The aim of this study was to monitor body composition changes through bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) during pre-season training sessions (P), the championship (C), and the play-off period, in volleyball players following MD recommendations. Our data showed that athletes maintained an optimal MD adherence over the study period. In the total population, we observed an upward and leftward shift of the vector on the resistance (Rz)/reactance (Xc) graph within the specific tolerance ellipses for the volleyball players. Using Hotelling’s T² test, we found significant changes in BIVA parameters from P to C of the entire team, due to reduction in Rz/height (H) and increase in Xc/H, along with an increase in phase angle, body cell mass index, and skeletal muscle mass. Our findings support BIVA as a useful tool to monitor body adaptations of athletes and the MD as an optimal dietary pattern in sport setting to allow good performance in athletes. Full article
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12 pages, 960 KiB  
Article
Analysis of Daily Activity Pattern to Estimate the Physical Activity Level and Energy Expenditure of Elite and Non-Elite Athletes
by Ekta Kapri, Subrata Dey, Manju Mehta, Nilima Deshpande and Erika Zemková
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 2763; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13052763 - 21 Feb 2023
Viewed by 2267
Abstract
Physical exercise and adequate energy intake are the most important needs for optimum health, and they are also strongly connected to the amount of energy used when participating in any kind of physical activity. Total energy expenditure (TEE) may be calculated by combining [...] Read more.
Physical exercise and adequate energy intake are the most important needs for optimum health, and they are also strongly connected to the amount of energy used when participating in any kind of physical activity. Total energy expenditure (TEE) may be calculated by combining resting energy expenditure (REE) with the physical activity level (PAL). Validated PAL guidelines are generally accessible and used by the general public, however less is known about PAL in competitive athletes. This research aimed at analyzing the physical activity level and the energy expenditure of athletes who participate in various sports on a daily basis. The research included 53 female athletes (43.39% elite and 56.61% non-elite), and 47 male athletes (40.42% elite and 59.57% non-elite) who competed in athletics, basketball, badminton, cricket, hockey, kabaddi, volleyball, and wrestling. The PAL, the BMR—basal metabolic rate, and the TEE were used to measure energy expenditure throughout a regular training phase. The PAL was determined using the athletes’ 24 h activity profiles, which consisted of their practice, study, leisure, and sleep hours. The Harris–Benedict equation was used to calculate the BMR. The TEE was computed by multiplying the BMR by the PAL. The time spent on work/practice, rest, and leisure activities was used to calculate the athletes’ daily activity load. The PAL was 2.33 ± 0.47, the TEE was 3532.18 ± 827.75 kcal/day, and the BMR was 1515.06 ± 203.52 kcal/day. Field hockey players had the greatest physical activity load (3.0 ± 0.00), followed by wrestlers (2.6 ± 0.20), boxers (2.6 ± 0.30), basketball players (2.3 ± 0.40), athletics athletes (2.2 ± 0.43), volleyball players (2.0 ± 0.20), kabaddi players (1.8 ± 0.20), cricketers (1.8 ± 0.10), and badminton players (1.7 ± 0.10). The PAL values were higher in the elite than in the non-elite female athletes (2.81 ± 0.23, and 2.12 ± 0.34, respectively), as well as in the male athletes (2.60 ± 0.28, and 1.94 ± 0.30, respectively). These data showed that the PAL values of both the elite and the non-elite athletes were at the WHO-recommended threshold yet were characterized as intensely active. Full article
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10 pages, 2314 KiB  
Article
Comparison of Match Load and Wellness between Friendly and World Cup Matches in Elite Female Soccer Players
by Rodrigo Villaseca-Vicuña, Jorge Perez-Contreras, Santiago Zabaloy, Pablo Merino-Muñoz, Luis Valenzuela, Jair Burboa and Jose Antonio Gonzalez-Jurado
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1612; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031612 - 27 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1335
Abstract
(1) Objetive: Compare the internal load (ILO), external load (ELO) and wellness (WS) between official preparation friendly matches (FM) and France 2019 women world cup (WWC) matches in female soccer players. (2) Methods: Ten field players of the Chilean national football team (age [...] Read more.
(1) Objetive: Compare the internal load (ILO), external load (ELO) and wellness (WS) between official preparation friendly matches (FM) and France 2019 women world cup (WWC) matches in female soccer players. (2) Methods: Ten field players of the Chilean national football team (age 27 ± 3.4 years, height 162.8 ± 4.32 cm, weight 60.5 ± 4.6 kg, fat percentage 24.7 ± 1.62% and muscle percentage 49.2 ± 1.63%) participated in the study. Participants were compared across three FM before the world cup and three matches of the group stages in the WWC in June 2019. Both, ELO and ILO were recorded using GPS (Catapult Sports®, 10 Hz) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE), respectively. In addition, wellness was analyzed via personal questionnaire at 24 and 48 h after match. The intra subject difference was analyzed with a Student’s t-test for related samples. (3) Results: Moderate differences were observed between WWC and FM for total and relative total distance covered [TD and TDr, respectively] (p = 0.025, ES = −0.74 and p = 0.017, ES = −0.6). In addition, a non-significant (p = 0.088; ES = −0.43) larger high-intensity distance (HSR) was also found for WWC. Likewise, greater RPE was observed in WWC (p = 0.001; ES = −1.50) when compared to FM. Finally, significantly better wellness scores were shown for FM at stress ST24h, fatigue FT48h, and muscle pain MS48h (p = 0.038; ES = 0.72, p = 0.066; ES = 0.71; and p = 0.63; ES = 0.77) when compared to WWC matches. (4) Conclusion: It was concluded that ELO and ILO were greater at WWC soccer matches, whereas WS scores were better for FM. Moreover, ILO measures (i.e., TD, HSR and TDr) were greater in WWC, which could be at least in part, be the reason behind the differences in the values reported in the wellness questionnaires at 24 and 48 h after the match. Full article
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17 pages, 864 KiB  
Article
Anthropometry, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Semi-Professional Soccer Players: Differences between Sexes and Playing Position
by Víctor Toro-Román, Francisco J. Grijota, Diego Muñoz, Marcos Maynar-Mariño, Sara Clemente-Gil and María C. Robles-Gil
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 1249; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13031249 - 17 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1893
Abstract
Performance in soccer has been associated with specific morphological characteristics. Few studies have simultaneously compared the relationships between physical fitness and body composition in both sexes. This study aimed (i) to analyze the differences in anthropometric parameters, body composition, and physical fitness between [...] Read more.
Performance in soccer has been associated with specific morphological characteristics. Few studies have simultaneously compared the relationships between physical fitness and body composition in both sexes. This study aimed (i) to analyze the differences in anthropometric parameters, body composition, and physical fitness between sexes and playing position in soccer players and (ii) to determine the relationship among anthropometric and body composition parameters to physical fitness parameters according to sex. A total of 50 soccer players (men: n = 26; women: n = 24), participated in the study. Assessments of nutritional intake, anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness (isometric strength, maximal aerobic capacity, and vertical jump) were carried out. Differences between sexes were observed in all anthropometric and body composition parameters (p < 0.001). There were differences between midfielders and forwards in fat percentage (p < 0.05). Regarding physical condition, differences were found between sexes in all tests performed (p < 0.001). In men soccer players, there were significant correlations between body composition and aerobic capacity (p < 0.05), while in women soccer players, there were correlations with isometric strength tests (p < 0.05). Anthropometry, body composition, and physical fitness differed between sexes. Fat percentages were different among playing positions. There were relationships between anthropometry and body composition with physical fitness. Knowledge of anthropometric and fitness characteristics by playing position and gender in soccer players could help develop specific training programs. Full article
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10 pages, 1320 KiB  
Article
Validation of a Useful Tool for Screening for Overweight and Obesity in Pre-Adolescents
by Vicent Falquet, Jordi Ripoll, Daniel López-Malo, Jesús Blesa and María José Esteve
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(2), 929; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13020929 - 10 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1345
Abstract
The purpose of this observational study with a convenience sample is to validate a simple measurement of the mid-upper arm circumference to establish the screening points using the mid-upper arm circumference tape (MUAC) for childhood overweight and obesity between 9 and 12 years [...] Read more.
The purpose of this observational study with a convenience sample is to validate a simple measurement of the mid-upper arm circumference to establish the screening points using the mid-upper arm circumference tape (MUAC) for childhood overweight and obesity between 9 and 12 years of age, or from 4th grade to 6th grade. Prior to the screening study, a pilot validation study of the MUAC tape measure versus anthropometric standard tape was carried out. The total sample for the screening cut-offs was 360 school students. The results obtained had a predictive value according to the evaluation of the area under the curve of 0.96 and overweight detection cut-off points were established at 23.3 and 22.4 cm for 4th grade, 23.6 and 22.7 cm for 5th grade and 24.6 and 23.8 cm for 6th grade for boys and girls, respectively. The cut-off points for the detection of obesity were established at 25.2 and 23.9 cm for 4th grade, 26.4 and 25.1 cm for 5th grade, and 27.7 and 26.4 cm for 6th grade boys and girls, respectively. The cut-off values of the MUAC are different not only between the sexes, but also increase as age or the specific course increases. Full article
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16 pages, 849 KiB  
Article
Body Composition in Karate: A Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Study
by Valentina Cavedon, Chiara Milanese, Franco Sacristani and Carlo Zancanaro
Appl. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 559; https://doi.org/10.3390/app13010559 - 31 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1453
Abstract
Karate is a widely practiced combat sport. Karatekas’ body composition has typically been obtained in small groups using skinfolds or bioelectric impedance. In this work, we assessed three-compartment body composition using the accurate dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry technique (QDR Horizon, Hologic) in a large [...] Read more.
Karate is a widely practiced combat sport. Karatekas’ body composition has typically been obtained in small groups using skinfolds or bioelectric impedance. In this work, we assessed three-compartment body composition using the accurate dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry technique (QDR Horizon, Hologic) in a large sample (n = 58; 74% males) of black belt karatekas. Stature-adjusted body composition indices (fat mass index; fat-free mass index; bone mineral apparent density) were calculated. The Student’s t-test was used for group–group analysis. Correlation was assessed using the Pearson’s r. The ability of fat-free soft tissue mass to predict bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density was assessed with linear regression. Reference mean and quartile values for whole-body and regional body composition were obtained for the male athletes. The body composition indices were generally more favorable in the male than female karatekas. The bone mineral apparent density was similar in the males and females at all sites except the right leg. The fat-free soft tissue mass predicted the bone mineral content and areal bone mineral density with good accuracy (R2 = 0.542–0.827; p < 0.001 for all models). The data presented in this paper are expected to be of use for karate coaches, physical trainers, and participants interested in assessing and monitoring athletes’ body composition. Full article
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22 pages, 383 KiB  
Article
Agreement and Differences between Fat Estimation Formulas Using Kinanthropometry in a Physically Active Population
by Malek Mecherques-Carini, Francisco Esparza-Ros, Mario Albaladejo-Saura and Raquel Vaquero-Cristóbal
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(24), 13043; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122413043 - 19 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2354
Abstract
The importance of fat mass estimation in multiple areas related to health and sports has led to the emergence of a large number of methods and formulas for its estimation. The aim of the present study was to compare the agreement and differences [...] Read more.
The importance of fat mass estimation in multiple areas related to health and sports has led to the emergence of a large number of methods and formulas for its estimation. The aim of the present study was to compare the agreement and differences between different formulas for estimating fat mass by anthropometry. Eighty-seven subjects underwent an anthropometric assessment following the protocol from the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). The fat percentage was calculated with 14 different formulas for men and with 12 different formulas for women. In the case of men, they were proposed by Durnin-Womersley, Yuhasz, Faulkner, Carter, Peterson, Katch-McArdle, Sloan, Wilmore, Evans, Lean, Reilly, Civar, Hastuti, and Kerr. In the case of women, the equations used were those proposed by Durnin-Womersley, Yuhasz, Faulkner, Carter, Peterson, Katch-McArdle, Sloan, Wilmore, Evans, Lean, Thorland, and Kerr. Significant differences were found between the formulas in both men (8.90 ± 2.17% to 17.91 ± 2.84%; p < 0.001–0.016) and women (15.33 ± 2.94% to 28.79 ± 3.30%; p < 0.001–0.004). It was observed that in the case of men, the Carter and Yuhasz formulas and the Civar and Faulkner formulas showed moderate agreement with each other (CCC = 0.910–0.915). In the case of women, it was observed that the Carter and Yuhasz formulas showed moderate agreement with each other (CCC = 0.974). In conclusion, the formulas used for the estimation of lipid mass in anthropometry reported significantly different results between them and were therefore not comparable. Full article
15 pages, 905 KiB  
Article
Bone Mineral Content Prediction by Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Children and Adolescents Diagnosed with HIV Infection: Comparison with Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry: A Cross-Sectional Study
by João Antônio Chula de Castro, Luiz Rodrigo Augustemak de Lima and Diego Augusto Santos Silva
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(23), 12466; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122312466 - 06 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1427
Abstract
A body composition analysis has been used to investigate alterations on body tissues in children and adolescents diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, such as low bone mineral content (BMC). The study aimed to developed equations to estimate the BMC in children [...] Read more.
A body composition analysis has been used to investigate alterations on body tissues in children and adolescents diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, such as low bone mineral content (BMC). The study aimed to developed equations to estimate the BMC in children and adolescents diagnosed with HIV based on a bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as a reference method. This is a cross-sectional study conducted with children and adolescents diagnosed with HIV infection. Their body composition was evaluated by BIA and DXA. Linear multiple regression models were constructed to estimate the BMC. Sixty-four children and adolescents aged 8–15 years (12.22 ± 2.13) who were diagnosed with HIV infection participated in the study. The models were substantially correlated with the BMC values, and they explained 82–91% of the BMC, with no differences between DXA and values as estimated by the models. The model with the highest estimate of the BMC (91% of explanation) and the lowest error (SEE of 0.011 kg) included the following variables: body mass, fat mass, total 50 kHz reactance, TCD4 lymphocytes, antiretroviral therapy type, and %TCD4 lymphocytes. The models had a clinically acceptable correlation and low SEE values. The BIA was suitable to estimate the BMC in children and adolescents diagnosed with HIV. Full article
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13 pages, 451 KiB  
Article
Relationship between Body Composition and Performance Profile Characteristics in Female Futsal Players
by Mónica Castillo, José Miguel Martínez-Sanz, Alfonso Penichet-Tomás, Sergio Sellés, Estela González-Rodriguez, José Antonio Hurtado-Sánchez and Isabel Sospedra
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(22), 11492; https://doi.org/10.3390/app122211492 - 12 Nov 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2165
Abstract
Futsal is classified as a high-intensity intermittent sport or repeated-sprint sport. Explosive and very fast movements are performed with short reaction time, interspersed with playing time of 3 to 6 min during the 40 min match, at intensities of 85–90% of maximum HR. [...] Read more.
Futsal is classified as a high-intensity intermittent sport or repeated-sprint sport. Explosive and very fast movements are performed with short reaction time, interspersed with playing time of 3 to 6 min during the 40 min match, at intensities of 85–90% of maximum HR. Performance factors such as agility, sprint repetition capacity, aerobic endurance capacity, lower body power, and speed are associated with the game actions. These performance factors can be affected by the athlete’s body composition. The aim is to determine the relationship between the different physical and physiological performance parameters and body composition in top-level women’s futsal players. The subjects of the study were 12 elite female futsal players (25.17 ± 4.75 years old) competing in the First Division Spanish League. An anthropometric assessment was conducted by an ISAK level III anthropometrist for three days during the competitive period. The sum of 4, 6 and 8 skinfolds and body composition were calculated with anthropometric data. Performance tests were conducted to evaluate agility, ability to repeat sprints, velocity and the explosive power of lower extremities in the playing court with specific warm up and previous explication during 2 days in the same week as the anthropometric tests. The tests used for that purpose were: t-test, Yo-Yo test, repeat-sprint ability (RSA), speed test, and jump test (JS, CMJ and ABK). Pearson correlations were used to establish the different associations with a p-value < 0.05. The results showed a negative correlation between agility and the fat component, and a positive correlation between the muscle component and aerobic capacity, agility, speed, and ABK jump. Body composition plays a fundamental role in the development of performance-related skills in women’s futsal. Full article
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9 pages, 591 KiB  
Article
Does Age, Experience and Body Fat Have an Influence on the Performance of Handball Referees?
by Ivan Belcic
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(19), 9399; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12199399 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1484
Abstract
The purpose of the study was to determine the correlation of quality of the refereeing in handball with the morphological characteristics of referees, along with their age and experience. Subjects are 16 pairs (N = 32) of top-level handball referees in Croatia (age [...] Read more.
The purpose of the study was to determine the correlation of quality of the refereeing in handball with the morphological characteristics of referees, along with their age and experience. Subjects are 16 pairs (N = 32) of top-level handball referees in Croatia (age 34.66 ± 6.44, height 184.02 ± 5.87 cm, body mass 91.14 ± 10.61 kg, body fat 19.20 ± 3.94% and body mass index 26.91 ± 2.47 kg/m²) which have conducted morphological measures and tests for determination of their morphological status in the first part of the study. In the second part of the study, referees were evaluated in top-level handball matches to determine if their morphological status had an influence on the quality of refereeing. The correlation of quality of the refereeing with body fat was tested and there is no significant correlation (p = 0.75). Pearson’s correlation coefficient proves that total experience in refereeing does not have an influence on the quality of refereeing (r = 0.30), and neither does the age of referees (r = 0.23). Experience of refereeing in the highest rank has a statistically significant influence on the quality of refereeing (r = 0.62). Existing elimination criteria (measurement of morphological characteristics and functional abilities at official tests) that referees must satisfy at official seminars before the beginning and in the middle of the season make the selection of referees. Based on these facts, it is concluded that the existing selection of referees is good and there is no great variability among them, considering their morphological characteristics. Experience in refereeing is significant for the quality of refereeing, especially experience in the highest level of competition. Full article
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12 pages, 1250 KiB  
Article
A Comparative and Sex-Specific Study of Bio-Electrical Impedance Analysis and Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry for Estimating Whole-Body and Segmental Body Composition in Healthy Young Adults
by Joachim D’Hondt, Jana Waterplas, Laurent Chapelle, Peter Clarys and Eva D’Hondt
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(15), 7686; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157686 - 30 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1607
Abstract
Bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are methods to estimate human body composition. This study aimed to compare sex-specific outcomes for estimating segmental and whole-body composition in 83 healthy participants (21.9 ± 1.5 years, 56% men) using Inbody S10 BIA [...] Read more.
Bio-electrical impedance analysis (BIA) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) are methods to estimate human body composition. This study aimed to compare sex-specific outcomes for estimating segmental and whole-body composition in 83 healthy participants (21.9 ± 1.5 years, 56% men) using Inbody S10 BIA and Norland Elite DXA devices. One-way repeated measures ANOVAs showed significantly lower whole-body fat% and whole-body fat mass values alongside higher whole-body lean mass values resulting from BIA when compared to DXA (both sexes: p < 0.001). In men, whole-body bone mineral content was significantly higher using BIA against DXA (p < 0.001). Regardless of sex, no significant BIA versus DXA difference was found in arm fat mass (men: p = 0.180, women: p = 0.233), whereas significantly lower leg fat mass values were found with BIA versus DXA (both sexes: p < 0.001). Additionally, significantly higher arm lean mass (both sexes: p < 0.001) and leg lean mass (only women: p < 0.001) were found in BIA versus DXA. Moderate to very strong positive associations (p < 0.05) between BIA and DXA outcome measures were found, except for arm fat mass (men: p = 0.904, women: p = 0.130) and leg fat mass (only men: p = 0.845). This study highlights (sex-dependent) differences in corresponding test outcomes between BIA and DXA both at the segmental and whole-body level. Full article
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15 pages, 325 KiB  
Article
Anthropometric Indices as Predictive Screening Tools for Obesity in Adults; The Need to Define Sex-Specific Cut-Off Points for Anthropometric Indices
by Magdalena Górnicka, Kacper Szewczyk, Agnieszka Białkowska, Kristina Jancichova, Marta Habanova, Krzysztof Górnicki and Jadwiga Hamulka
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(12), 6165; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12126165 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2478
Abstract
Due to the lack of full agreement as to the best indicators for obesity diagnosis and type, the aim of this study was to assess the comparative classification capabilities with the use of BIA results and selected anthropometric indices in individuals aged 20–60 [...] Read more.
Due to the lack of full agreement as to the best indicators for obesity diagnosis and type, the aim of this study was to assess the comparative classification capabilities with the use of BIA results and selected anthropometric indices in individuals aged 20–60 years. This was a cross-sectional observational study among 368 Caucasian subjects aged 20–60 years. Body size and four skinfolds measurement were taken. To assess individual body composition, the bioelectrical impedance (BIA) method was applied. The results of fat mass (FM, kg) and fat-free mass (FFM, kg) were taken to calculate FM/FFM, fat mass index (FMI), and fat free mass index (FFMI). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was employed to compare the predictive power of different anthropometric indices in differentiating the classification of obesity in adults. The results of this study demonstrated and confirmed the need to change the approach to commonly used indicators such as BMI (body mass index) or WHtR (waist-to-height ratio), which should lead to the establishment of new criteria for the diagnosis of obesity that will also be sex-specific, in the adult population. The measurement of body fat content should become a generally accepted indicator for effective diagnosis, as well as for screening, of obesity. Full article
13 pages, 467 KiB  
Article
Body Composition and Determination of Somatotype of the Spanish Elite Female Futsal Players
by Mónica Castillo, Isabel Sospedra, Estela González-Rodríguez, José Antonio Hurtado-Sánchez, Mar Lozano-Casanova, Rubén Jiménez-Alfageme and José Miguel Martínez-Sanz
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(11), 5708; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12115708 - 03 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2301
Abstract
Background: In any sport, it is of the utmost importance to identify variables capable of positively influencing scores. Futsal is a sport of intermittent high-intensity intervals that requires the athletes’ physical, technical, and tactical skills. There are no specific recommendations on anthropometry–body composition [...] Read more.
Background: In any sport, it is of the utmost importance to identify variables capable of positively influencing scores. Futsal is a sport of intermittent high-intensity intervals that requires the athletes’ physical, technical, and tactical skills. There are no specific recommendations on anthropometry–body composition for this sport. The aim of this study was to describe the somatotype and the anthropometric characteristics, body composition, and somatotype of a group of Spanish elite female futsal players of the first-division league. Methods: Eighty-eight players (24 ± 4.94 years) from 14 teams of the first women’s division of the Spanish Futsal League were evaluated. Measurements were taken according to the anthropometric protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). Body composition (BC) and somatotype were calculated according to the 4-component model and Heath-Carter, respectively. Results: Pivot and goalkeeper positions were most different from the rest. Both were the heaviest positions and presented the largest mesomorphic data (4.13 ± 1.29 and 3.67 ± 0.95), kg of bone mass (10.60 ± 1.00 and 10.37 ± 1.08), and kg of lean mass (29.80 ± 1.25 and 29.12 ± 2.12), for the pivot and goalkeeper, respectively. Conclusion: The evaluation and evolution of the somatotype and BC is an assessment tool that could be a useful guide for technical and medical staff. Full article
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19 pages, 357 KiB  
Article
Influence of Maturity Status on Kinanthropometric and Physical Fitness Variables in Adolescent Female Volleyball Players
by Mario Albaladejo-Saura, Raquel Vaquero-Cristóbal, Juan Alfonso García-Roca and Francisco Esparza-Ros
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(9), 4400; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12094400 - 27 Apr 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1671
Abstract
The aim of this research was to analyze differences in kinanthropometric characteristics and physical performance in relation to maturity status, as well as to determine if age, maturity offset or kinanthropometric variables could predict better performance in physical fitness tests. A total of [...] Read more.
The aim of this research was to analyze differences in kinanthropometric characteristics and physical performance in relation to maturity status, as well as to determine if age, maturity offset or kinanthropometric variables could predict better performance in physical fitness tests. A total of 152 female volleyball players (14.16 ± 1.25 years old) underwent a kinanthropometric assessment, followed by a physical fitness assessment composed of different tests. The age at peak height velocity (APHV) was calculated, and the sample was divided according to biological maturation into three groups. Significant differences were observed in kinanthropometric variables (p < 0.001–0.026), with early maturers showing higher values. Age, body mass, Cormic index, relative arm span, ∑8 skinfolds, fat mass, corrected arm and thigh girths, muscle mass and biacromial and biiliocristal breadths were the variables that best predicted performance in the physical tests (p < 0.001–0.024). The more mature players showed higher values in most of the kinanthropometric variables, with the more remarkable differences being in body mass, height, arm span and sitting height, and those related to adiposity and absolute body composition, and with structural variables being the most influential on the physical tests. Age had a determinant influence on the differences found between groups in strength and power-related test performance. Full article
8 pages, 1251 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Technical Error of Measurement on Somatotype Categorization
by Helen Ryan-Stewart, James Faulkner and Simon Jobson
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(6), 3056; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12063056 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2260
Abstract
Inquiry into somatotype often seeks to assign participants into somatotype groups. The aim of this study was to demonstrate how the intra-tester reliability of anthropometric measures can influence how somatotype is categorized. Sixty-eight physically active males (mean [SD] 24.8 [7.9] y; 79.8 [14.4] [...] Read more.
Inquiry into somatotype often seeks to assign participants into somatotype groups. The aim of this study was to demonstrate how the intra-tester reliability of anthropometric measures can influence how somatotype is categorized. Sixty-eight physically active males (mean [SD] 24.8 [7.9] y; 79.8 [14.4] kg; 1.81 [0.07] m) had their anthropometric profiles measured and somatotype components calculated. Technical error of measurement (TEM) was used to calculate 95% confidence intervals (CI) for overall somatotype calculation (RTEM) for the data collected by the lead researcher. CIs were further calculated based on the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry accreditation Level 1 and 2/3 thresholds. Somatotype groups were categorized as either simple (four groups) or detailed (13 groups). RTEM had the smallest TEM values (0.05 somatotype units). Detailed somatotype categorization demonstrated larger potential for misclassification (39.7–72.1%) versus simple categorization (29.4–38.2%). Researchers investigating somatotype should keep technical skill high and group according to the four simple somatotype categories in order to maintain acceptable categorization reliability. Full article
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18 pages, 2356 KiB  
Article
Bioelectrical Impedance Vector and Creatine Phosphokinase Changes Induced by a High-Intensity Training Session in Rink Hockey Players
by Álex Cebrián-Ponce, Manuel V. Garnacho-Castaño, Mercè Castellano-Fàbrega, Jorge Castizo-Olier, Marta Carrasco-Marginet, Noemí Serra-Paya and Alfredo Irurtia
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(2), 751; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12020751 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1621
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze anthropometric and whole-body/muscle-localized bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) adaptations and their relation to creatine kinase (CK) as a biomarker of muscle damage in a group of seven male players in the maximum category of professional rink hockey. There [...] Read more.
This study aimed to analyze anthropometric and whole-body/muscle-localized bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) adaptations and their relation to creatine kinase (CK) as a biomarker of muscle damage in a group of seven male players in the maximum category of professional rink hockey. There were three checkpoint assessments in relation to a high-intensity training session: pre-session (PRE), post-session (POST), and 24 h-post-session (POST24H). The resistance, reactance, and impedance module were adjusted by height (R/h, Xc/h, and Z/h, respectively). The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the data at baseline and follow-up, while Spearman correlation was used to explore the relationship between CK and the rest of the parameters. The results registered a decrease in body mass at POST (p = 0.03) and a reestablishment at POST24H (p = 0.02). Whole-body BIVA registered a significant increase in R/h between PRE–to–POST (p = 0.02) and returned to baseline values at POST24H (p = 0.02), which was expected since this parameter is related to hydration processes. Muscle-localized BIVA in the rectus femoris muscle showed an increase in both Xc/h and phase angle in POST (p = 0.04 and p = 0.03, respectively) and a decrease in Xc/h at POST24H (p = 0.02). CK correlated with R/h in the rectus femoris at all the checkpoints (PRE–to–POST: r = 0.75, p = 0.05; PRE–to–POST24H: r = 0.81, p = 0.03; POST–to–POST24H: r = 0.82, p = 0.02). Our results indicate that BIVA is a sensitive methodology to assess general and muscle-localized hydration induced by a high-intensity training session in rink hockey players. A correlation between BIVA and CK was also reported. Full article
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13 pages, 644 KiB  
Article
Anthropometric Profile Assessed by Bioimpedance and Anthropometry Measures of Male and Female Rugby Players Competing in the Spanish National League
by Juan José Ramos-Álvarez, Juan José Montoya, Cristian Solís-Mencia, Francisco Miguel-Tobal, Paola López-Tapia, Antonio Jesús Sánchez-Oliver, Raúl Domínguez and José Miguel Martínez-Sanz
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(24), 11759; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112411759 - 10 Dec 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3155
Abstract
Different rugby positions make different demands on players. It therefore follows that optimum body composition may vary according to the position played. Using anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis (BIA) to assess body composition, the present study aimed to compare the effect of sex and [...] Read more.
