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Appl. Mech., Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2022) – 24 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): A combined experimental and numerical approach for the analysis of convective heat transfer from a multifunctional flat-plate specimen is presented. The experiment is set up in a de-icing test bed and the surface temperature of the flat plate is measured during Joule heating under aircraft icing conditions. The numerical approach utilizes the results to compute the convective heat transfer coefficients based on Newton’s convective heat transfer condition. In particular, the functional optimization of multifunctional structures will benefit from including convection as an important boundary condition. This recognition is important for multifunctional structures for the de-icing of aircraft surfaces, but also has an influence on structural energy storages, morphing structures, or stiffness adaptive structures. View this paper
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18 pages, 7495 KiB  
Article
Al-RHEA Particulates MMCs by PM Route: Mechanical Properties and Sliding Wear Response
by Elias Anastasios Ananiadis, Alexander Efstathios Karantzalis, Dimitrios A. Exarchos and Theodore E. Matikas
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 1145-1162; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030065 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1543
Abstract
New particle reinforced aluminum matrix composites with the addition of refractory High Entropy Alloy, MoTaNbVW, fabricated via powder metallurgy process were assessed for their properties. Basic mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity, hardness) for the aluminum matrix, the pure aluminum and the reinforcement phase [...] Read more.
New particle reinforced aluminum matrix composites with the addition of refractory High Entropy Alloy, MoTaNbVW, fabricated via powder metallurgy process were assessed for their properties. Basic mechanical properties (modulus of elasticity, hardness) for the aluminum matrix, the pure aluminum and the reinforcement phase were assessed by means of dynamic nano-indentation technique. Nano-indentation based creep response was also evaluated in these three areas of interest. Hardness shows an increase with the addition of the particulates and so does the elastic moduli and the ratio of the energy absorbed in the elastic region. The creep response was approached in terms of dislocation mobility and critical volume for their nucleation. The produced Al–HEA composites were also studied for their sliding wear behavior and showed that with the increase in percentage of RHEA particulates the wear resistance increases. Microstructural considerations, wear track morphologies, and debris characteristics were used for the assessment of the involved wear mechanisms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Applied Mechanics)
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22 pages, 34189 KiB  
Article
Aerodynamic Shape Optimization of an Aircraft Propulsor Air Intake with Boundary Layer Ingestion
by Ayesh Sudasinghe, Padmassun Rajakareyar, Edgar Matida, Hamza Abo El Ella and Mostafa S. A. ElSayed
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 1123-1144; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030064 - 12 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2458
Abstract
The growth of the airline industry has highlighted the need for more environmentally conscious aviation, leading to the conceptualization of more fuel-efficient aircraft. One concept that has received significant attention and has been associated with improved fuel efficiency is the boundary layer ingesting [...] Read more.
The growth of the airline industry has highlighted the need for more environmentally conscious aviation, leading to the conceptualization of more fuel-efficient aircraft. One concept that has received significant attention and has been associated with improved fuel efficiency is the boundary layer ingesting (BLI) propulsion system, which refers to the ingesting of the aircraft wake by the propulsors. Although BLI has theoretically been proven to reduce fuel burn, this can potentially be offset by the reduced efficiency and stability experienced by the propulsor in the presence of distorted inflow. Therefore, engine intakes must be optimized in order to mitigate the effects of BLI on the propulsion system. In this work, the shape optimization of a BLI intake is investigated using a free-form deformation technique in combination with a multi-objective genetic algorithm, in order to minimize pressure losses and distortion at the engine inlet. The optimization is performed on an S-duct intake at a cruise altitude of approximately 37,000 feet and a free stream Mach number of 0.7. An optimization strategy was developed for the task which was able to produce a Pareto optimal set of designs with improved pressure recovery and distortion. The general trend of the optimal designs shows that to reduce distortion the optimizer accelerates the flow to reduce the size of the low total pressure region and increase the dynamic pressure at the engine inlet. In contrast, the pressure recovery was increased by reducing velocity as well as shifting the maximum velocity region to the outlet, which reduces the viscous dissipation losses within the intake. The final result is a fully autonomous optimization strategy resulting in reduced pressure losses and reduced distortion leading to higher efficiency BLI S-duct intake designs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Applied Mechanics)
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16 pages, 11655 KiB  
Article
An Optimized Dynamic Tensile Impact Test for Characterizing the Behavior of Materials
by Olivier Pantalé and Lu Ming
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 1107-1122; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030063 - 11 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1455
Abstract
This paper presents a new dynamic tensile test based on the Taylor impact technique for application on metallic materials. The Taylor impact test is a well-known technique to characterize the behavior of metallic materials in compression because it allows us to reach very [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new dynamic tensile test based on the Taylor impact technique for application on metallic materials. The Taylor impact test is a well-known technique to characterize the behavior of metallic materials in compression because it allows us to reach very high strain rates (105s1). In this dynamic tensile test, we launch a projectile with an initial velocity into a specially designed target in order to generate tensile deformation in its central area. In this paper, the geometry of a tensile target previously published in our laboratory was modified and optimized to achieve higher plastic strains and strain rates without reaching the critical state of target failure. Numerical simulations and experimental tests validate the new geometry. Experimental tests have been performed with this new geometry to show the gains allowed. Numerical simulations by finite elements on Abaqus show the equivalent plastic deformations and elongation of the two versions of the targets and the correlation of these results with the tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact Mechanics of Materials and Structures)
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16 pages, 4832 KiB  
Article
On Computational Asymptotic Analysis of General Sensitive Shells of Revolution
by Harri Hakula
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 1091-1106; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030062 - 29 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1462
Abstract
Recent advances in drug delivery technology have led to renewed interest in shell structures with mixed kinematical constraints, one end clamped, another one free, the so-called sensitive shells. It is known that elliptic sensitive shell problems may not always satisfy the Shapiro–Lopatinsky conditions [...] Read more.
