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Sport Supplementation for Performance and Health

A special issue of Nutrients (ISSN 2072-6643). This special issue belongs to the section "Sports Nutrition".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (25 January 2023) | Viewed by 59730

Special Issue Editor

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Sports supplementation is common among athletes of different sports modalities and competitive levels. Athletes use sports supplementation mainly to enhance sports performance and/or health. Sports supplements could be useful for supporting energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients for athletes in training and competitions or traveling, for example. Sports supplementation could be helpful for supporting a suitable nutritional status in athletes, preventing nutritional deficiencies or stimulating recovery after training sessions. Nevertheless, specific sports supplements could improve sports performance, either enhancing neuromuscular or psychological performance or mood before or during exercise. Using sports supplementation includes three principles: safety, effectiveness, and legality.

The number of sports supplements and trademarks in the market is numerous, and athletes usually present a terrible selection of sports supplements based on safety, effectiveness, and legality. This Special Issue seeks to promote the results of all the original research studies focused on the safety, effectiveness, and legality of sports supplements with practical implications for athletes in enhancing sports performance and health. In addition, systematic reviews and meta-analyses focused on this topic will be considered relevant in this Special Issue.

Prof. Dr. Raúl Domínguez
Guest Editor

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Keywords

  • athlete
  • ergogenic aid
  • exercise
  • dietetic
  • nutrition
  • sport
  • supplement

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

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16 pages, 1271 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Use of Food Supplements by Military Personnel: Study Protocol and Results
by Igor Pravst, Živa Lavriša, Hristo Hristov, Maša Hribar, Sanja Krušič, Katja Žmitek, Anita Kušar, Katja Zdešar Kotnik, Petra Golja, Anja Čibej Andlovec and Larisa Pograjc
Nutrients 2023, 15(8), 1902; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15081902 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1836
Abstract
Due to their specific mode of operation, military personnel are challenged physically as well as mentally. In most countries, the use of food supplements by military personnel is not regulated, and a high prevalence of supplementation is expected. However, data on this are [...] Read more.
Due to their specific mode of operation, military personnel are challenged physically as well as mentally. In most countries, the use of food supplements by military personnel is not regulated, and a high prevalence of supplementation is expected. However, data on this are scarce or very limited, without insights into the importance of supplementation for the intake of bioactive substances. Our goal was, therefore, to develop a study protocol to enable an assessment of the prevalence of using food supplements and an estimate of the contribution of supplementation practices to the dietary intake of specific nutrients and other compounds. The protocol was tested in a study of Slovene Armed Forces (SAF) personnel. Data were collected using an anonymous questionnaire in a sample of 470 participants from different military units—about half from the barracks located across the country, and the other half returning from military operations abroad. To provide meaningful results, we recorded the use of food supplements and functional foods available in single-sized portions (i.e., energy drinks, protein bars, etc.). Altogether, 68% of the participants reported supplementation, most commonly with vitamin, mineral, and protein supplements. Military rank, participation status in military operations, and physical activity were the main determinants of the specific supplements used. Surprisingly, a lower prevalence of overall and protein supplementation was observed in subjects returning from military operations abroad (62 vs. 74%) than in personnel stationed in barracks across Slovenia; however, the frequency of the use of energy drinks and caffeine supplements was higher in this population (25 vs. 11%). The study design allowed for estimations of the daily intake of supplemented bioactive compounds. We describe the challenges and approaches used in the study to support similar studies in the future and within other populations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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13 pages, 610 KiB  
Article
Effects of Wild Blueberries on Fat Oxidation Rates in Aerobically Trained Males
by Kari D. Pilolla, Jessie Armendariz, Boe M. Burrus, David S. Baston, Karli A. McCarthy and Taylor K. Bloedon
Nutrients 2023, 15(6), 1339; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15061339 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 14749
Abstract
Wild blueberries (WBs) have been documented to decrease oxidative stress in active and sedentary populations as well as influence lipolytic enzymes and increase the rate of fat oxidation (FAT-ox) during rest. To examine the effect of WBs on the rate of FAT-ox and [...] Read more.
Wild blueberries (WBs) have been documented to decrease oxidative stress in active and sedentary populations as well as influence lipolytic enzymes and increase the rate of fat oxidation (FAT-ox) during rest. To examine the effect of WBs on the rate of FAT-ox and lipid peroxidation during submaximal exercise, 11 healthy, aerobically trained males (26 ± 7.5 years, 74.9 ± 7.54 kg, 10.5 ± 3.2% BF) completed a 2-week washout avoiding foods high in anthocyanins, then completed a control exercise protocol cycling at 65% of VO2peak for 40 min. Participants then consumed 375 g/d of anthocyanins for two weeks before repeating the exercise protocol. WBs increased FAT-ox when cycling at 65% of VO2peak by 19.7% at 20, 43.2% at 30, and 31.1% at 40 min, and carbohydrate oxidation (CHO-ox) decreased by 10.1% at 20, 19.2% at 30, and 14.8% at 40 min of cycling at 65% of VO2peak. Lactate was lower with WBs at 20 (WB: 2.6 ± 1.0, C: 3.0 ± 1.1), 30 (WB: 2.2 ± 0.9, C: 2.9 ± 1.0), and 40 min (WB: 1.9 ± 0.8, C: 2.5 ± 0.9). Results indicate that WBs may increase the rate of FAT-ox during moderate-intensity activity in healthy, active males. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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13 pages, 3659 KiB  
Article
Natural Activators of Autophagy Reduce Oxidative Stress and Muscle Injury Biomarkers in Endurance Athletes: A Pilot Study
by Alessandra D’Amico, Chiara Fossati, Fabio Pigozzi, Paolo Borrione, Mariangela Peruzzi, Simona Bartimoccia, Filippo Saba, Annachiara Pingitore, Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai, Luigi Petramala, Fabrizio De Grandis, Daniele Vecchio, Luca D’Ambrosio, Sonia Schiavon, Luigi Sciarra, Cristina Nocella and Elena Cavarretta
Nutrients 2023, 15(2), 459; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15020459 - 16 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3257
Abstract
Background: Oxidative stress and impaired autophagy are directly and indirectly implicated in exercise-mediated muscle injury. Trehalose, spermidine, nicotinamide, and polyphenols possess pro-autophagic and antioxidant properties, and could therefore reduce exercise-induced damage to skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate whether [...] Read more.
Background: Oxidative stress and impaired autophagy are directly and indirectly implicated in exercise-mediated muscle injury. Trehalose, spermidine, nicotinamide, and polyphenols possess pro-autophagic and antioxidant properties, and could therefore reduce exercise-induced damage to skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a mixture of these compounds was able to improve muscle injury biomarkers in endurance athletes through the modulation of oxidative stress and autophagic machinery. Methods and Results: sNOX2-dp; H2O2 production; H2O2 breakdown activity (HBA); ATG5 and p62 levels, both markers of autophagic process; and muscle injury biomarkers were evaluated in five endurance athletes who were allocated in a crossover design study to daily administration of 10.5 g of an experimental mixture or no treatment, with evaluations conducted at baseline and after 30 days of mixture consumption. Compared to baseline, the mixture intake led to a remarkable reduction of oxidative stress and positively modulated autophagy. Finally, after the 30-day supplementation period, a significant decrease in muscle injury biomarkers was found. Conclusion: Supplementation with this mixture positively affected redox state and autophagy and improved muscle injury biomarkers in athletes, allowing for better muscle recovery. Moreover, it is speculated that this mixture could also benefit patients suffering from muscle injuries, such as cancer or cardiovascular patients, or elderly subjects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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13 pages, 2995 KiB  
Article
Five Days of Tart Cherry Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance in Normobaric Hypoxia
by Masahiro Horiuchi, Yoshiyuki Fukuoka, Katsuhiro Koyama and Samuel J. Oliver
Nutrients 2023, 15(2), 388; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15020388 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2476
Abstract
Previous studies have shown tart cherry (TC) to improve exercise performance in normoxia. The effect of TC on hypoxic exercise performance is unknown. This study investigated the effects of 5 days of tart cherry (TC) or placebo (PL) supplementation on hypoxic exercise performance. [...] Read more.
Previous studies have shown tart cherry (TC) to improve exercise performance in normoxia. The effect of TC on hypoxic exercise performance is unknown. This study investigated the effects of 5 days of tart cherry (TC) or placebo (PL) supplementation on hypoxic exercise performance. Thirteen healthy participants completed an incremental cycle exercise test to exhaustion (TTE) under two conditions: (i) hypoxia (13% O2) with PL and (ii) hypoxia with TC (200 mg anthocyanin per day for 4 days and 100 mg on day 5). Pulmonary gas exchange variables, peripheral arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2), deoxygenated hemoglobin (HHb), and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy in the vastus lateralis muscle were measured at rest and during exercise. Urinary 8-hydro-2′ deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) excretion was evaluated pre-exercise and 1 and 5 h post-exercise. The TTE after TC (940 ± 84 s, mean ± standard deviation) was longer than after PL (912 ± 63 s, p < 0.05). During submaximal hypoxic exercise, HHb was lower and StO2 and SpO2 were higher after TC than PL. Moreover, a significant interaction (supplements × time) in urinary 8-OHdG excretion was found (p < 0.05), whereby 1 h post-exercise increases in urinary 8-OHdG excretion tended to be attenuated after TC. These findings indicate that short-term dietary TC supplementation improved hypoxic exercise tolerance, perhaps due to lower HHb and higher StO2 in the working muscles during submaximal exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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15 pages, 422 KiB  
Article
Effect of Time-Restricted Eating and Resistance Training on High-Speed Strength and Body Composition
by Joana M. Correia, Paulo D. G. Santos, Pedro Pezarat-Correia, Cláudia S. Minderico, Jorge Infante and Goncalo V. Mendonca
Nutrients 2023, 15(2), 285; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15020285 - 06 Jan 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3259
Abstract
This study examined the effects of four weeks of resistance training combined with time-restricted eating (TRE) vs. habitual diet on fat and fat-free mass as well as maximum and explosive force production in healthy, trained participants (18 males, aged 23.7 ± 2.6 years). [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of four weeks of resistance training combined with time-restricted eating (TRE) vs. habitual diet on fat and fat-free mass as well as maximum and explosive force production in healthy, trained participants (18 males, aged 23.7 ± 2.6 years). The order of dieting was randomized and counterbalanced, and the participants served as their own controls. TRE involved an 8-h eating window and non-TRE involved a habitual meal pattern. Participants completed performance strength tests and body composition scans at baseline and post-intervention. The participants followed a structured training routine during each dietary intervention (four sets of maximum repetitions at 85% 1RM in five dynamic exercises, three times/week). Both interventions elicited deceases in fat mass (p < 0.05) but not in fat-free mass. After training (controlling for baseline values as covariates), non-TRE was compatible with better lower body jump performance than TRE (p < 0.05). Conversely, training with TRE elicited higher values in terms of peak force and dynamic strength index at the level of the upper body (p < 0.05). Thus, it can be concluded that there were no differences in fat mass and fat-free mass changes between interventions in already trained young males. Additionally, while the combination of TRE and resistance training might be beneficial for individuals focusing on developing high-speed strength performance at the upper body level, this is not applicable to those focusing on training the lower body. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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12 pages, 331 KiB  
Article
Are the Consumption Patterns of Sports Supplements Similar among Spanish Mountain Runners?
by Rubén Jiménez-Alfageme, Noelia Rubio-Quintanilla, David Romero-García, Antonio Jesús Sanchez-Oliver, Isabel Sospedra and José Miguel Martínez-Sanz
Nutrients 2023, 15(2), 262; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15020262 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2507
Abstract
Background: The use of sports supplements (SS) to improve sports performance is widespread in all types of athletes, however, the specific characteristics of mountain races may require the use of certain SS. Despite being a sport where the consumption of SS seems widespread, [...] Read more.
Background: The use of sports supplements (SS) to improve sports performance is widespread in all types of athletes, however, the specific characteristics of mountain races may require the use of certain SS. Despite being a sport where the consumption of SS seems widespread, few studies have been conducted in this regard. The objective of this study is to analyze the pattern of SS consumption of mountain runners in relation to the degree of scientific evidence, sex, and level of competition. Methods: Descriptive and cross-sectional study on the consumption and habitual use of SS of 357 federated mountain runners in Spain. Data were collected through a validated questionnaire. Results: From the total sample, 93.84% of the athletes stated that they consumed SS, with no differences observed based on the competitive level or in terms of sex; however, there were significant differences according to the competitive level in terms of the number of SS consumed, with consumption being greater at a higher competitive level (p = 0.009). The most consumed SS were sports bars (66.1%), sports drinks (60.5%), sports gels (52.9%), and caffeine (46.2%). Conclusions: The consumption of SS in mountain races is high, and the number of SS consumed is higher as the competition level increases. The four SS most consumed by the participants in this study were all included in category A in the classification of the Australian Institute of Sport (AIS), this category is the one with the greatest scientific evidence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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12 pages, 932 KiB  
Article
Beetroot Juice Produces Changes in Heart Rate Variability and Reduces Internal Load during Resistance Training in Men: A Randomized Double-Blind Crossover
by Jose Manuel Jurado-Castro, David Casanova-Rodriguez, Julian Campos-Perez, Francisco Jesus Llorente-Cantarero, Candelaria Alonso De La Florida-Villagran, Víctor Manuel Diaz-Bernier and Antonio Ranchal-Sanchez
Nutrients 2022, 14(23), 5119; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14235119 - 02 Dec 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 3713
Abstract
Beetroot juice (BJ) has been used as a sport supplement, improving performance in resistance training (RT). However, its effect on the modulation of the autonomic nervous system has not yet been widely studied. Therefore, the objective of this randomized double-blind crossover study was [...] Read more.
Beetroot juice (BJ) has been used as a sport supplement, improving performance in resistance training (RT). However, its effect on the modulation of the autonomic nervous system has not yet been widely studied. Therefore, the objective of this randomized double-blind crossover study was to assess the effect of acute BJ supplementation compared to placebo in blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV) and internal load during RT measure as Root Mean Square of the Successive Differences between adjacent RR intervals Slope (RMSSD and RMSSD-Slope, respectively). Eleven men performed an incremental RT test (three sets at 60%, 70% and 80% of their repetition maximum) composed by back squat and bench press with. HR, HRV and RMSSD-Slope were measured during and post exercise. As the main results, RMSSD during exercise decrease in the BJ group compared to placebo (p = 0.023; ES = 0.999), there were no differences in RMSSD post-exercise, and there were differences in RMSSD-Slope between groups in favor of the BJ group (p = 0.025; ES = 1.104) with a lower internal load. In conclusion, BJ supplementation seems to be a valuable tool for the reduction in the internal load of exercise during RT measured as RMSSD-Slope while enhancing performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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19 pages, 5355 KiB  
Article
Black Ginger (Kaempferia parviflora) Extract Enhances Endurance Capacity by Improving Energy Metabolism and Substrate Utilization in Mice
by Jiapeng Huang, Takashi Tagawa, Sihui Ma and Katsuhiko Suzuki
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3845; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183845 - 17 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7255
Abstract
Black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora) extract (KPE), extracted from KP, a member of the ginger family that grows in Thailand, has a good promotion effect on cellular energy metabolism and therefore has been used to enhance exercise performance and treatment of obesity [...] Read more.
Black ginger (Kaempferia parviflora) extract (KPE), extracted from KP, a member of the ginger family that grows in Thailand, has a good promotion effect on cellular energy metabolism and therefore has been used to enhance exercise performance and treatment of obesity in previous studies. However, the effect of single-dose administration of KPE on endurance capacity has not been thoroughly studied, and whether the positive effect of KPE on cellular energy metabolism can have a positive effect on exercise capacity in a single dose is unknown. In the present study, we used a mouse model to study the effects of acute KPE administration 1 h before exercise on endurance capacity and the underlying mechanisms. The purpose of our study was to determine whether a single administration of KPE could affect endurance performance in mice and whether the effect was produced through a pro-cellular energy metabolic pathway. We found that a single administration of KPE (62.5 mg/kg·bodyweight) can significantly prolong the exercise time to exhaustion. By measuring the mRNA expression of Hk2, Slc2a4 (Glut4), Mct1, Ldh, Cd36, Cpt1β, Cpt2, Lpl, Pnpla2 (Atgl), Aco, Acadm (Mcad), Hadh, Acacb (Acc2), Mlycd (Mcd), Pparg, Ppargc1a (Pgc-1α), Tfam, Gp, Gs, Pfkm, Pck1 (Pepck), G6pc (G6pase), Cs, and Pfkl in skeletal muscle and liver, we found that acute high-concentration KPE administration significantly changed the soleus muscle gene expression levels (p < 0.05) related to lipid, lactate, and glycogen metabolism and mitochondrial function. In gastrocnemius muscle and liver, glycogen metabolism-related gene expression is significantly changed by a single-dose administration of KPE. These results suggest that KPE has the potential to improve endurance capacity by enhancing energy metabolism and substrate utilization in muscles and liver. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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17 pages, 739 KiB  
Article
Effects of Dietary Nitrate Supplementation on Performance and Muscle Oxygenation during Resistance Exercise in Men
by Rachel Tan, Adam Pennell, Katherine M. Price, Sean T. Karl, Noelle G. Seekamp-Hicks, Keonabelle K. Paniagua, Grant D. Weiderman, Joanna P. Powell, Luka K. Sharabidze, Isabella G. Lincoln, Justin M. Kim, Madeleine F. Espinoza, Maya A. Hammer, Richie P. Goulding and Stephen J. Bailey
Nutrients 2022, 14(18), 3703; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14183703 - 08 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 5168
Abstract
The purpose of the current study was to assess the effects of acute and short-term nitrate (NO3)-rich beetroot juice (BR) supplementation on performance outcomes and muscle oxygenation during bench press and back squat exercise. Fourteen recreationally active males were assigned [...] Read more.
The purpose of the current study was to assess the effects of acute and short-term nitrate (NO3)-rich beetroot juice (BR) supplementation on performance outcomes and muscle oxygenation during bench press and back squat exercise. Fourteen recreationally active males were assigned in a randomized, double-blind, crossover design to supplement for 4 days in two conditions: (1) NO3-depleted beetroot juice (PL; 0.10 mmol NO3 per day) and (2) BR (11.8 mmol NO3 per day). On days 1 and 4 of the supplementation periods, participants completed 2 sets of 2 × 70%1RM interspersed by 2 min of recovery, followed by one set of repetitions-to-failure (RTF) at 60%1RM for the determination of muscular power, velocity, and endurance. Quadriceps and pectoralis major tissue saturation index (TSI) were measured throughout exercise. Plasma [NO3] and nitrite ([NO2]) were higher after 1 and 4 days of supplementation with BR compared to PL (p < 0.05). Quadriceps and pectoralis major TSI were not different between conditions (p > 0.05). The number of RTF in bench press was 5% greater after acute BR ingestion compared to PL (PL: 23 ± 4 vs. BR: 24 ± 5, p < 0.05). There were no differences between BR and PL for RTF for back squat or power and velocity for back squat or bench press (p > 0.05). These data improve understanding on the ergogenic potential of BR supplementation during resistance exercise. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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16 pages, 4149 KiB  
Article
Probiotic Lactiplantibacillus plantarum Tana Isolated from an International Weightlifter Enhances Exercise Performance and Promotes Antifatigue Effects in Mice
by Mon-Chien Lee, Ming-Ju Chen, Hsiao-Wen Huang, Wei-Kai Wu, Yi-Wei Lee, Hsing-Chun Kuo and Chi-Chang Huang
Nutrients 2022, 14(16), 3308; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14163308 - 12 Aug 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2569
Abstract
Exercise causes changes in the gut microbiota, and in turn, the composition of the gut microbiota affects exercise performance. In addition, the supplementation of probiotics is one of the most direct ways to change the gut microbiota. In recent years, the development and [...] Read more.
Exercise causes changes in the gut microbiota, and in turn, the composition of the gut microbiota affects exercise performance. In addition, the supplementation of probiotics is one of the most direct ways to change the gut microbiota. In recent years, the development and application of human-origin probiotics has gradually attracted attention. Therefore, we obtained intestinal Lactiplantibacillus plantarum “Tana” from a gold-medal-winning weightlifter, who has taken part in various international competitions such as the World Championships and the Olympic Games, to investigate the benefits of Tana supplementation for improving exercise performance and promoting antifatigue effects in mice. A total of 40 male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice were divided into four groups (10 mice/group): (1) vehicle (0 CFU/mice/day), (2) Tana-1× (6.15 × 107 CFU/mice/day), (3) Tana-2× (1.23 × 108 CFU /mice/day), and (4) Tana-5× (3.09 × 108 CFU/mice/day). After four weeks of Tana supplementation, we found that the grip strength, endurance exercise performance, and glycogen storage in the liver and muscle were significantly improved compared to those in the vehicle group (p < 0.05). In addition, supplementation with Tana had significant effects on fatigue-related biochemical markers; lactate, ammonia, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels and creatine kinase (CK) activity were significantly lowered (p < 0.05). We also found that the improved exercise performance and antifatigue benefits were significantly dose-dependent on increasing doses of Tana supplementation (p < 0.05), which increased the abundance and ratio of beneficial bacteria in the gut. Taken together, Tana supplementation for four weeks was effective in improving the gut microbiota, thereby enhancing exercise performance, and had antifatigue effects. Furthermore, supplementation did not cause any physiological or histopathological damage. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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Review

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14 pages, 668 KiB  
Review
Practical Nutrition Strategies to Support Basketball Performance during International Short-Term Tournaments: A Narrative Review
by Ozcan Esen, Kazimierz Rozwadowski, Ladislav Cepicka, Tomasz Gabrys and Raci Karayigit
Nutrients 2022, 14(22), 4909; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14224909 - 20 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4129
Abstract
A short-term (e.g., 6 days) basketball tournament is a shorter version of international tournaments, and qualification in it enables participation in international tournaments such as the Olympics and World championships or preparation before major tournaments. Time for recovery between matches is shorter compared [...] Read more.
