Special Issue "Nitrate Supplementation for Performance and Health"

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Phytochemicals and Human Health".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2020) | Viewed by 18197

Special Issue Editor

Dr. Raul Domínguez Herrera
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Departamento de Motricidad Humana y Rendimiento Deportivo, Universidad de Sevilla, 41013 Sevilla, Spain
2. Studies Research Group in Neuromuscular Responses (GEPREN), University of Lavras, 37200-000 Lavras, Brazil
Interests: sports nutrition; muscle function; cardiorespiratory responses; ergogenic aids; diet
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

In the organism nitrate (NO3-)—via a series of reducing reactions started off by anaerobic bacteria present in the mouth—is a precursor of nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide has many physiological roles including the regulation of blood flow, blood pressure reduction, or improved energy metabolism, mitochondrial efficiency, and muscle contraction.

Ongoing studies are assessing the effects of diets with high NO3- contents or foods rich in NO3-, such as NO3- salts or beetroot juice, on vascular function in patients with cardiovascular disease. The effects of inorganic NO3- intake on athletic performance in different sport modalities, such as those involving cardiorespiratory resistance, high-intensity efforts or muscle-strengthening exercises, is also currently a subject of intense investigation.

This Special Issue seeks to provide new scientific evidence of the effects of the dietary intake of high NO3- levels or the intake of NO3- supplements on variables related to health or athletic performance. As Chief Editor of this issue entitled: “Nitrate Supplementation for Performance and Health”, I would like to make a call for original research articles, systematic reviews and meta-analyses considering the effects of NO3- on health and athletic performance.

Dr. Raul Domínguez Herrera
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Keywords

  • Beetroot juice
  • Blood pressure
  • Diet
  • Dietary nitrate
  • Dietary supplements
  • Exercise
  • Exercise performance
  • Muscle fatigue
  • Muscle strength
  • Muscular performance
  • Nitric oxide
  • Nitrite
  • Sports nutrition
  • Strength
  • Vasodilation

Published Papers (5 papers)

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Research

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Article
Acute Effects of Beetroot Juice Supplements on Resistance Training: A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover
Nutrients 2020, 12(7), 1912; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12071912 - 28 Jun 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 4830
Abstract
The ingestion of beetroot juice (BJ) has been associated with improvements in physical performance in endurance sports, however the literature on resistance training (RT) is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of BJ compared to a placebo [...] Read more.
The ingestion of beetroot juice (BJ) has been associated with improvements in physical performance in endurance sports, however the literature on resistance training (RT) is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of BJ compared to a placebo (PLA) on muscular endurance and movement concentric velocity during RT. Twelve healthy men performed an incremental RT test (back squat and bench press) with three sets, at 60%, 70%, and 80% of their repetition maximum (1-RM). Movement velocity variables, total number of repetitions performed until concentric failure, blood lactate, and ratings of perceived effort post-training were measured. A higher number of repetitions were recorded with BJ compared to those with PLA (13.8 ± 14.4; p < 0.01; effect size (ES) = 0.6). Differences were found at 60% 1-RM (9 ± 10; p < 0.05; ES = 0.61) and 70% 1-RM (3.1 ± 4.8; p < 0.05; ES = 0.49), however, no differences were found at 80% 1-RM (1.7 ± 1; p = 0.12; ES = 0.41). A greater number of repetitions was performed in back squat (13.4 ± 13; p < 0.01; ES = 0.77), but no differences were observed in bench press (0.4 ± 5.1; p = 0.785; ES = 0.03). No differences were found for the rest of the variables (p > 0.05). Acute supplementation of BJ improved muscular endurance performance in RT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitrate Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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Article
Does Acute Beetroot Juice Supplementation Improve Neuromuscular Performance and Match Activity in Young Basketball Players? A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study
Nutrients 2020, 12(1), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12010188 - 09 Jan 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2763
Abstract
Whereas beetroot juice (BJ) supplementation is shown to increase physical performance in endurance activities, its benefits in team sports has been barely studied. In this randomized placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effects of BJ acute supplementation in improving neuromuscular performance and physical match [...] Read more.
Whereas beetroot juice (BJ) supplementation is shown to increase physical performance in endurance activities, its benefits in team sports has been barely studied. In this randomized placebo-controlled study, we investigated the effects of BJ acute supplementation in improving neuromuscular performance and physical match activity in basketball. Ten young male competitive basketball players aged 15–16 years received 140 mL of BJ or placebo (PLA) on two separated days in a balanced cross-over design. Testing sessions comprised a neuromuscular test battery consisting of a countermovement jump (CMJ), isometric handgrip strength, 10-m/20-m sprint and agility T-test, followed by a 40-minute simulated basketball match. Physical match activity (distances, speeds, accelerations, and decelerations) was monitored using an inertial tracking system (Wimu ProTM) Results revealed no significant effects of BJ on CMJ (p = 0.304, ES = 0.13), isometric handgrip strength (p = 0.777, ES = 0.06), 10-m (p = 0.820, ES = 0.10), and 20-m sprint (p = 0.540, ES = 0.13), agility T-test (p = 0.979, ES ≤ 0.01) and any physical match demands (p > 0.151, ES = 0.13–0.48). Acute moderate doses of BJ (12.8 mmol of NO3) was not effective in improving neuromuscular performance (jump height, isometric handgrip strength, sprint, and agility) or physical match requirements in young trained basketball players the day of the competition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitrate Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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Review