Recent advances in drug delivery technology have led to renewed interest in shell structures with mixed kinematical constraints, one end clamped, another one free, the so-called sensitive shells. It is known that elliptic sensitive shell problems may not always satisfy the Shapiro–Lopatinsky conditions and hence are not necessarily well-posed. The new observation is that for shells of revolution if the profile function has regions of elliptic Gaussian curvature, that region will dictate the overall response of the structure under concentrated loading. Despite the monotonically increasing total energy as the thickness tends asymptotically to zero, these shells are not in a pure bending state. The numerical results have been verified using equivalent lower-dimensional solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Applied Mechanics)
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11 pages, 1335 KiB  
Review
Towards Ab-Initio Simulations of Crystalline Defects at the Exascale Using Spectral Quadrature Density Functional Theory
by Swarnava Ghosh
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 1080-1090; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030061 - 24 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1333
Abstract
Defects in crystalline solids play a crucial role in determining properties of materials at the nano, meso- and macroscales, such as the coalescence of vacancies at the nanoscale to form voids and prismatic dislocation loops or diffusion and segregation of solutes to nucleate [...] Read more.
Defects in crystalline solids play a crucial role in determining properties of materials at the nano, meso- and macroscales, such as the coalescence of vacancies at the nanoscale to form voids and prismatic dislocation loops or diffusion and segregation of solutes to nucleate precipitates, phase transitions in magnetic materials via disorder and doping. First principles Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations can provide a detailed understanding of these phenomena. However, the number of atoms needed to correctly simulate these systems is often beyond the reach of many widely used DFT codes. The aim of this article is to discuss recent advances in first principles modeling of crystal defects using the spectral quadrature method. The spectral quadrature method is linear scaling with respect to the number of atoms, permits spatial coarse-graining, and is capable of simulating non-periodic systems embedded in a bulk environment, which allows the application of appropriate boundary conditions for simulations of crystalline defects. In this article, we discuss the state-of-the-art in ab-initio modeling of large metallic systems of the order of several thousand atoms that are suitable for utilizing exascale computing resourses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Thermodynamics: Modern Developments)
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17 pages, 3919 KiB  
Article
Bending Stresses and Deformations in Prismatic Profiled Shafts with Noncircular Contours Based on Higher Hybrid Trochoids
by Masoud Ziaei
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 1063-1079; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030060 - 23 Aug 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
This paper presents an analytical method for determining the bending stresses and deformations in prismatic, noncircular profile shafts with trochoidal cross sections. The so-called higher trochoids can be used as form-fit shaft-hub connections. Hybrid (mixed) higher trochoids (M-profiles) were developed for the special [...] Read more.
This paper presents an analytical method for determining the bending stresses and deformations in prismatic, noncircular profile shafts with trochoidal cross sections. The so-called higher trochoids can be used as form-fit shaft-hub connections. Hybrid (mixed) higher trochoids (M-profiles) were developed for the special application as a profile contour for the form-fit shaft and hub connections in an earlier work by the author. M-profiles combine the advantages of the two standardised polygonal and spline contours, which are used as shaft-hub connections for the transmission of high torques. In this study, the geometric and mechanical properties of the higher hybrid trochoids were investigated using complex functions to simplify the calculations. The pure bending stress and shaft deflection were determined for M-profiles using bending theory based on the theory of mathematical elasticity. The loading cases consisted of static and rotating bends. Analytical, numerical, and experimental results agreed well. The calculation formulas developed in this work enable reliable and low-cost dimensioning with regard to the stresses and elastic deformations of profile shafts subjected to bending loads. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Applied Mechanics)
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11 pages, 3501 KiB  
Article
Vibrations Affecting Stability and Edge Control of Snowboards
by Franz Konstantin Fuss
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 1052-1062; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030059 - 17 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1662
Abstract
Background: During a carving turn, vibrations are induced at the heel of the snowboard through edge friction when the heel slips sideways and subsequently travel through and along the board to the shovel, which vibrates and affects the edge control. The purpose of [...] Read more.
Background: During a carving turn, vibrations are induced at the heel of the snowboard through edge friction when the heel slips sideways and subsequently travel through and along the board to the shovel, which vibrates and affects the edge control. The purpose of this study was to find a method for assessing the edge grip with a laser vibrometer. Method: Two boards, loaded and tilted at four different angles, were placed on a soft surface, with a shaker connected to the heel at the hindmost edge point. The shovel and particularly the frontmost edge point were scanned with a Polytec laser vibrometer. The frequency response functions of coherence, average shovel displacement, and displacement of the foremost edge point were recorded, and the latter was integrated for obtaining an edge mobility measure (EMM) to quantify the edge control. Results: Of the two boards compared, the shovel of board A was stiffer in the 1st and in the 3rd torsional mode, and the one of board B was stiffer in bending modes. The 2nd torsional mode was responsible for large edge vibrations and therefore for a diminished edge control. