Special Issue "Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life"

A special issue of International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (ISSN 1660-4601). This special issue belongs to the section "Health Behavior, Chronic Disease and Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (30 September 2020).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Antonio Jesús Sanchez-Oliver
E-Mail Website1 Website2
Guest Editor
Departamento de Motricidad Humana y Rendimiento Deportivo (en español), Faculty of Education Sciences. University of Seville, Seville, 41013, Spain
Interests: anthropometry; body composition; sport nutrition; supplements; healthy habits; exercise and health; public health
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The lifestyle is defined as all the behavioral characteristics of a particular person or community. It refers to routinely repeated behavior in daily life. Lifestyle behaviors include a series of habits relevant to health: physical activity, diet, tobacco, alcohol, drug use, etc. The lifestyle is influenced mainly by the creation of a hierarchy of values ​​and needs, but also by tradition, customs and trends. There is growing evidence that health behaviors are grouped. For example, the combination of regular practice of physical activity and healthy eating habits helps maintain and improve health and physical and mental well-being. A good management and promotion of these habits combined increases the quality of life in relation to health.

In addition, there are independent and combined associations between these habits with the quality of life related to health at all age stages. However, current data show unhealthy patterns, which contributes substantially to the global burden of morbidity, mortality and disability. It is necessary to make better proposals through the management, promotion and prevention of healthy habits. Likewise, make important institutional and educational efforts aimed at promoting these habits, thus impacting on a healthier society.

The objective of this special issue is to attract articles that relate the study of the promotion and management of healthy or sporting habits whose result is to create a healthier society. Likewise, we welcome studies of citizens' sports habits, in order to know the degree, type and demands of physical-sports practice of the different sectors of the population, and by extension, the type of sports facilities and spaces in which such sports practices must be carried out.

Dr. Jerónimo García-Fernández
Dr. Antonio Jesús Sanchez-Oliver
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access semimonthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2300 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Sport promotion
  • Health promotion
  • Sport management
  • Noncommunicable diseases
  • Lifestyle
  • Healthy habits
  • Sports habits
  • Active life
  • Sports facilities

Published Papers (38 papers)

Order results
Result details
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:

Research

Jump to: Review, Other

Open AccessArticle
Does Improvement in Health-Related Lifestyle Habits Increase Purpose in Life among a Health Literate Cohort?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(23), 8878; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17238878 - 29 Nov 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 592
Abstract
A growing number of studies have revealed the association between health-related lifestyle habits and purpose in life. However, the mechanism linking the two has not been adequately understood. This study aims to examine the effect of changes in health-related lifestyle habits on purpose [...] Read more.
A growing number of studies have revealed the association between health-related lifestyle habits and purpose in life. However, the mechanism linking the two has not been adequately understood. This study aims to examine the effect of changes in health-related lifestyle habits on purpose in life. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on certified professional specialists of health management. We analyzed the cohort’s demographic information, health-related lifestyle behaviors, reported changes in health-related lifestyle habits (exercise, diet, sleep, and other habits), and purpose in life using a validated tool (Ikigai-9). The cohort was divided into four groups based on the number of reported changes in health-related lifestyles. The purpose in life score was compared among the four groups with and without adjusting for lifestyle. In total, there were 4820 participants. The means (and SD) of the Ikigai-9 score for groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 were 31.4 (6.6), 32.2 (5.6), 32.8 (5.8), and 34.9 (5.4), respectively. There was a statistically significant difference in the Ikigai-9 score among the groups. Healthier changes in lifestyle habits increased perceptions of purpose in life. Both purpose in life and health-related lifestyle habits might be the target factors for disease prevention and health promotion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Open AccessArticle
Time Course and Determinants of Individual Motivation among Women Enrolled in a Diet and Physical Activity Primary Prevention Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8589; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228589 - 19 Nov 2020
Viewed by 559
Abstract
We studied the determinants of motivation among post-menopausal women enrolled in a two-year diet and physical activity primary prevention randomized trial. Participants were requested to grade the importance attached to changing their lifestyle, their confidence about being able to implement the change, and [...] Read more.
We studied the determinants of motivation among post-menopausal women enrolled in a two-year diet and physical activity primary prevention randomized trial. Participants were requested to grade the importance attached to changing their lifestyle, their confidence about being able to implement the change, and their willingness to be involved in studies focusing on lifestyle. We used multi-adjusted regression to investigate the association between individual characteristics, study arm, and individual motivation at study entry and end. Participants (n = 234) were highly motivated both at entry and throughout the study. Women with pre-existing healthier eating habits and lifestyles (e.g., high consumption of fruit and vegetables, low red meat consumption, and physically active) were more motivated at entry and over the course of the study. Women assigned to any intervention arm were more motivated than those in the control arm. These findings may help enhance adherence to recommendations and improve effectiveness of community-based health promotion campaigns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Service Quality for Sports and Active Aging in Japanese Community Sports Clubs
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(22), 8313; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17228313 - 10 Nov 2020
Viewed by 561
Abstract
(1) Background: This study aims to examine the association between service quality for sports and active aging and the impacts on different age cohorts; (2) Methods: This cross-sectional study used a convenience sample of 545 Japanese community sports club (CSC) members over 60 [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study aims to examine the association between service quality for sports and active aging and the impacts on different age cohorts; (2) Methods: This cross-sectional study used a convenience sample of 545 Japanese community sports club (CSC) members over 60 years old, recruited from across eight CSCs in Japan between 2012–2013. A self-administered questionnaire was used to measure the self-reported health status of the elderly, evaluations to CSCs, demographic characteristics, and information on sports programs; (3) Results: The results of multiple logistic regression showed that domains of general evaluation for sports (OR = 1.942 and 95% CI 1.336~2.824), benefits of sports (OR = 1.659 and 95% CI 1.344~2.047), and management in sports (OR = 1.273 and 95% CI 1.011~1.603) were important for club members aged 60–64, the young-old, and the old-old, respectively. With a reduced model for elderly members, stratified analyses showed a significant impact of service quality for sports on active aged people in the benefits and management domains, regardless of sociodemographic information or club participation behavior; (4) Conclusions: The findings suggest that the services encountered in sports are key to promoting health in a community. Service quality in age segmentation should be considered to promote and manage active aging in the future Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Strength Training Habits in Amateur Endurance Runners in Spain: Influence of Athletic Level
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8184; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218184 - 05 Nov 2020
Viewed by 930
Abstract
This study determined the strength training (ST) habits of amateur endurance runners in Spain regarding athletic level. A sixteen-item online questionnaire comprised of (i) demographic information, (ii) performance, and (iii) training contents was completed by 1179 athletes. Five group levels were determined according [...] Read more.
This study determined the strength training (ST) habits of amateur endurance runners in Spain regarding athletic level. A sixteen-item online questionnaire comprised of (i) demographic information, (ii) performance, and (iii) training contents was completed by 1179 athletes. Five group levels were determined according to the personal best times of the athletes in a 10-km trial (LG1: level group 1, 50–55 min; LG2: level group 2, 45–50 min; LG3: level group 3, 40–45 min; LG4: level group 4, 35–40 min; LG5: level group 5, 30–35 min). Most athletes (n = 735, 62.3%) perceived ST as being a key component in their training program. Resistance training (RT) was reported as a ST type used by 63.4% of the athletes, 66.9% reported using bodyweight exercises, 46.8% reported using plyometric training, 65.6% reported using uphill runs, and 17.8% reported using resisted runs. The prevalence of runners who excluded ST from their training programs decreased as the athletic performance level increased (18.2% in lower-level athletes vs. 3.0% in higher-level), while the inclusion of RT, bodyweight exercises, plyometric training, and uphill and resisted runs was more frequent within higher-level groups. Most athletes included ST using low-to-moderate loads and high a number of repetitions/sets comprised of RT, plyometric training, resisted runs, and core, respiratory, and foot muscles training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Facilitators and Inhibitors of Lifestyle Modification and Maintenance of KOREAN Postmenopausal Women: Revealing Conversations from FOCUS Group Interview
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 8178; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17218178 - 05 Nov 2020
Viewed by 678
Abstract
Modifiable lifestyle behaviors, such as lack of physical activity, smoking, and unhealthy diet, are associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women, in addition to other risk factors, such as aging and physiological changes. Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize the [...] Read more.
Modifiable lifestyle behaviors, such as lack of physical activity, smoking, and unhealthy diet, are associated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases in postmenopausal women, in addition to other risk factors, such as aging and physiological changes. Therefore, it is necessary to emphasize the importance of encouraging healthy lifestyles and health-promoting behaviors among postmenopausal women, to achieve a better health status. However, it is difficult to modify lifestyle and maintain that change. This study was aimed at identifying the factors that affect the maintenance of healthy lifestyle habits in postmenopausal women, using various theoretical models. This qualitative study included focus-group interviews with 21 Korean postmenopausal women aged 54 to 69 years. A theory-guided thematic analysis was performed based on the Health Belief Model, Self-Determination Theory, Social Cognitive Theory, and Theory of Planned Behavior. As a result, facilitators and inhibitors to healthy lifestyle modification and maintenance are identified. Various sources of motivation and reinforcement are important for menopausal women to maintain a healthy lifestyle. Autonomy support and self-regulation strategies play an important role in integrating health-promoting behaviors into a daily routine. In addition to personal effort, a social support system is also important to help individuals maintain a healthy lifestyle Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Childhood Obesity and its Influence on Sleep Disorders: Kids-Play Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(21), 7948; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17217948 - 29 Oct 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 794
Abstract
Background: Sleep disorders are associated with overweight and obese children, and could decrease life quality with limitations to normal daily activities. The purpose of the study is to describe the prevalence of sleep disorders in a cohort of overweight/obese children using respiratory polygraphy. [...] Read more.
Background: Sleep disorders are associated with overweight and obese children, and could decrease life quality with limitations to normal daily activities. The purpose of the study is to describe the prevalence of sleep disorders in a cohort of overweight/obese children using respiratory polygraphy. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Granada (Spain) on a sample of 98 children with overweight or obesity. The presence of sleep disorders was determined by respiratory polygraphy. Results: Regarding apnoea–hypopnea-index (AHI) results, 44% of affected children had severe sleep apnoea–hypopnea syndrome (SAHS), and the remaining 56% had a mild form of the disorder. With respect to oxygen-desaturation index, 56% of the same group had severe SAHS, 32% had mild SAHS, and the remaining 12% did not suffer from SAHS. Among participants, average scores of 13.8 obstructive apnoea, 7.7 central apnoea, and 13.6 hypopnoea were recorded. Conclusions: Respiratory polygraphy can provide conclusive results in the diagnosis of SAHS in overweight/obese children. Interventional programmes designed and implemented to reduce overweight and obesity can improve quality of sleep and life in children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Motives and Commitment to Sport in Amateurs during Confinement: A Segmentation Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(20), 7398; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17207398 - 11 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1029
Abstract
The current COVID-19 pandemic has paralysed whole countries, which have had to confine their entire population and this changed people’s lives worldwide. The aim of this study is to identify the reasons for and the level of commitment to physical activity among the [...] Read more.
The current COVID-19 pandemic has paralysed whole countries, which have had to confine their entire population and this changed people’s lives worldwide. The aim of this study is to identify the reasons for and the level of commitment to physical activity among the Spanish population during confinement and the return to the “new normal”. A sample of 1025 amateurs, 534 males and 491 females with an average age of 35 years old were interviewed using an online survey that collected their motives for practising sport and their commitment to physical activity. A cluster analysis combining hierarchical and non-hierarchical methods was performed, identifying three groups of amateurs: High Commitment (n = 650), Moderate Commitment (n = 324), and Low Commitment (n = 81). The main motives shown by the different groups were psychological motives related to an improved or managed general or emotional well-being. Regarding commitment, all the groups showed higher scores in enthusiasm for physical activity than affliction from sport. The variables referring to gender, educational level and sports habits showed differences that enabled the identification of the different groups. These findings highlight the importance of conducting segmentation studies that provide specific population profiles to improve the action strategies of governments and specialists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Open AccessArticle
Physical Activity in the Daily Life of Adolescents: Factors Affecting Healthy Choices from a Discrete Choice Experiment
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6860; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186860 - 19 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1008
Abstract
Physical activity improves peoples’ well-being and can help in preventing weight gain, obesity, and related non-communicable diseases. Promoting healthy behaviors in the daily travels and transport choices of adolescents is very important in early establishing healthy habits that imply routine physical activity. For [...] Read more.
Physical activity improves peoples’ well-being and can help in preventing weight gain, obesity, and related non-communicable diseases. Promoting healthy behaviors in the daily travels and transport choices of adolescents is very important in early establishing healthy habits that imply routine physical activity. For designing and developing effective strategies, it is relevant to study adolescents’ preferences for physical activity and what factors in the social and environmental contexts affect their preferences. The paper investigates these aspects by means of a discrete choice experiment, using data from more than 4300 16–17 year-old adolescents in Italy. The results show that adolescents generally prefer walking for long time alone. However, females prefer cycling, while adolescents from lower educated families prefer motorized means of transport. Environmental factors affect the adolescents’ preferences: living nearby a green area is associated with more active and healthier choices in their short daily travels. Conversely, adolescents living closer to an industrial or high traffic area prefer to use motorized vehicles. Such findings have been discussed and policy implications presented, in order to support policymakers in designing cross-sectoral policies to promote healthy choices related to physical activity in adolescence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Open AccessArticle
The Promotion of Physical Activity from Digital Services: Influence of E-Lifestyles on Intention to Use Fitness Apps
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6839; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186839 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1262
Abstract
E-Lifestyles are individual forms of behavior in the digital environment that reflect the values, activities, interests, and opinions of consumers. Likewise, fitness Apps are considered technological tools for promoting physical activity online. Although there are studies related to sports lifestyles, it has not [...] Read more.
E-Lifestyles are individual forms of behavior in the digital environment that reflect the values, activities, interests, and opinions of consumers. Likewise, fitness Apps are considered technological tools for promoting physical activity online. Although there are studies related to sports lifestyles, it has not been analyzed yet how e-lifestyles are related to the use of fitness Apps. Based on this, this study represents a step to clarify how e-lifestyles influence different relationships with perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude, and intentions to use Fitness Apps. Therefore, the objective of the study was to analyze the relationship between the e-lifestyles of consumers of Boutique fitness centers and their relationship with the perceived ease of use, the perceived usefulness, the attitude, and the intention to use Fitness Apps. The sample was 591 customers (378 women and 213 men) of 25 Boutique fitness centers. An online questionnaire was used for data collection. Data was analyzed with confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation model. Findings provide an insight into the importance of e-lifestyles in the intention of using fitness Apps and therefore in promoting physical activity through online fitness services. The results showed positive relationships between e-lifestyles, perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and attitude toward fitness Apps. Finally, the attitude toward fitness Apps offered a very high predictive value on use intention. This study provides a better understanding of consumer´s intention to use fitness Apps. The conclusions and recommendations for sports managers of fitness centers highlight the importance of e-lifestyles as a predecessor for the use of fitness Apps. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Perspectives and Impact of a Parent-Child Intervention on Dietary Intake and Physical Activity Behaviours, Parental Motivation, and Parental Body Composition: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6822; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186822 - 18 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1011
Abstract
Adults and children in Canada are not meeting physical activity guidelines nor consuming sufficient nutrient-rich foods. High engagement in these unhealthy behaviours can lead to obesity and its associated diseases. Parent-child interventions aimed at obesity prevention/treatment have assisted families with making positive changes [...] Read more.
Adults and children in Canada are not meeting physical activity guidelines nor consuming sufficient nutrient-rich foods. High engagement in these unhealthy behaviours can lead to obesity and its associated diseases. Parent-child interventions aimed at obesity prevention/treatment have assisted families with making positive changes to their nutrition and physical activity behaviours. Given that the home environment shapes early health behaviours, it is important to target both parents and children when addressing diet and physical activity. One method that has been shown to improve health outcomes is co-active coaching. The current study explored the impact of a three-month co-active coaching and/or health education intervention on the dietary intake and physical activity behaviours of parents with overweight/obesity and their children (ages 2.5–10; of any weight). Body composition (i.e., body mass index [BMI] and waist circumference), changes in parental motivation with respect to physical activity and dietary behaviours, and parental perceptions of program improvements were collected. A concurrent mixed methods study comprised of a randomized controlled trial and a descriptive qualitative design was utilized. Fifty parent-child dyads were recruited and randomly assigned to the control (n = 25) or intervention (n = 25) group. Assessments were completed at baseline, mid-intervention (six weeks), post-intervention (three months), and six-month follow-up. A linear mixed effects model was utilized for quantitative analysis. Inductive content analysis was used to extract themes from parent interviews. No significant results were observed over time for the dependent measures. Parents in both control and intervention groups reported varied program experiences, including developing changes in perspective, increased awareness of habits, and heightened accountability for making positive changes in themselves, and consequently, their families. Parents also shared barriers they faced when implementing changes (e.g., time, weather, stress). Qualitatively, both groups reported benefitting from this program, with the intervention group describing salient benefits from engaging in coaching. This research expands on the utility of coaching as a method for behaviour change, when compared to education only, in parents with overweight/obesity and their children. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Lack of Association between the Reasons for and Time Spent Doing Physical Activity
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6777; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186777 - 17 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 736
Abstract
Low levels of Physical Activity (PA) and sedentarism are associated with the onset of different pathologies and health problems. Regular physical activity has been linked with being beneficial to the health of the general population. Within this framework of analysis, the aim of [...] Read more.
Low levels of Physical Activity (PA) and sedentarism are associated with the onset of different pathologies and health problems. Regular physical activity has been linked with being beneficial to the health of the general population. Within this framework of analysis, the aim of the present study was to analyze the association between the time spent doing physical activity and the expressed motives for doing so, from which the innovative aspect of the paper emerges: the use of the time spent doing PA as a study variable of the phenomenon. The data analyzed come from the latest special Eurobarometer survey about the sport and physical activity done in Europe. Using an exploratory factorial analysis and a structural equations model, a six-dimensional factorial model was found that explains the reasons for doing PA, demonstrating that there is no relationship between the reasons for and time spent doing PA. The motivation is not a variable that explains the time spent doing PA, and another type of variable must be used to explain the phenomenon if PA is to be incentivized. Weaknesses of the study are that it works with individuals as a group and that the fundamental dependence on age is not introduced, which could determine interest in practicing PA. Similarly, the impact of the conditions of implementing PA, education, and family history should also be introduced into the model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
The Impact of Family Life and Marital Status on the Motivations of Ultramarathoners: The Karkonosze Winter Ultramarathon Case Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6596; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186596 - 10 Sep 2020
Viewed by 648
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate how family life and marital status influence the motivations of ultramarathoners. Two-hundred-sixty-seven Polish athletes participated in the diagnostic survey during the Karkonosze Winter Ultramarathon. The Polish version of the Motivation of Marathoner Scale was used. [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate how family life and marital status influence the motivations of ultramarathoners. Two-hundred-sixty-seven Polish athletes participated in the diagnostic survey during the Karkonosze Winter Ultramarathon. The Polish version of the Motivation of Marathoner Scale was used. The motivations of ultra-runners were investigated among the following groups of respondents: people in a relationship/marriage; singles; people with children vs. childless people; people who run alone and with a partner; people who parted with a partner because of lack of support for running. Research results can be useful for sport managers–e.g., findings show the relative importance of modern sport for singles in the second half of life. Research has also shown how people in relationships and people with children can be realized through demanding long-distance running. We also found that running ultramarathons can pose a threat to a relationship. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Open AccessArticle
Sport Promotion through Sport Mega-Events. An Analysis for Types of Olympic Sports in London 2012
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6193; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176193 - 26 Aug 2020
Viewed by 846
Abstract
A substantial amount of attention has been devoted towards the potential sport legacy of the Olympic Games. In spite of the increasing academic interest in this topic, there is a knowledge gap as far as sport legacy is concerned by types of different [...] Read more.
A substantial amount of attention has been devoted towards the potential sport legacy of the Olympic Games. In spite of the increasing academic interest in this topic, there is a knowledge gap as far as sport legacy is concerned by types of different sports. The authors bridge this gap by analysing the evolution of 43 different Olympic/Paralympic sport modalities in the two-year period after the London 2012 Olympics. By using data from the Active People Survey with a sample of 165,000 people annually, and considering some demographic variables and the effect of the economic environment, the paper aims to test the existence of a sport legacy. We have applied time series analysis and ARIMA models for controlling for economic influence and seasonal adjustment and for making comparisons among participation rates. The results show, for the total of the sports analysed, that there were 336,000 individuals who increased their frequency of participation, while there was no significant increase in the number of new participants in these sports. When we develop the analysis for types of sports, London 2012 is positively associated not only with the frequency of participation in some types of sport but also with an increase in the number of new sport participants. Gender and age differences are also detected. The results show the differences of sport legacy by type of sports. Moreover, this research has elucidated an important unrecognised aspect of the effect of the Olympic Games and perhaps major events: that they can become a major policy tool for reversing sporting inequalities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Changes in Lipoinflammation Markers in People with Obesity after a Concurrent Training Program: A Comparison between Men and Women
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6168; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176168 - 25 Aug 2020
Viewed by 802
Abstract
Obesity is related to low-grade systemic inflammation. This state of inflammation is characterized by the alteration in adipokine regulation, which may lead to a situation of cardiometabolic risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a concurrent training program [...] Read more.
Obesity is related to low-grade systemic inflammation. This state of inflammation is characterized by the alteration in adipokine regulation, which may lead to a situation of cardiometabolic risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a concurrent training program on markers of lipoinflammation in adult people with obesity, comparing the response to the training between men and women. A quasi-experimental, quantitative, and longitudinal study with a pre–post intervention was conducted. An 8-week concurrent training program was carried out, in which 26 individuals with obesity participated (mean ± SD; age = 46.38 ± 4.66) (BMI = 36.05 ± 4.99) (12 men and 14 women). Before and after the intervention period, blood samples were taken by percutaneous puncture. The blood levels of adiponectin and leptin were evaluated. Significant differences were obtained in the adiponectin–leptin ratio (A/L ratio) of the entire sample (p = 0.009, ES = 0.53), which indicates a decrease in the risk of cardiovascular diseases and lipoinflammation. There were no significant differences in the improvements observed after the training in A/L ratio between women (A/L change = +63.5%) and men (A/L change= +59.2%). It can be concluded that the combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training induced an improvement in markers of lipoinflammation and cardiometabolic risk in the individuals with obesity evaluated in this study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
On the Way to the Marathon—Motivation for Participating in Mass Running Events Among Children and Adolescents: Results of the Poznan Half Marathon Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5098; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145098 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 760
Abstract
The market for mass sports events geared towards adults is already saturated, while more new initiatives are exclusively targeting children and adolescents. Mass sports events for amateur athletes can be a great way to encourage young people to exercise regularly, such as in [...] Read more.
The market for mass sports events geared towards adults is already saturated, while more new initiatives are exclusively targeting children and adolescents. Mass sports events for amateur athletes can be a great way to encourage young people to exercise regularly, such as in cases where physical education classes do not fully play this role. A lot of research has already been conducted on the subject of adult motivation for participating in amateur sports events, i.e., marathons, ultramarathons, duathlons or triathlons. However, the research niche is children and adolescents’ motivation. The aim of this study is to recognize motivation among children aged 12 for participating in children’s running events in Poland. The study was conducted via a diagnostic survey using the Motives for Physical Activity Measure–Revised (MPAM-R) scale to determine what motivation is most important for young athletes and whether there are any differences in terms of gender. The highest values were obtained by motivation related to fun and enjoyment during sporting events, while the lowest values were obtained by motivation related to social affiliation. Aspects associated with good fun should be promoted during activities related to the marketing of sporting events for young people. This article contains the results obtained from the Poznan Half Marathon pilot study and recommendations for future lines of research. Such results will allow us to understand the motivation behind modern young amateur athletes and to better manage mass sports events that target children and adolescents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Transtheoretical Model Is Better Predictor of Physiological Stress than Perceived Stress Scale and Work Ability Index among Office Workers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4410; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124410 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1068
Abstract
Physical activity impacts positively on stress and anxiety. Working conditions affect the quality of life by increasing stress levels, which can affect job performance and work absence. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Work Ability Index (WAI), Transtheoretical Model (TTM), as well as heart [...] Read more.
Physical activity impacts positively on stress and anxiety. Working conditions affect the quality of life by increasing stress levels, which can affect job performance and work absence. The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS), Work Ability Index (WAI), Transtheoretical Model (TTM), as well as heart rate variability (HRV) have been applied to monitor the state of workers in their job. The aim of this study was to analyze PSS, WAI, and TTM classifications, and to find out how are they linked to physiological stress (HRV). One hundred and thirteen office workers responded to the three questionnaires and their HRV was monitored for at least two full days. Groups were set up according to TTM (Stage 1, Stage 2, Stage 3–4, Stage 5), WAI (weak WAI, medium WAI, good WAI), and PSS (low PSS, medium PSS, high PSS). Results obtained from the test were related to stress values measured by HRV with a Bodyguard2 device. The Stage 5 group from TTM had better HVR and stress levels than the other groups for both women and men (p < 0.05). Participants in the good WAI group and low PSS group had better results than weak WAI and high PSS, but the differences with respect to medium WAI and medium PSS were less clear. Finally, TTM seemed to be the best tool to discriminate physiological stress in office workers with regard to other questionnaires. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Awareness and Knowledge Regarding the Consumption of Dietary Fiber and Its Relation to Self-Reported Health Status in an Adult Arab Population: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(12), 4226; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17124226 - 13 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 923
Abstract
The objective of this study was to examine the awareness, knowledge, and habits regarding dietary fiber intake and to analyze its relationship with self-reported health status among Saudi adults. A survey-based study using face-to-face interview was designed, and 1363 apparently healthy adult Saudi [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to examine the awareness, knowledge, and habits regarding dietary fiber intake and to analyze its relationship with self-reported health status among Saudi adults. A survey-based study using face-to-face interview was designed, and 1363 apparently healthy adult Saudi males and females participated. Most participants were females (81.2%), aged 25 and above (87.2%), and were educated at least up to the secondary level of education (80.8%). The majority of the participants were aware of the role of fiber-rich foods in health conditions such as obesity (70.5%), cardiovascular diseases (68.9%), and regulation of blood sugar (68.9%), with females significantly having higher nutrition knowledge than males. A disconnect in translating this nutrition knowledge was observed particularly in food choices when eating out, where preferences for white bread (84.4%), fried potatoes (69.9%) and peeled fruits (60.6%) were significantly higher than preferences for cooked vegetables (29.6%) and brown bread (18.1%). The most common reason for this disconnect was due to perception that foods rich in dietary fibers were expensive (72.1%), have less health benefits (56.5%), were not readily available (51.6%), and participants’ disliking of the taste (52.8%). Participants in the highest quartile (Q4) for dietary fiber consumption reported a lower prevalence of constipation (odds ratio, 95% confidence interval of 0.40, 0.28–0.57, p < 0.01), high cholesterol (0.43, 0.27–0.68, p < 0.01) and obesity (0.67, 0.44–0.98, p = 0.03) than participants in the lowest quartile (Q1). Dietary fiber intake appears to be protective against constipation, high cholesterol and obesity in Saudi adults. However, a disparity observed between knowledge and attitude towards intake of dietary fibers could limit its health benefits. Further studies including adolescents should be conducted to impart knowledge on the emotional, cognitive and sensory factors related to food choices in order to minimize the gap between nutrition knowledge and the consumption of healthy high-fiber diets. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Perceived Benefits for Mental and Physical Health and Barriers to Horseback Riding Participation. The Analysis among Professional and Amateur Athletes
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3736; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103736 - 25 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 952
Abstract
The aim of this study was to investigate perceived benefits for mental and physical health and barriers to horseback riding participation among professional and amateur athletes by gender. The empirical study of 2651 professional and amateur horseback riders was conducted during the last [...] Read more.
The aim of this study was to investigate perceived benefits for mental and physical health and barriers to horseback riding participation among professional and amateur athletes by gender. The empirical study of 2651 professional and amateur horseback riders was conducted during the last edition of Cavaliada competitions (held in Poznan in December 2019)—one of the biggest and most important horseback riding events in Europe. A diagnostic survey method was used in the study. In the questionnaire a division of benefits and barriers according to the EBBS (Exercise Benefits/Barriers Scale) was used. The results are presented by means of frequency distributions for individual items. The verification of hypotheses about the differences between the analyzed groups was conducted using the U-Mann Whitney test with a correction of tied ranks. For the compared groups the mean rank values were calculated. Research results showed that respondents rated the positive impact of equestrianism on mental health higher than on physical health. Among the barriers, the most frequently mentioned aspects were not related to the internal motivation of the respondents, but to external factors—money, time and distance of sports facilities. Men rated the social and psychological benefits higher, while women rated the positive impact of equestrianism on physicality. Professionals rated more highly a number of aspects related to positive effects on the body, while amateurs claimed that were more often not supported by loved ones. This is important research from the point of view of horseback riding promotion. Understanding the horseback riding benefits and barriers are needed, as such knowledge can be used to encourage horseback riding. Perceived benefits and barriers to horseback riding have so far been rarely studied by researchers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Open AccessArticle
Objective Church Environment Audits and Attendee Perceptions of Healthy Eating and Physical Activity Supports within the Church Setting
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3598; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103598 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 787
Abstract
Interventions in faith-based settings are increasingly popular, due to their effectiveness for improving attendee health outcomes and behaviors. Little past research has examined the important role of the church environment in individual-level outcomes using objective environmental audits. This study examined associations between the [...] Read more.
Interventions in faith-based settings are increasingly popular, due to their effectiveness for improving attendee health outcomes and behaviors. Little past research has examined the important role of the church environment in individual-level outcomes using objective environmental audits. This study examined associations between the objectively measured physical church environment and attendees’ perceptions of physical activity (PA) and healthy eating (HE) supports within the church environment, self-efficacy for PA and HE, and self-reported PA and HE behaviors. Data were collected via church audits and church attendee surveys in 54 churches in a rural, medically underserved county in South Carolina. Multi-level regression was used to analyze associations between the church environment and outcomes. Physical elements of churches were positively related to attendees’ perceptions of church environment supports for PA (B = 0.03, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.05) and HE (B = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.01, 0.09) and there was a significant interaction between perceptions of HE supports and HE church environment. Self-efficacy and behaviors for PA and HE did not show an association with the church environment. Future research should establish a temporal relationship between the church environment and these important constructs for improving health. Future faith-based interventions should apply infrastructure changes to the church environment to influence important mediating constructs to health behavior. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Eating Habits and Their Association with Weight Status in Chinese School-Age Children: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3571; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103571 - 20 May 2020
Viewed by 949
Abstract
Background: Poor eating habits increase children’s risk of chronic diseases such as overweight and obesity, adult diabetes, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the eating habits of school-age children and their impact on children’s body mass index. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Poor eating habits increase children’s risk of chronic diseases such as overweight and obesity, adult diabetes, and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the eating habits of school-age children and their impact on children’s body mass index. Methods: Multistage cluster sampling was used to sample 2224 students in grades 4 to 6 from 16 primary schools in Changsha. A self-designed questionnaire was used to collect general demographic, eating habit, and snack consumption data from school-age children. Height and weight were measured so that the body mass index Z-score could be calculated and evaluated according to the 2007 World Health Organization’s Body Mass Index (BMI) reference standard. Results: The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity in school-age children were 17.0% and 8.3%, respectively. Boys had higher rates of overweight and obesity than girls (19.9% vs. 13.6%, 12.9% vs. 3.0%, respectively, p < 0.05). Among the total population of children, 71.6% reported picky eating habits, and 55.1% had late-night snacks. Children who skipped breakfast (OR 1.507 and 95% CI 1.116~2.035) and ate puffed food (OR 1.571 and 95% CI 1.170~2.110) were more likely to be overweight/obese. Conclusions: The eating habits of school-age children are closely related to their weight status. Poor eating habits can be risk factors for overweight and obesity. The dietary management of children should be strengthened so that they develop good eating habits and the incidence of overweight and obesity in school-age children decreases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Associations of Objectively-Assessed Smartphone Use with Physical Activity, Sedentary Behavior, Mood, and Sleep Quality in Young Adults: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3499; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103499 - 17 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2647
Abstract
This study assesses the associations of objectively-measured smartphone time with physical activity, sedentary behavior, mood, and sleep patterns among young adults by collecting real-time data of the smartphone screen-state. The sample consisted of 306 college-aged students (mean age ± SD: 20.7 ± 1.4 [...] Read more.
This study assesses the associations of objectively-measured smartphone time with physical activity, sedentary behavior, mood, and sleep patterns among young adults by collecting real-time data of the smartphone screen-state. The sample consisted of 306 college-aged students (mean age ± SD: 20.7 ± 1.4 years; 60% males). Over seven days of time, the following variables were measured in the participants: objectively-measured smartphone use (Your Hour and Screen Time applications), objective and subjective physical activity (GoogleFit and Apple Health applications, and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), respectively), the number of hours sitting (IPAQ), mood (The Profile of Mood State (POMS)), and sleep (The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI)). Multiple regressions analyses showed that the number of hours sitting per day, physical activity, and the POMS Global Score significantly predicted smartphone use (adj.R2 = 0.15). Further, participants with low levels of physical activity were more likely to increase the use of smartphones (OR = 2.981). Moreover, mood state (β = 0.185; 95% CI = 0.05, 0.32) and sleep quality (β = 0.076; 95% CI = −0.06, 0.21) predicted smartphone use, with those reporting poor quality of sleep (PSQI index >5) being more likely to use the smartphone (OR = 2.679). In conclusion, there is an association between objectively-measured smartphone use and physical activity, sedentary behavior, mood, and sleep patterns. Those participants with low levels of physical activity, high levels of sedentary behavior, poor mood state, and poor sleep quality were more likely to spend more time using their smartphones. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Reliability and Validity of the Activity Diversity Questionnaire for Older Adults in Japan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(7), 2384; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17072384 - 31 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1169
Abstract
Recent research has suggested that the breadth and evenness of activity and activity diversity contribute to health outcomes among older adults. However, few established assessment tools for activity diversity have been developed. This study developed an Activity Diversity Questionnaire (ADQ) for older adults [...] Read more.
Recent research has suggested that the breadth and evenness of activity and activity diversity contribute to health outcomes among older adults. However, few established assessment tools for activity diversity have been developed. This study developed an Activity Diversity Questionnaire (ADQ) for older adults through expert consultation and a preliminary survey among 18 community-dwelling older adults. The diversity score was calculated according to Shannon’s entropy. In study 1, the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) of the diversity scores were determined for community-dwelling older adults (n = 30). In study 2, concurrent validity was tested with participants receiving comprehensive health checkups at the Itabashi ward in Japan in 2018 (n = 766). The correlation coefficients of the diversity scores were then calculated in reference to the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence and Japan Science and Technology Agency Index of Competence. The final version of the ADQ consisted of 20 total items with excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.84) and moderate correlations with both the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Index of Competence and Japan Science and Technology Agency Index of Competence (r = 0.48 and 0.60, respectively). The ADQ was developed through scientific procedures and revealed sufficient reliability and validity. As such, it is a scientifically validated tool for assessing activity diversity among older adults. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Open AccessArticle
Amateur Runners’ Commitment: An Analysis of Sociodemographic and Sports Habit Profiles
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 925; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030925 - 02 Feb 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1091
Abstract
The aim of this work is to analyse the commitment to running among urban runners by identifying groups regarding commitment to this sport and by defining their sociodemographic profile and their sports habits. A sample of 1806 participants in popular urban races in [...] Read more.
The aim of this work is to analyse the commitment to running among urban runners by identifying groups regarding commitment to this sport and by defining their sociodemographic profile and their sports habits. A sample of 1806 participants in popular urban races in the city of Valencia was interviewed using an 11-item questionnaire on commitment to running, sociodemographic characteristics, and sports habits. The psychometric properties of the running-commitment scale allowed for the identification of two factors in commitment to running: enthusiasm for running (6 items) and affliction from running (5 items). Subsequently, a cluster analysis combining hierarchical and non-hierarchical methods was performed, identifying three groups of runners: highly committed (n = 650), moderately committed (n = 749), and slightly committed (n = 407). Highly committed runners positively rate all aspects of running enthusiasm (M = 4.15), while moderately committed runners show a more neutral attitude (M = 3.41) and slightly committed runners disagree on these aspects (M = 2.41). Both highly (M = 1.32) and moderately (M = 2.04) committed runners disagree on the affliction-related aspects of running, while slightly committed runners show a trend towards neutrality on some affliction indicators. The variables referring to age, level of studies, sports habits, and running addiction contributed to differentiating the identified groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Open AccessArticle
Influence of Nutritional Education on the Diet and Nutritional Behaviors of Elderly Women at the University of the Third Age
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(3), 696; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17030696 - 21 Jan 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1173
Abstract
Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diet composition, body fat content, and physical activity (PA), considering blood lipid levels and insulin resistance markers, in elderly women who were well educated in nutrition and healthy lifestyle choices. Methods: A total [...] Read more.
Background: The objective of this study was to evaluate the diet composition, body fat content, and physical activity (PA), considering blood lipid levels and insulin resistance markers, in elderly women who were well educated in nutrition and healthy lifestyle choices. Methods: A total of 106 postmenopausal women took part in the study. The study group included 62 students from the University of the Third Age (U3A); the control group (CG) included 44 females from the Silesia region. We evaluated their daily macro and micronutrient intake, levels of PA, percent of body fat (PBF), and the visceral fatty area (VFA). We also evaluated the lipid profile, insulin and glucose levels, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Results: Significant differences were observed in carbohydrate, protein, fiber, as well as vitamins and minerals consumption between the U3A group and the CG. There were no differences in the PBF and VFA between the groups. Furthermore, no differences were shown in the measured blood variables. The U3A group walked more than 11,000 steps a day and performed 46.15 min/day of PA with a moderate intensity of 3–6 metabolic equivalents of task (METs, min/week). Conclusions: Despite the fact that the U3A group were physically active females, well educated on healthy, balanced diets and had the motivation to learn about proper nutritional behaviors, they did not follow these recommendations in everyday life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Open AccessArticle
Do Years of Running Experience Influence the Motivations of Amateur Marathon Athletes?
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(2), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17020585 - 16 Jan 2020
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1198
Abstract
The aim of the study was to investigate if years of running experience influence the motivations of marathon athletes. An empirical study was conducted during the last (20th) PKO Poznan Marathon, one of the largest and most popular mass running events in Poland, [...] Read more.
The aim of the study was to investigate if years of running experience influence the motivations of marathon athletes. An empirical study was conducted during the last (20th) PKO Poznan Marathon, one of the largest and most popular mass running events in Poland, which was held in Poznan (Poland) in October 2019. A total of 493 marathon runners (29% of whom were female, and 71% of whom were male) took part in the cross-sectional study, which used the diagnostic survey method. The questionnaire employed the division of motives from the motivation of marathoners scale (MOMS) by Masters et al., adapted to the Polish language by Dybala. Running motivations have already been analysed for variables such as age, gender and place of residence, but there is a research gap regarding existing research, as the relationship between motivations and running experience has not yet been studied. One-way analysis of variance for independent samples was used to verify statistical hypotheses. Prior to making the relevant calculations, the assumption of homogeneity of variance was checked via Levene’s test. Variances were assessed with an F-test, and if they were unequal, Welch’s correction was applied. Eta squared (η2) was used as a measure of effect size. The calculations carried out showed that running experience was not a statistically significant factor in the motivations of runners taking part in a marathon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Play as a Method to Reduce Overweight and Obesity in Children: An RCT
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010346 - 03 Jan 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1520
Abstract
Background: Overweight and obesity are the result of a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors, which begins prenatally. Aim: To analyse an intervention based on play as a means of improving the body composition of children who are overweight or obese. Methods: [...] Read more.
Background: Overweight and obesity are the result of a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors, which begins prenatally. Aim: To analyse an intervention based on play as a means of improving the body composition of children who are overweight or obese. Methods: The Kids-Play study is a randomized clinical trial (RCT) consisting of 49 children aged 8–12 years on a nine-month intervention programme based on physical activity, play and nutritional advice. Controls had another 49 children, who received only nutritional advice. Results: The play-based intervention achieved a moderate-vigorous level of physical activity in the study group of 81.18 min per day, while the corresponding level for the control group was only 37.34 min. At the start of the intervention, the children in the study group had an average body fat content of 41.66%, a level that decreased to 38.85% by the end of the programme. Among the control group, body fat increased from 38.83% to 41.4% during the same period. Conclusions: The intervention programme considered, based on both play and nutritional recommendations, produced a decrease in body fat among children aged 8–12 years. However, the control group, which received only nutritional recommendations, experienced an increase in body weight. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Sedentariness of College Students Is Negatively Associated with Perceived Neighborhood Greenness at Home, but Not at University
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(1), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17010235 - 28 Dec 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 850
Abstract
Previous studies reported contradictory evidence for associations between perceived greenness and obesity mediated by physical activity, focusing on people’s homes or general greenness. Data are lacking in other environments. We studied the association of perceived greenness at home and at university with BMI [...] Read more.
Previous studies reported contradictory evidence for associations between perceived greenness and obesity mediated by physical activity, focusing on people’s homes or general greenness. Data are lacking in other environments. We studied the association of perceived greenness at home and at university with BMI and physical activity. An online survey collected data from 601 participants, living and studying in and around the city of Graz, Austria; mean age of 24 years. Greenness was assessed using questions on quality of and access to green space; Body mass index (BMI) was derived from self-reported measures; physical activity and sedentariness were measured using the IPAQ questionnaire (short version). On average, BMI was 22.6 (SD = 3.7), physical activity was 63.3 (SD = 51.7) METh/week, and participants spent 5.8 (SD = 4.0) h/day sitting. Regression analyses revealed no associations between perceived greenness and BMI and physical activity for all environments, but a negative association for sedentariness and perceived greenness at home, but not at university. The results indicate a relation between perceived greenness and sedentariness, which differs for the home-and study environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Open AccessArticle
Sporting Habits of Urban Runners: Classification According to Their Motivation
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(24), 4990; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16244990 - 08 Dec 2019
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1391
Abstract
This study analyses the sporting habits of runners participating in short-distance urban running events to identify groups with different motivations towards the practice of endurance running and participation in urban running events. A sample consisting of 937 participants in the Valencia running circuit [...] Read more.
This study analyses the sporting habits of runners participating in short-distance urban running events to identify groups with different motivations towards the practice of endurance running and participation in urban running events. A sample consisting of 937 participants in the Valencia running circuit was interviewed using a questionnaire consisting of a scale of 22 items to analyse their motives for participating in popular races. An exploratory and confirmatory factorial analysis was carried out to check the validity of the instrument, and the analysis identified the following four factors into which the indicators were grouped: psychological and physical motives (3 items), social motives and interest in running events (5 items), occupation of time and social recognition (6 items) and competitive and material motives (3 items). Subsequently, a cluster analysis was performed by combining hierarchical and non-hierarchical methods, and the analysis identified the following three groups of runners with different characteristics: individual hedonists (n = 276), enthusiasts (n = 312) and socializing hedonists (n = 349). Enthusiastic runners consider most motives important when participating in running events, individual hedonists consider individual psychological and physical motives important, and socializing hedonists consider personal and social motives and interest in sport important. Variables related to age, educational level, annual income level, frequency of running, how the individuals went out to run and the level of the runners contributed to differentiating the identified groups. The results confirm the heterogeneous nature of urban runners. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Open AccessArticle
Determinants of Physical Activity Performed by Young Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(21), 4061; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214061 - 23 Oct 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1075
Abstract
Despite the World Health Organization considering it important to promote physical activity as part of a healthy lifestyle, the official data show an increase in the percentage of physical inactivity, which has brought about the development of strategies at different levels (national and [...] Read more.
Despite the World Health Organization considering it important to promote physical activity as part of a healthy lifestyle, the official data show an increase in the percentage of physical inactivity, which has brought about the development of strategies at different levels (national and international) to reverse this trend. For the development of these strategies, it is relevant to know what the determinants of physical activity (at leisure and at work) are. Therefore, this is going to be analysed in the autochthonous young adults from Seville. A cross-sectional survey of their health behaviours was carried out. The sample was selected through a proportionally stratified random sampling procedure. From the results, we highlight that the general perceived health status is good and that most physical activity is performed during leisure time. However, a majority of the population analysed reported overweight or obesity. Participants with a low perceived health status, those who have low social support from their family and friends, and those who do not smoke are the ones who have more probability of engaging in physical activity during their leisure time. However, gender, education level, and alcohol consumption are revealed as determinants of the intensity of physical activity at work. In this regard, men and/or participants with a low level of studies are those who carry out more physically demanding activities at work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessArticle
Relationship between Physical Activity Level and Depression of Elderly People Living Alone
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 4051; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16204051 - 22 Oct 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1976
Abstract
Background and objectives: Only a few studies analyzed the physical activity level of elderly people living alone in local communities and evaluated the relationship between it and mental health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between regular physical activity [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Only a few studies analyzed the physical activity level of elderly people living alone in local communities and evaluated the relationship between it and mental health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between regular physical activity and depression in the elderly living alone and to provide basic data for the prevention of depression in the elderly. Materials and Methods: We analyzed 256 elderly people living alone aged 65 years or older who completed the 2014 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Depression was defined as a score of 10 or higher using Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). This study investigated walking per week, days of muscular strength exercise performance in the past 1 week, days of flexibility exercise in the past 1 week, mean hours in a sitting position per day, the numbers of days and hours conducting a high intensity physical activity in the past 1 week, and numbers of days and hours conducting a medium intensity physical activity in the past 1 week to define physical activity. Our study presented prevalence odds ratios (pOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) by using complex sample logistic regression analysis in order to identify the relationship between physical activity and depression. Results: The results of complex sample logistic regression analysis showed that flexibility exercise was significantly related to depression (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the mean hours in a sitting position per day, aerobic physical activity, walking, and muscular strength exercise were not significantly related to geriatric depression. Conclusions: The results of our study implied that persistent flexibility exercise might be more effective to maintain a healthy mental status than muscular strength exercise. A longitudinal study is required to prove the causal relationship between physical activity and depression in the old age. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Open AccessArticle
Quality in Customer Service and Its Relationship with Satisfaction: An Innovation and Competitiveness Tool in Sport and Health Centers
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16(20), 3942; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16203942 - 16 Oct 2019
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1430
Abstract
The objective of this research was to analyze the influence of the dimensions that enable the rating of service quality perceived by users of sport and health centers in the satisfaction they experience from the service received. In order to present the working [...] Read more.
The objective of this research was to analyze the influence of the dimensions that enable the rating of service quality perceived by users of sport and health centers in the satisfaction they experience from the service received. In order to present the working hypothesis, a bibliographic review on the concept and dimensions of perceived service quality was carried out, as well as its relationship with satisfaction. The rating scale sports organizations (EPOD) was used as a measurement instrument. The application of a regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. As a prior step, the measurement scales were validated and an exploratory factor analysis was applied to determine the structure of the variables considered. The regression models proposed show the joint influence of the dimensions used by the users to rate perceived service quality in their satisfaction. The results enabled us to observe that the dimensions considered in the model explained 75.7% of satisfaction, with the facilities and material, together with communication and activities, having the most significant influence on satisfaction. Meanwhile, dimensions that had less impact were the monitor and the staff. It is clear that there is a strong correlation between perceived quality and satisfaction with service. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Review

Jump to: Research, Other

Open AccessReview
Organizational and Individual Outcomes of Health Promotion Strategies—A Review of Empirical Research
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(2), 383; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18020383 - 06 Jan 2021
Viewed by 1026
Abstract
The main purpose of the paper is to identify the outcomes for employers and employees indicated in research related to workplace health promotion interventions (WHPIs). We investigated what methods are used and what types of organization this type of research is most often [...] Read more.
The main purpose of the paper is to identify the outcomes for employers and employees indicated in research related to workplace health promotion interventions (WHPIs). We investigated what methods are used and what types of organization this type of research is most often carried out in. In addition, the authors attempted to assess to what extent the methods used in the previous research prove the effectiveness of the implemented WHPIs. A systematic review of English-language papers (2000–2020) focused on types of health-promoting interventions in the workplace, and outcomes for employers and employees were conducted using the SCOPUS database (n = 260). As a result, 29 texts qualified for a final qualitative synthesis of the results. The analyses were most frequently conducted in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) based on both quantitative and qualitative methods. In order to draw conclusions, analyses were made by classifying the research presented in the texts according to the type of intervention implemented, classifying the outcomes identified, and indicating the type of evaluation made by the researcher. The analysis showed that most of the outcomes presented refer to changes in the strategy and organizational culture, as well as the behavior of employees. In 18 studies, the indication of outcomes resulted directly from the evaluation outcomes. In other cases, the outcomes were identified by an evaluation of the process or structure of WHPI. The conducted analysis showed significant diversity in terms of the outcomes measured and the research methods used. The quasi-experimental methods, randomly controlled cluster trials, or cross-sectorial studies used in the study to confirm the effectiveness of WHPI were used only in every third study. In these studies, measurements were usually performed twice: at baseline and after intervention. The majority of studies confirmed that WHPIs led to a positive change in the healthy behavior of employees and effected an organizational change, and more rarely led to savings or a reduction in costs resulting from sickness absenteeism, presentism, turnover, etc., and return on investment (ROI). The article shows the need to conduct further research towards the development of guidelines for the evaluation of the effectiveness of implemented programs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Strategies and Measurement Tools in Physical Activity Promotion Interventions in the University Setting: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(18), 6526; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17186526 - 08 Sep 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 620
Abstract
The university environment is especially suitable for implementing health promotion interventions and specifically for physical activity promotion among university students. The objective of this systematic review was to describe the strategies employed and the physical activity data collection tools that have been used [...] Read more.