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Review
The Effect of Dietary Nitrate Supplementation on Isokinetic Torque in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Nutrients 2020, 12(10), 3022; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12103022 - 02 Oct 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2374
Abstract
Dietary nitrate (NO3) supplementation, which can enhance performance in exercise settings involving repeated high-intensity efforts, has been linked to improved skeletal muscle contractile function. Although muscular strength is an important component of explosive movements and sport-specific skills, few studies have [...] Read more.
Dietary nitrate (NO3) supplementation, which can enhance performance in exercise settings involving repeated high-intensity efforts, has been linked to improved skeletal muscle contractile function. Although muscular strength is an important component of explosive movements and sport-specific skills, few studies have quantified indices of muscular strength following NO3 supplementation, particularly isokinetic assessments at different angular velocities. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine whether dietary NO3 supplementation improves peak torque, as assessed by the gold standard method of isokinetic dynamometry, and if this effect was linked to the angular velocity imposed during the assessment. Dialnet, Directory of Open Access Journals, MEDLINE, PubMed, SciELO, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus were searched for articles using the following search strategy: (nitrate OR beet*) AND (supplement* OR nutr* OR diet*) AND (isokinetic OR strength OR “resistance exercise” OR “resistance training” OR “muscular power”). The meta-analysis of data from 5 studies with 60 participants revealed an overall effect size of −0.01 for the effect of nitrate supplementation on isokinetic peak torque, whereas trivial effect sizes ranging from −0.11 to 0.16 were observed for independent velocity-specific (90°/s, 180°/s, 270°/s, and 360°/s) isokinetic peak torque. Four of the five studies indicated that dietary NO3 supplementation is not likely to influence voluntary knee extensor isokinetic torque across a variety of angular velocities. These results suggest that NO3 supplementation does not influence isokinetic peak torque, but further work is required to elucidate the potential of NO3 supplementation to influence other indices of muscular strength, given the dearth of experimental evidence on this topic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitrate Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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Review
Effects of Dietary Nitrate Supplementation on Weightlifting Exercise Performance in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(8), 2227; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12082227 - 26 Jul 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3736
Abstract
Dietary nitrate (NO3) supplementation has been evidenced to induce an ergogenic effect in endurance and sprint-type exercise, which may be underpinned by enhanced muscle contractility and perfusion, particularly in type II muscle fibers. However, limited data are available to evaluate [...] Read more.
Dietary nitrate (NO3) supplementation has been evidenced to induce an ergogenic effect in endurance and sprint-type exercise, which may be underpinned by enhanced muscle contractility and perfusion, particularly in type II muscle fibers. However, limited data are available to evaluate the ergogenic potential of NO3 supplementation during other exercise modalities that mandate type II fiber recruitment, such as weightlifting exercise (i.e., resistance exercise). In this systematic review, we examine the existing evidence basis for NO3 supplementation to improve muscular power, velocity of contraction, and muscular endurance during weightlifting exercise in healthy adults. We also discuss the potential mechanistic bases for any positive effects of NO3 supplementation on resistance exercise performance. Dialnet, Directory of Open Access Journals, Medline, Pubmed, Scielo, Scopus and SPORT Discus databases were searched for articles using the keywords: nitrate or beetroot and supplement or nut*r or diet and strength or “resistance exercise” or “resistance training” or “muscular power”. Four articles fulfilling the inclusion criteria were identified. Two of the four studies indicated that NO3 supplementation could increase aspects of upper body weightlifting exercise (i.e., bench press) performance (increases in mean power/velocity of contraction/number of repetitions to failure), whereas another study observed an increase in the number of repetitions to failure during lower limb weightlifting exercise (i.e., back squat). Although these preliminary observations are encouraging, further research is required for the ergogenic potential of NO3 supplementation on weightlifting exercise performance to be determined. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitrate Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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Review
Influence of Nitrate Supplementation on Endurance Cyclic Sports Performance: A Systematic Review
Nutrients 2020, 12(6), 1796; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12061796 - 17 Jun 2020
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 3976
Abstract
Endurance can be defined as the capacity to maintain one’s velocity or power output for the longest possible time. Maintaining such activity can lead to the onset of fatigue. Dietary nitrate supplementation produces an ergogenic effect due to the improvement of mitochondrial oxygen [...] Read more.
Endurance can be defined as the capacity to maintain one’s velocity or power output for the longest possible time. Maintaining such activity can lead to the onset of fatigue. Dietary nitrate supplementation produces an ergogenic effect due to the improvement of mitochondrial oxygen efficiency through a reduction in the oxygen cost of exercise that increases vasodilation and blood flow to the skeletal muscle in recreationally active subjects. However, the effects of dietary nitrate supplementation on well-trained endurance athletes remain unclear; such supplementation could affect more performance areas. In the present study, a systematic review of the literature was conducted to clarify the use and effects of nitrate as a dietary supplement in endurance athletes trained in cyclic sports (repetitive movement sports). A systematic search was carried out following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines in the databases of SCOPUS, Web of Science (WOS), Medline (PubMed), and Sport Discus from 1 January 2010 to 30 November 2019. Twenty-seven studies were included in the study. The methodological quality of the articles was assessed using the McMaster Critical Review Form. Statistically significant ergogenic results were obtained in 8 (29.63%) of the 27 studies investigated, with significant results obtained for cardiorespiratory parameters and performance measures. Improvement in exercise tolerance was obtained, which could help with exhaustion over time, while the improvement in exercise economics was not as clear. Additionally, the dose necessary for this ergogenic effect seems to have a direct relationship with the physical condition of the athlete. The acute dose is around 6–12.4 mmol/day of nitrate administered 2–3 h before the activity, with the same amount given as a chronic dose over 6–15 days. Further studies are required to understand the factors that affect the potential ergogenic impacts of nitrate on athletic performance among endurance athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nitrate Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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