Special Issue "Nitrate Supplementation for Performance and Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemicals and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020).

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Raúl Domínguez
Website
Guest Editor
Faculty of Health Sciences, University Isabel I, Burgos, Spain
Interests: ergogenic aids; beetroot juice; nitrate; beta-alanine; caffeine; hepcidine; iron metabolism; muscle function; sports science; cardiorrespiratory responses

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the organism nitrate (NO3-)—via a series of reducing reactions started off by anaerobic bacteria present in the mouth—is a precursor of nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide has many physiological roles including the regulation of blood flow, blood pressure reduction, or improved energy metabolism, mitochondrial efficiency, and muscle contraction.

Ongoing studies are assessing the effects of diets with high NO3- contents or foods rich in NO3-, such as NO3- salts or beetroot juice, on vascular function in patients with cardiovascular disease. The effects of inorganic NO3- intake on athletic performance in different sport modalities, such as those involving cardiorespiratory resistance, high-intensity efforts or muscle-strengthening exercises, is also currently a subject of intense investigation.

This Special Issue seeks to provide new scientific evidence of the effects of the dietary intake of high NO3- levels or the intake of NO3- supplements on variables related to health or athletic performance. As Chief Editor of this issue entitled: “Nitrate Supplementation for Performance and Health”, I would like to make a call for original research articles, systematic reviews and meta-analyses considering the effects of NO3- on health and athletic performance.

Dr. Raúl Domínguez
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

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Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Beetroot juice
  • Blood pressure
  • Diet
  • Dietary nitrate
  • Dietary supplements
  • Exercise
  • Exercise performance
  • Muscle fatigue
  • Muscle strength
  • Muscular performance
  • Nitric oxide
  • Nitrite
  • Sports nutrition
  • Strength
  • Vasodilation