Different rugby positions make different demands on players. It therefore follows that optimum body composition may vary according to the position played. Using anthropometry and bioimpedance analysis (BIA) to assess body composition, the present study aimed to compare the effect of sex and position on body composition variables using anthropometry and BIA methods. A total of 100 competitive rugby players (35 women and 65 men) competing in the First Spanish National League were recruited voluntarily and for convenience for this study. In the laboratory, body composition was assessed by anthropometry, following the recommendations established by the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK), and by direct segmental multi-frequency BIA, following the guidelines established by the Spanish Group of Kinanthropometry (GREC) of the Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE). We found sex-related differences in height, weight, body mass index and body fat (%) by anthropometry and in body lean mass (%) by DSM-BIA, in 4 of the 6 skinfolds assessed (p < 0.05). We also observed position-related differences in all the variables assessed (p < 0.05) except for lean body mass, as measured by both methods of determining body composition, and front thigh skinfold. Body composition and ∑6skinfolds differs according to sex and playing position, backs (16.6 ± 3.8% and 92.3 ± 33.9 mm,) vs. forwards (20.0 ± 6.7 and 115.3 ± 37.6 mm), and the muscle-adipose (meso-endomorphic somatotype) development predominated in both sexes. Thus, forwards of both sexes are taller, heavier and fatter, possibly due to the specific demands of this position. In addition, body composition measurements vary according to the method used (DSM-BIA vs. anthropometry), indicating that anthropometry is probably the best body composition assessment method. Full article
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7 pages, 380 KiB  
Article
The Relationship between Skinfold and Ultrasound Measures of Subcutaneous Fat in Untrained Healthy Males
by Helen Ryan-Stewart, Abigail O’Leary, Eloise Paine, James Faulkner and Simon Jobson
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(22), 10561; https://doi.org/10.3390/app112210561 - 10 Nov 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2026
Abstract
Ultrasound measurement of adipose tissue offers an alternative measure of body composition with less technical skill requirement than skinfolds. However, the relationship between skinfold and ultrasound measurements of adipose tissue is uncertain. The aim of this study was to compare these measures in [...] Read more.
Ultrasound measurement of adipose tissue offers an alternative measure of body composition with less technical skill requirement than skinfolds. However, the relationship between skinfold and ultrasound measurements of adipose tissue is uncertain. The aim of this study was to compare these measures in a healthy untrained male population. One hundred male participants (aged 18–40 years) of varying body compositions had skinfold measures taken at the biceps, triceps and front thigh sites. Ultrasound measures were also taken at the same sites using B-wave ultrasound with a linear probe in the transverse plane. Strong, significant (p < 0.01), positive correlations were observed between skinfold and ultrasound measures at the biceps (r = 0.828), triceps (r = 0.813), and front thigh (r = 0.888) sites. However, there was significant (p < 0.01) variance between the techniques at all measurement sites. Whilst skinfold and ultrasound measures of adipose tissue have good linear agreement, skinfolds are consistently higher at all sites indicating a difference in the nature of the tissue measured via each technique. The exact nature of the relationship should be established on a population-specific basis. Full article
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15 pages, 1063 KiB  
Article
The Study of Maturational Timing Effect in Elite Portuguese Adolescent Basketball Players: Anthropometric, Functional and Game Performance Implications
by Isabel Fragoso, Sérgio Ramos, Júlia Teles, Anna Volossovitch, António Paulo Ferreira and Luís Miguel Massuça
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 9894; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11219894 - 22 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1375
Abstract
To estimate age at peak height velocity (APHV) in Portuguese male adolescents and; test the effect of maturational status in physical fitness attributes and individual game performance of U-14 basketball players. One mixed-longitudinal cohort with a sample of 439 Portuguese male adolescents and; [...] Read more.
To estimate age at peak height velocity (APHV) in Portuguese male adolescents and; test the effect of maturational status in physical fitness attributes and individual game performance of U-14 basketball players. One mixed-longitudinal cohort with a sample of 439 Portuguese male adolescents and; one cross sectional sample of 172 Portuguese elite U-14 basketball players. The on-time group was defined within a 1-year band (more or less) from mean APHV. Preece-Baines model 1 was adopted to fit the mean stature curve. Independent samples t-tests and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed and effect size (partial eta square) was calculated. The growth fitting revealed an APHV around 13.45 years for Portuguese male adolescents. Early maturing players exceeded significantly their peers in body size and composition, jump power and upper body strength. Early and on-time maturing players scored better in rebounds won per game (APHV = 13.81, 13.30 years), Performance Index Rating (PIR) and points scored per minute. Maturation influences morphology attributes and strength regardless of the APHV (13.81, 13.45, 13.30 years) used to obtain the cut-off points. It is recommended to use the new Portuguese mean APHV value to avoid extreme classifying bias groups. Full article
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12 pages, 316 KiB  
Article
Anthropometric Characteristics of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Their Associations with Insulin Resistance and Lipid Profile
by María L. Sánchez-Ferrer, Julián J. Arense-Gonzalo, María T. Prieto-Sánchez, Inmaculada Gómez-Carrascosa, Ana I. Hernández-Peñalver, Jaime Mendiola and Alberto M. Torres-Cantero
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(12), 5395; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11125395 - 10 Jun 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2324
Abstract
This study evaluates whether women with PCOS have a different body composition than non-PCOS women (controls), estimated by anthropometric methods, and whether body composition and PCOS condition could be predictors of insulin resistance (IR) and lipid profile (LP) in an independent manner. A [...] Read more.
This study evaluates whether women with PCOS have a different body composition than non-PCOS women (controls), estimated by anthropometric methods, and whether body composition and PCOS condition could be predictors of insulin resistance (IR) and lipid profile (LP) in an independent manner. A case-control study was conducted in which women (126) were diagnosed with PCOS by the Rotterdam criteria and controls (159) were women without PCOS attending the gynecological clinic for routine examinations. Women with PCOS had higher body mass index, percentage of fat mass, and testosterone than controls. A higher fat mass predicted higher levels of triglycerides, LDL-c, and lower levels of HDL-c independently of PCOS condition. HOMA-IR was related to fat mass and was more significant in patients with PCOS. A higher bone mass was associated with lower total cholesterol and LDL-c independent of PCOS condition. Lower HOMA-IR remained associated with PCOS regardless of bone mass. Lean mass percentages predicted a better metabolic profile (lower triglycerides and higher HDL-c), and was also modulated by PCOS condition. Our results highlight the importance of body composition as an anthropometrical characteristic of PCOS, and the relationship of fat mass with a worse metabolic profile. In addition, PCOS condition was associated with worse HOMA-IR independent of body composition. Full article
13 pages, 263 KiB  
Article
Impact of Kinanthropometric Differences According to Non-Professional Sports Activity Practiced
by Daniel J. Navas Harrison, Ana María Pérez Pico and Raquel Mayordomo
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 5063; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11115063 - 30 May 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2721
Abstract
Kinanthropometry allows us to analyze variations in physical dimensions and body composition. This study’s objective was to evaluate the kinanthropometric differences based on physical activity performance, depending on whether the lower body or the whole body is more or less potent and the [...] Read more.
Kinanthropometry allows us to analyze variations in physical dimensions and body composition. This study’s objective was to evaluate the kinanthropometric differences based on physical activity performance, depending on whether the lower body or the whole body is more or less potent and the differences with a sedentary population. We analyzed 131 individuals (74 men and 57 women), with an average age of 22.68 ± 2.98 years. We differentiated three populations: sedentary (n = 63), runners (n = 20), and basketball players (n = 48). Measurements and indices were obtained following the international protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK). The results show differences between the populations regarding weight, height, wingspan, and certain perimeters, diameters, and morphotypes depending on the predominant training type and the sedentary population. These anthropometric measurements will allow the amateur athlete to compare between seasons or other moments of training, pay attention to their evolution, and assess the possibility of changes in training. Full article
13 pages, 9371 KiB  
Article
Intra- and Inter-Rater Reliability of a Well-Used and a Less-Used IsoMed 2000 Dynamometer for Knee Flexion and Extension Peak Torque Measurements in a Concentric Test in Athletes
by Tuğba Kocahan, Bihter Akınoğlu, Ayfer Ezgi Yilmaz, Thomas Rosemann and Beat Knechtle
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(11), 4951; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11114951 - 27 May 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2114
Abstract
This study aimed to evaluate the intra- and inter-rater reliability of a well-used and a less-used IsoMed-2000 dynamometer for knee flexion and extension peak torque (PT) measurements in a concentric test in athletes. Two IsoMed-2000 isokinetic dynamometers were used, an old one that [...] Read more.
This study aimed to evaluate the intra- and inter-rater reliability of a well-used and a less-used IsoMed-2000 dynamometer for knee flexion and extension peak torque (PT) measurements in a concentric test in athletes. Two IsoMed-2000 isokinetic dynamometers were used, an old one that was well-used and a new one that was less-used. Thirty-seven weight-lifting athletes (12 female, 25 male) were included in this study. Both legs of each athlete were tested twice on each isokinetic dynamometer at 60°/s and 180°/s. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC), Standard Error Measurement (SEM), Smallest Detectable Change (SDC), SDC% and 95% limits of agreement were calculated to evaluate the intra- and inter-rater reliability of a well-used and a less-used IsoMed 2000 dynamometer for knee flexion and extension peak torque in athletes. Intra-rater reliability was moderate to excellent (ICCs: 0.516–0.928) for knee muscle strength parameters, and the highest SDC and SEM values were 0.76 N/kg and 0.28 N/kg, respectively. Inter-rater reliability was moderate to excellent (ICCs: 0.519–915) for knee muscle strength parameters, and the highest SDC and SEM values were 0.81 N/kg and 0.29 N/kg, respectively. At least 89.2% of the obtained values of parameters fell within the 95% limits of agreement. Our findings demonstrate the intra and inter-rater reliability of a Well-Used and a Less-Used IsoMed 2000 Dynamometer for Knee Flexion and Extension Peak Torque in Athletes. Full article
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10 pages, 496 KiB  
Article
A Short-Term Body Jump® Training Program Improves Physical Fitness and Body Composition in Young Active Women
by Sergio Sellés-Pérez, Miguel García-Jaén, Juan Manuel Cortell-Tormo and Roberto Cejuela
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(7), 3234; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11073234 - 04 Apr 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2098
Abstract
(1) Background: Body Jump® is a novel group fitness program with musical support, which is performed rebounding in a minitrampoline. Although the number of practitioners has increased exponentially in recent years, this activity’s short-term effects on physical fitness and body composition in [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Body Jump® is a novel group fitness program with musical support, which is performed rebounding in a minitrampoline. Although the number of practitioners has increased exponentially in recent years, this activity’s short-term effects on physical fitness and body composition in women have not yet been studied. (2) Methods: 27 healthy young women were randomly divided into a Body Jump® group (BJ) and a control group (CG). BJ performed three classes per week for one month. The week before and after the intervention, the anthropometric assessments were carried out to estimate the body composition, and different performance tests were performed to assess the jumping capacity (countermovement jump (CMJ) and squat jump (SJ) tests), the muscular strength (1RM test) and the aerobic fitness (UKK test). (3) Results: VO2 max (p = 0.001), CMJ flight height (p = 0.023), SJ flight height (p = 0.003) and the 1RM value in the half-squat exercise (p = 0.009) were significantly increased in BJ. In CG, there were no statistically significant differences after the intervention period. Regarding the changes in body composition, a significant enhancement in several parameters were found in BJ, such as the sum of skinfolds (p = 0.003) and the percentage of fat mass (p = 0.002), while no changes were found in any of the anthropometric variables in CG. (4) Conclusions: carrying out the Body Jump® program three days per week for one month had positive effects on physical fitness and body composition in a group of healthy young women. This training program can be an effective option for enhancing, in the short term, these fitness parameters and the body composition of these recreational users into the fitness centers. Full article
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16 pages, 3071 KiB  
Article
Anthropometric Profile and Physical Fitness Performance Comparison by Game Position in the Chile Women’s Senior National Football Team
by Rodrigo Villaseca-Vicuña, Edgardo Molina-Sotomayor, Santiago Zabaloy and Jose Antonio Gonzalez-Jurado
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(5), 2004; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11052004 - 24 Feb 2021
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 5644
Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore the anthropometric profile and evaluate physical fitness variables of the members of the Chile women’s national football team based on their playing positions. Fifty football players participated in this study, which was carried out during [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to explore the anthropometric profile and evaluate physical fitness variables of the members of the Chile women’s national football team based on their playing positions. Fifty football players participated in this study, which was carried out during the period of training for the France 2019 Women’s World Cup and the Japan 2020 Olympic Games. Body composition and physical condition (muscular strength, sprint, agility, and aerobic fitness) were assessed. The goalkeepers showed greater weight (p < 0.001), height (p = 0.002), and %Fat (p = 0.010) compared to the rest of the playing positions. There were also differences between positions in relative strength (RS) (p = 0.001), running speed at 10 and 30 m (T10 and T30, respectively), agility (AGI) (p < 0.001), and yo-yo test (MYYR1) (p < 0.001). RS, T10, T30, and countermovement jump (CMJ) were significantly correlated (p ≤ 0.05) with anthropometric variables (p ≤ 0.05). MYYR1 was also significantly correlated with anthropometric variables (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion, goalkeepers show greater weight and height, as well as worse results in MYYR1, AGI, T10, T30, and RS compared to the rest of the players. Forwards present better performance in running speed and agility. Better performance in physical condition is associated with better body composition values (greater muscle mass and lower fat mass). Greater relative strength indicates greater performance in explosive actions. Therefore, to meet the demands of high competition, it is important to establish ideal profiles in anthropometry and physical condition variables based on the playing position. Full article
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10 pages, 883 KiB  
Article
Anthropometric Profiles in Table Tennis Players: Analysis of Sex, Age, and Ranking
by Francisco Pradas, Ana de la Torre, Luis Carrasco, Diego Muñoz, Javier Courel-Ibáñez and José Antonio González-Jurado
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 876; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11020876 - 19 Jan 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 4283
Abstract
Table tennis has recently evolved towards a more spectacular sport increasing match-play demands and the intensity and speed of actions by regulations and equipment modification. Since these changes can alter the body composition and performance, this study aimed to analyze the differences in [...] Read more.