The university environment is especially suitable for implementing health promotion interventions and specifically for physical activity promotion among university students. The objective of this systematic review was to describe the strategies employed and the physical activity data collection tools that have been used in said interventions. A systematic search for articles was conducted using the PubMED, Cochrane, and PEDro databases. The articles selected were those describing a physical activity promotion intervention aimed at university students in their own university setting in which there was a control group. Eventually, 1074 articles were identified, of which 13 fulfilled the selection criteria. The results show eight strategies and nine different instruments for collecting physical activity data. The strategies identified were used in combination and they were adapted in each of the complex interventions. Validated questionnaires were the most widely used instrument. Future original studies are needed to find out the impact of these strategies in physical activity promotion among university students specifically in the university context. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Physical Fitness, Exercise Self-Efficacy, and Quality of Life in Adulthood: A Systematic Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6343; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176343 - 31 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
Background: The aim of the present work is the elaboration of a systematic review of existing research on physical fitness, self-efficacy for physical exercise, and quality of life in adulthood. Method: Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement [...] Read more.
Background: The aim of the present work is the elaboration of a systematic review of existing research on physical fitness, self-efficacy for physical exercise, and quality of life in adulthood. Method: Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement guidelines, and based on the findings in 493 articles, the final sample was composed of 37 articles, which were reviewed to show whether self-efficacy has previously been studied as a mediator in the relationship between physical fitness and quality of life in adulthood. Results: The results indicate that little research exists in relation to healthy, populations with the majority being people with pathology. Physical fitness should be considered as a fundamental aspect in determining the functional capacity of the person. Aerobic capacity was the most evaluated and the 6-min walk test was the most used. Only one article shows the joint relationship between the three variables. Conclusions: We discuss the need to investigate the mediation of self-efficacy in relation to the value of physical activity on quality of life and well-being in the healthy adult population in adult life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Evaluation of Physical Activity and Lifestyle Interventions Focused on School Children with Obesity Using Accelerometry: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(17), 6031; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17176031 - 19 Aug 2020
Viewed by 923
Abstract
Despite the existence of global recommendations for physical activity and lifestyle to avoid childhood obesity, there are no specific recommendations for school-age children. The aim of this meta-analysis was to measure the effects of current interventions with a physical activity component on body [...] Read more.
Despite the existence of global recommendations for physical activity and lifestyle to avoid childhood obesity, there are no specific recommendations for school-age children. The aim of this meta-analysis was to measure the effects of current interventions with a physical activity component on body mass index (BMI) Z-score and on the moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) time, measured by accelerometry, and focused on children with obesity. Randomized controlled trial studies (RCTs) based on physical activity interventions focused on children with obesity (6 to 12 years old) from January 1991 to August 2018 were included. The post-intervention mean and standard deviation of the BMI Z-score and MVPA engaged time were extracted to calculate the results using random effects models. Of a total of 229 studies considered potentially eligible, only 10 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. There were improvements in the BMI Z-score for physical activity intervention groups, compared with non-intervention children in addition to a significant increase in time engaged in MVPA. In conclusion, interventions with a physical activity component in school-children with obesity seem to be effective at reducing BMI and producing an increase in time spent engaged in physical activity. Therefore, interventions based on physical activity should be considered one of the main strategies in treating childhood obesity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
The Benefits of Physical Exercise on Mental Disorders and Quality of Life in Substance Use Disorders Patients. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3680; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103680 - 23 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1755 | Correction
Abstract
Physical exercise seems to have a promising effect on numerous variables related to the recovery of drug-dependent patients. However, some contradictions are found in the literature. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to identify [...] Read more.
Physical exercise seems to have a promising effect on numerous variables related to the recovery of drug-dependent patients. However, some contradictions are found in the literature. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to identify the effect of physical exercise on mental disorders, quality of life, abstinence, and craving, and make a comparison of the effect of exercise depending on the type of program. A search for articles was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. Studies were selected that measured the acute effects or long-term effect (≥2 weeks) of exercise in patients who met criteria for alcohol use disorders or substance use disorders. A total of 59 studies were included. An effect of exercise on quality of life and mental disorders was identified. Subgroup analysis revealed an effect of exercise on stress (SMD = 1.11 (CI: 0.31, 1.91); z = 2.73; p = 0.006), anxiety (SMD = 0.50 (CI: 0.16, 0.84); z = 2.88; p = 0.004) and depression (SMD = 0.63 (CI: 0.34, 0.92); z = 4.31; p < 0.0001), and an effect of exercise on the eight variables included in the SF36 test. The results also showed a trend towards a positive effect on craving (SMD = 0.89 (CI: −0.05, 1.82); z = 1.85, p = 0.06). Body–mind activities and programs based on improving physical conditions produced similar results in mental disorders and quality of life. Available evidence indicates that physical exercise, both body–mind and physical fitness programs, can be effective in improving mental disorders, craving, and quality of life in drug-dependent patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Open AccessReview
Potential Application of Whole Body Vibration Exercise for Improving the Clinical Conditions of COVID-19 Infected Individuals: A Narrative Review from the World Association of Vibration Exercise Experts (WAVex) Panel
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(10), 3650; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17103650 - 22 May 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2916
Abstract
COVID-19 is a highly infectious respiratory disease which leads to several clinical conditions related to the dysfunction of the respiratory system along with other physical and psychological complaints. Severely affected patients are referred to intensive care units (ICUs), limiting their possibilities for physical [...] Read more.
COVID-19 is a highly infectious respiratory disease which leads to several clinical conditions related to the dysfunction of the respiratory system along with other physical and psychological complaints. Severely affected patients are referred to intensive care units (ICUs), limiting their possibilities for physical exercise. Whole body vibration (WBV) exercise is a non-invasive, physical therapy, that has been suggested as part of the procedures involved with pulmonary rehabilitation, even in ICU settings. Therefore, in the current review, the World Association of Vibration Exercise Experts (WAVEX) reviewed the potential of WBV exercise as a useful and safe intervention for the management of infected individuals with COVID-19 by mitigating the inactivity-related declines in physical condition and reducing the time in ICU. Recommendations regarding the reduction of fatigue and the risk of dyspnea, the improvement of the inflammatory and redox status favoring cellular homeostasis and the overall improvement in the quality of life are provided. Finally, practical applications for the use of this paradigm leading to a better prognosis in bed bound and ICU-bound subjects is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Other

Jump to: Research, Review

Open AccessCorrection
Correction: Giménez-Meseguer, J., Tortosa-Martínez, J., Cortell-Tormo, J. M. The Benefits of Physical Exercise on Mental Disorders and Quality of Life in Substance Use Disorders Patients. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. International Journal of Environment Research and Public Health. 2020, 17, 3680
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17(14), 5184; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17145184 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 701
Abstract
The authors wish to make the following corrections to this paper [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Promotion of Healthy Habits and Active Life)
Back to TopTop