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle
Acute Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplements on Resistance Training: A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1912; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071912 - 28 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The ingestion of beetroot juice (BJ) has been associated with improvements in physical performance in endurance sports, however the literature on resistance training (RT) is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of BJ compared to a placebo [...] Read more.
The ingestion of beetroot juice (BJ) has been associated with improvements in physical performance in endurance sports, however the literature on resistance training (RT) is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of BJ compared to a placebo (PLA) on muscular endurance and movement concentric velocity during RT. Twelve healthy men performed an incremental RT test (back squat and bench press) with three sets, at 60%, 70%, and 80% of their repetition maximum (1-RM). Movement velocity variables, total number of repetitions performed until concentric failure, blood lactate, and ratings of perceived effort post-training were measured. A higher number of repetitions were recorded with BJ compared to those with PLA (13.8 ± 14.4; p < 0.01; effect size (ES) = 0.6). Differences were found at 60% 1-RM (9 ± 10; p < 0.05; ES = 0.61) and 70% 1-RM (3.1 ± 4.8; p < 0.05; ES = 0.49), however, no differences were found at 80% 1-RM (1.7 ± 1; p = 0.12; ES = 0.41). A greater number of repetitions was performed in back squat (13.4 ± 13; p < 0.01; ES = 0.77), but no differences were observed in bench press (0.4 ± 5.1; p = 0.785; ES = 0.03). No differences were found for the rest of the variables (p > 0.05). Acute supplementation of BJ improved muscular endurance performance in RT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitrate Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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Open AccessArticle
Does Acute Beetroot Juice Supplementation Improve Neuromuscular Performance and Match Activity in Young Basketball Players? A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010188 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Whereas beetroot juice (BJ) supplementation is shown to increase physical performance in endurance activities, its benefits in team sports has been barely studied. In this randomized placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effects of BJ acute supplementation in improving neuromuscular performance and physical match [...] Read more.
Whereas beetroot juice (BJ) supplementation is shown to increase physical performance in endurance activities, its benefits in team sports has been barely studied. In this randomized placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effects of BJ acute supplementation in improving neuromuscular performance and physical match activity in basketball. Ten young male competitive basketball players aged 15–16 years received 140 mL of BJ or placebo (PLA) on two separated days in a balanced cross-over design. Testing sessions comprised a neuromuscular test battery consisting of a countermovement jump (CMJ), isometric handgrip strength, 10-m/20-m sprint and agility T-test, followed by a 40-minute simulated basketball match. Physical match activity (distances, speeds, accelerations, and decelerations) was monitored using an inertial tracking system (Wimu ProTM) Results revealed no significant effects of BJ on CMJ (p = 0.304, ES = 0.13), isometric handgrip strength (p = 0.777, ES = 0.06), 10-m (p = 0.820, ES = 0.10), and 20-m sprint (p = 0.540, ES = 0.13), agility T-test (p = 0.979, ES ≤ 0.01) and any physical match demands (p > 0.151, ES = 0.13–0.48). Acute moderate doses of BJ (12.8 mmol of NO3) was not effective in improving neuromuscular performance (jump height, isometric handgrip strength, sprint, and agility) or physical match requirements in young trained basketball players the day of the competition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitrate Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Effects of Dietary Nitrate Supplementation on Weightlifting Exercise Performance in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2227; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082227 - 26 Jul 2020
Abstract
Dietary nitrate (NO3) supplementation has been evidenced to induce an ergogenic effect in endurance and sprint-type exercise, which may be underpinned by enhanced muscle contractility and perfusion, particularly in type II muscle fibers. However, limited data are available to evaluate [...] Read more.
Dietary nitrate (NO3) supplementation has been evidenced to induce an ergogenic effect in endurance and sprint-type exercise, which may be underpinned by enhanced muscle contractility and perfusion, particularly in type II muscle fibers. However, limited data are available to evaluate the ergogenic potential of NO3 supplementation during other exercise modalities that mandate type II fiber recruitment, such as weightlifting exercise (i.e., resistance exercise). In this systematic review, we examine the existing evidence basis for NO3 supplementation to improve muscular power, velocity of contraction, and muscular endurance during weightlifting exercise in healthy adults. We also discuss the potential mechanistic bases for any positive effects of NO3 supplementation on resistance exercise performance. Dialnet, Directory of Open Access Journals, Medline, Pubmed, Scielo, Scopus and SPORT Discus databases were searched for articles using the keywords: nitrate or beetroot and supplement or nut*r or diet and strength or “resistance exercise” or “resistance training” or “muscular power”. Four articles fulfilling the inclusion criteria were identified. Two of the four studies indicated that NO3 supplementation could increase aspects of upper body weightlifting exercise (i.e., bench press) performance (increases in mean power/velocity of contraction/number of repetitions to failure), whereas another study observed an increase in the number of repetitions to failure during lower limb weightlifting exercise (i.e., back squat). Although these preliminary observations are encouraging, further research is required for the ergogenic potential of NO3 supplementation on weightlifting exercise performance to be determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitrate Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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Open AccessReview
Influence of Nitrate Supplementation on Endurance Cyclic Sports Performance: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1796; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061796 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Endurance can be defined as the capacity to maintain one’s velocity or power output for the longest possible time. Maintaining such activity can lead to the onset of fatigue. Dietary nitrate supplementation produces an ergogenic effect due to the improvement of mitochondrial oxygen [...] Read more.
Endurance can be defined as the capacity to maintain one’s velocity or power output for the longest possible time. Maintaining such activity can lead to the onset of fatigue. Dietary nitrate supplementation produces an ergogenic effect due to the improvement of mitochondrial oxygen efficiency through a reduction in the oxygen cost of exercise that increases vasodilation and blood flow to the skeletal muscle in recreationally active subjects. However, the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on well-trained endurance athletes remain unclear; such supplementation could affect more performance areas. In the present study, a systematic review of the literature was conducted to clarify the use and effects of nitrate as a dietary supplement in endurance athletes trained in cyclic sports (repetitive movement sports). A systematic search was carried out following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines in the databases of SCOPUS, Web of Science (WOS), Medline (PubMed), and Sport Discus from 1 January 2010 to 30 November 2019. Twenty-seven studies were included in the study. The methodological quality of the articles was assessed using the McMaster Critical Review Form. Statistically significant ergogenic results were obtained in 8 (29.63%) of the 27 studies investigated, with significant results obtained for cardiorespiratory parameters and performance measures. Improvement in exercise tolerance was obtained, which could help with exhaustion over time, while the improvement in exercise economics was not as clear. Additionally, the dose necessary for this ergogenic effect seems to have a direct relationship with the physical condition of the athlete. The acute dose is around 6–12.4 mmol/day of nitrate administered 2–3 h before the activity, with the same amount given as a chronic dose over 6–15 days. Further studies are required to understand the factors that affect the potential ergogenic impacts of nitrate on athletic performance among endurance athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitrate Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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