Table tennis has recently evolved towards a more spectacular sport increasing match-play demands and the intensity and speed of actions by regulations and equipment modification. Since these changes can alter the body composition and performance, this study aimed to analyze the differences in anthropometric attributes of 495 table tennis players (288 men, 207 women) according to sex, age, and ranking. Players were classified according to sex, age categories (Senior, Under-18, Under-15, Under 13, and Under 11), and ranking position. Anthropometry measurements included eight skinfolds’ thicknesses (biceps brachii, triceps, subscapular, iliac crest, supraspinal, abdominal, thigh, and medial calf), four girths (biceps brachii relaxed and contracted, thigh, and calf), and three breadths (biepicondylar femur, biepicondylar humerus, and bistiloyd wrist) to determine fat mass, lean mass, bone, cross sectional area (CSA) for arm, leg, and thigh, and somatotype. Results revealed that table tennis players presented differences in body mass composition, anthropometry, and somatotype according to sex and age category and ranking. It seems confirmed that regular table tennis practice during the childhood is associated with a healthy body composition status, that appears to be maintained across older ages if keeping the practice. Senior table tennis players showed a fat mass <20% and lean mass ~45% in men and ~37% in women. A new contribution is that higher lean mass in the upper limbs was associated with higher ranking position (i.e., better performance), endomorphic somatotypes were negative related to performance, and ectomorphic profiles seems more effective, which suggest the potential influence of morphologic changes in table tennis competition performance. Full article
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11 pages, 289 KiB  
Article
Targeted Gene Sequencing, Bone Health, and Body Composition in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome
by Ángel Matute-Llorente, Ángela Ascaso, Ana Latorre-Pellicer, Beatriz Puisac, Laura Trujillano, Elena Llorente, Juan José Puente-Lanzarote, Ariadna Ayerza-Casas, María Arnedo, Luis A. Moreno, Feliciano Ramos, Juan Pié, José A. Casajus and Gloria Bueno-Lozano
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 710; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11020710 - 13 Jan 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1719
Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate bone health and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in individuals with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS). Overall, nine individuals with CdLS (five females, all Caucasian, aged 5–38 years) were assessed. Total body less [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to evaluate bone health and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in individuals with Cornelia de Lange Syndrome (CdLS). Overall, nine individuals with CdLS (five females, all Caucasian, aged 5–38 years) were assessed. Total body less head (TBLH) and lumbar spine (LS) scans were performed, and bone serum biomarkers were determined. Molecular analyses were carried out and clinical scores and skeletal features were assessed. Based on deep sequencing of a custom target gene panel, it was discovered that eight of the nine CdLS patients had potentially causative genetic variants in NIPBL. Fat and lean mass indices (FMI and LMI) were 3.4–11.1 and 8.4–17.0 kg/m2, respectively. For TBLH areal bone mineral density (aBMD), after adjusting for height for age Z-score of children and adolescents, two individuals (an adolescent and an adult) had low BMD (aBMD Z-scores less than –2.0 SD). Calcium, phosphorus, 25-OH-vitamin D, parathyroid hormone, and alkaline phosphatase levels were 2.08–2.49 nmol/L, 2.10–3.75 nmol/L, 39.94–78.37 nmol/L, 23.4–80.3 pg/mL, and 43–203 IU/L, respectively. Individuals with CdLS might have normal adiposity and low levels of lean mass measured with DXA. Bone health in this population seems to be less of a concern during childhood and adolescence. However, they might be at risk for impaired bone health due to low aBMD in adulthood. Full article
14 pages, 668 KiB  
Article
Suitability of the Available Options About Computer Applications to Record the Initial Assessment of the Nutritional Care Process: A Pilot Study in Spanish Software
by Mario Navarro Gomis, José Miguel Martínez-Sanz, Isabel Sospedra and María Teresa Romá-Ferri
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(2), 534; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11020534 - 07 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1708
Abstract
Background: Nutritional software applications are tools for professional care. These applications allow the management of relevant information, facilitating and speeding up the diet treatment, and are designed for a general population with potential nutritional problems. The aim to establish the degree to which [...] Read more.
Background: Nutritional software applications are tools for professional care. These applications allow the management of relevant information, facilitating and speeding up the diet treatment, and are designed for a general population with potential nutritional problems. The aim to establish the degree to which existing nutritional software in Spanish covers the nutritional assessment aspects that dietitian needs to manage the nutritional care process (NCP). Methods: A descriptive-comparative study of four open-access and/or trial version nutritional software applications was performed, focusing on the informational content that must be recorded by the dietitian when performing a nutritional assessment. The usability and usefulness of the NCP were analyzed by means of a dichotomous scale (yes/no) and a five-level Likert scale (very complete, complete, basic, poor, very poor). Data collection was carried out from December 2018 to April 2019. Results: The software applications collect personal data in a very intuitive way, and with respect to the nutritional assessment, the applications generally comply with the collection of the basic information necessary for subsequent dietetic planning and are complete in the coinciding items, especially in Dietopro® (Valencia, Spain) and Easydiet® (Navarra, Spain). Conclusion: The applications are generally adapted to the ADA and BDA specifications, though the information is dispersed and without a sequential order for professionals. Full article
11 pages, 360 KiB  
Article
Biomechanical Adaptations in Kayakers of Different Competitive Levels and the Relationship with the Kayak Elements
by Tomás Abelleira-Lamela, Raquel Vaquero-Cristóbal, Francisco Esparza-Ros and Pablo Jorge Marcos-Pardo
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8389; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238389 - 25 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1826
Abstract
A paddler’s characteristics can condition the placement of the elements of the boat. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences among kayakers from different skill levels on their sagittal spine position, hamstring extensibility and anthropometric variables; and to determine which [...] Read more.
A paddler’s characteristics can condition the placement of the elements of the boat. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences among kayakers from different skill levels on their sagittal spine position, hamstring extensibility and anthropometric variables; and to determine which variables could be used to determine the arrangement of the elements in the kayak. Thirty-four male sprint kayakers (8 Olympic-level, 13 from the U-23 national team and 13 amateurs) participated in this study. Anthropometric variables, following the protocol of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropometry (ISAK); hamstring extensibility, with active and passive straight leg raise test; sagittal spine position in standing position and in the kayak, and the arrangement of the elements of the boat were measured. The groups with a high skill level showed a lower pelvic tilt in attack position in the kayak than amateurs (p ≤ 0.001). The U-23 group had a lower hamstring extensibility than amateurs (p = 0.053–0.013). The distance from the footrest to the different parts of the seat were dependent on the iliospinale measurement (R = 0.896–0.912). In conclusion, there were differences among groups on the sagittal spine position and hamstring extensibility. In addition, the placement of the boat elements was dependent on anthropometric variables, but not on hamstring extensibility or sagittal spine position. Full article
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Review

Jump to: Research, Other

16 pages, 5786 KiB  
Review
Applications of Bioelectrical Impedance Vector Analysis (BIVA) in the Study of Body Composition in Athletes
by Sandra de la Cruz Marcos, Mª Paz Redondo del Río and Beatriz de Mateo Silleras
Appl. Sci. 2021, 11(21), 9781; https://doi.org/10.3390/app11219781 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3059
Abstract
The study of body composition (BC) allows evaluating nutritional status, optimizing competitive performance, and monitoring the success of training regimens in athletes. Since BC reference techniques are expensive and/or invasive, in practice simpler, less expensive, and safer methods such as anthropometry are often [...] Read more.
The study of body composition (BC) allows evaluating nutritional status, optimizing competitive performance, and monitoring the success of training regimens in athletes. Since BC reference techniques are expensive and/or invasive, in practice simpler, less expensive, and safer methods such as anthropometry are often used. The problem is that anthropometry requires a qualified anthropometrist, a rigorous measurement protocol using validated equipment, and a lengthy procedure because of its limited accuracy. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) is an indirect method for estimating BC in a simple, fast, inexpensive, noninvasive, accurate, and reproducible manner. Despite the limitations of conventional BIA, it is still the most commonly used method for assessing BC in athletes. However, bioelectrical impedance vector analysis (BIVA) allows qualitative assessment of body cell mass (BCM) and hydration status without the need for biological assumptions and without being subject to conventional BIA errors. The purpose of this article was to demonstrate the uses and applications of BIA in the study of the BC and physical characteristics of athletes. For example, several practical cases of athletes from different sports were compared. The results obtained from somatotype studies, conventional BIA, and BIVA were included. BIVA interpretation and somatotype were consistent for all cases analyzed, but BIVA also provided information about hydration and BCM. The application of BIVA in the assessment of athletes can improve BC studies in sports because it is fast, simple, and reliable and neither imposes two-compartment-model limitations on BC estimation nor requires any biological assumptions. Full article
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

10 pages, 258 KiB  
Perspective
A Review of Commercially Available 3D Surface Imaging Systems for Body Composition Estimation
by Alice May Bullas, Rebecca Greenwood, Michael Thelwell and Simon Choppin
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(17), 8815; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12178815 - 01 Sep 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1972
Abstract
Recent literature has suggested 3D surface imaging to be a potential method of estimating body composition. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of commercially available 3D surface imaging systems that provide body composition estimates. User and system details of [...] Read more.
Recent literature has suggested 3D surface imaging to be a potential method of estimating body composition. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of commercially available 3D surface imaging systems that provide body composition estimates. User and system details of complete commercially available whole body 3D surface imaging systems, which estimate body composition, were collated from May to June 2022. Six 3D body surface imaging systems were identified, each of which provided varying amounts of user and system details. As this information is necessary to ensure the correct selection of system, appropriate use, and interpretation of outputs, manufacturers should seek to publicly present more detailed user and system details, international standards groups and training associations should seek to encourage standardisation, and practitioners and researchers should request additional details where necessary and validate their system prior to use, and end users should cautiously interpret outputs without the availability of comprehensive user and system details. Full article
23 pages, 12768 KiB  
Systematic Review
Efficacy of Pilates in Functional Body Composition: A Systematic Review
by Mário José Pereira, Gonçalo Dias, Rodrigo Mendes, Rui Sousa Mendes, Fernando Martins, Ricardo Gomes, José Gama, Maria António Castro and Vasco Vaz
Appl. Sci. 2022, 12(15), 7523; https://doi.org/10.3390/app12157523 - 26 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4266
Abstract
Background: The aim of this review was to collect and systematize results of studies from the last 5 years concerning the influence of the Pilates method (PM) on functional body composition (FBC). Methods: The criteria of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of this review was to collect and systematize results of studies from the last 5 years concerning the influence of the Pilates method (PM) on functional body composition (FBC). Methods: The criteria of Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were used in this review. We conducted research in three scientific databases: (i) Web of Science Core Collection, (ii) SCOPUS, and (iii) search directory of the library catalog of the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education of the University of Coimbra—EBSCO Discovery Services. We found 334 articles, covering the period between 1 January 2017 and 31 December 2021. After the selection process, we found 33 eligible articles. Results: The main results seem to point to a tendency to get a better body weight and body fat percentage (BFP), hip circumference (HC), waist, and skinfolds from the chest, abdomen, triceps, and supra-iliac in mostly female samples. Available evidence indicates that, in body composition (BC) and FBC, Pilates practice tends to be effective in reducing obesity as a multifactorial condition. Conclusions: It is concluded that there is a marked trend in the benefits of Pilates in FBC, which is in line with other systematic reviews at the BC level (which includes body weight (BW) and body mass index (BMI)) and in the reduction of the percentage of fat mass (FM). It is also concluded that there is a vast lack of studies on the male population, preventing further scientific development in this area. The limitations of this systematic review can be overcome with studies that bring together multidisciplinary aspects of FBC, better designed and methodologically more robust, which will allow more reliable analyses for the implementation of the Pilates method in terms of FBC. In addition, further studies with a male sample or mixed samples (men vs. women) could confirm the trend of no gender differences in the benefits of Pilates practice. Full article
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9 pages, 413 KiB  
Case Report
Case Study: Body Composition Changes Resulting from a Nutritional Intervention on a Professional Vegan Powerlifter
by Carlos Hernández-Martínez, Lars Fernández-Rodríguez, Marcos Antonio Soriano and José Miguel Martínez-Sanz
Appl. Sci. 2020, 10(23), 8675; https://doi.org/10.3390/app10238675 - 04 Dec 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 6306
Abstract
Powerlifting is a weight-class strength sport where achieving low fat mass (FM) and high fat-free mass (FFM) is desirable to improve performance. Recent studies have evaluated the nutritional considerations of different eating patterns, such as vegan diets (VD), in athlete populations. VD are [...] Read more.
Powerlifting is a weight-class strength sport where achieving low fat mass (FM) and high fat-free mass (FFM) is desirable to improve performance. Recent studies have evaluated the nutritional considerations of different eating patterns, such as vegan diets (VD), in athlete populations. VD are a challenge for athletes who want to attain body composition changes. The aim of this case study is to report on the body composition changes and subjective feelings of a male professional vegan powerlifter following VD for six weeks. The body mass of the powerlifter decreased from 79.3 to 77.4 kg (2.39%). Along with this, FM decreased from 15.0 to 11.4 kg (24%). Conversely, FFM increased from 64.3 to 66.0 kg (2.64%). Moreover, the powerlifter communicated no subjective feelings of low energy availability during training sessions. The VD might compromise adherence in a nutritional intervention which aims to improve body composition due to the nutritional requirements for fat loss. Therefore, more appropriate health assessments, including blood and psychological tests, are required for professional athletes. This short-term VD intervention was satisfactory for improving body composition and no adverse outcomes were reported. Full article
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