A short-term (e.g., 6 days) basketball tournament is a shorter version of international tournaments, and qualification in it enables participation in international tournaments such as the Olympics and World championships or preparation before major tournaments. Time for recovery between matches is shorter compared with major tournaments, resulting in an accentuated load on players, which can be repeated up to four times within the 6-day competition period. Therefore, nutritional strategies need to focus on faster and adequate recovery after each match as well as optimum fuelling and hydration before and during matches. Travelling can also create additional challenges when preparing and/or applying those nutritional strategies. There are some particular evidence-based sport foods and ergogenic aids that can improve intermittent activity and/or the execution of motor skills, which may facilitate basketball players’ recovery and performance. The present review provides practical nutritional strategies to support short-term basketball tournaments based on players’ physiological needs and current sport nutrition guidelines. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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12 pages, 1530 KiB  
Review
Effects of Capsaicin and Capsiate on Endurance Performance: A Meta-Analysis
by Jozo Grgic, Aamir Raoof Memon, Sitong Chen, Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo, Gabriel Barreto, Markus Estifanos Haugen and Brad J. Schoenfeld
Nutrients 2022, 14(21), 4531; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu14214531 - 28 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4051
Abstract
Several studies have explored the effects of capsaicin and capsiate on endurance performance, with conflicting findings. This systematic review aimed to perform a meta-analysis examining the effects of capsaicin and capsiate vs. placebo on endurance performance in humans. Seven databases were searched to [...] Read more.
Several studies have explored the effects of capsaicin and capsiate on endurance performance, with conflicting findings. This systematic review aimed to perform a meta-analysis examining the effects of capsaicin and capsiate vs. placebo on endurance performance in humans. Seven databases were searched to find eligible studies. The effects of capsaicin and capsiate on aerobic endurance (e.g., time-trials or time-to-exhaustion tests), muscular endurance (e.g., repetitions performed to muscular failure), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were examined in a random-effects meta-analysis. Fourteen studies (n = 183) were included in the review. Most studies provided capsaicin or capsiate in the dose of 12 mg, 45 min before exercise. In the meta-analysis for aerobic endurance, there was no significant difference between the placebo and capsaicin/capsiate conditions (Cohen’s d: 0.04; 95% confidence interval: −0.16, 0.25; p = 0.69). In subgroup meta-analyses, there were no significant differences between the placebo and capsaicin/capsiate conditions when analyzing only studies that used time-trials (p = 0.20) or time-to-exhaustion tests (p = 0.80). In the meta-analysis for muscular endurance, a significant ergogenic effect of capsaicin/capsiate was found (Cohen’s d: 0.27; 95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.43; p = 0.002). When analyzing set-specific effects, an ergogenic effect of capsaicin/capsiate was found in set 1, set 2, and set 3 (Cohen’s d: 0.21–29). Capsaicin/capsiate ingestion reduced RPE following muscular endurance (p = 0.03) but not aerobic endurance tests (p = 0.58). In summary, capsaicin/capsiate supplementation acutely enhances muscular endurance, while the effects on aerobic endurance are less clear. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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Other

Jump to: Research, Review

26 pages, 653 KiB  
Systematic Review
Effects of Combined Interventions of Exercise and Diet or Exercise and Supplementation on Breast Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review
by Txomin Pérez-Bilbao, María Alonso-Dueñas, Ana B. Peinado and Alejandro F. San Juan
Nutrients 2023, 15(4), 1013; https://doi.org/10.3390/nu15041013 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3255
Abstract
This systematic review investigated the effects of exercise interventions combined with diet and/or dietary supplement interventions on anthropometry, body composition, metabolic biomarkers, physical function, healthy lifestyles, quality of life, psychosocial variables and fatigue for women with breast cancer. A systematic search was performed [...] Read more.
This systematic review investigated the effects of exercise interventions combined with diet and/or dietary supplement interventions on anthropometry, body composition, metabolic biomarkers, physical function, healthy lifestyles, quality of life, psychosocial variables and fatigue for women with breast cancer. A systematic search was performed in the PubMed and Web of Science databases (from inception to 1 March 2022). A review was carried out following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The methodological quality and the risk of bias of the included studies was assessed with the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. A total of 13 randomised controlled trial studies were included, comprising 1569 breast cancer patients. The main finding of this systematic review is that groups performing interventions combining exercise plus diet show significant improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, body composition, quality of life, fatigue, anxiety, depression and sleep compared to control groups. On the other hand, the use of interventions combining exercise plus supplementation does not result in an improvement compared to groups using exercise alone or supplementation alone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sport Supplementation for Performance and Health)
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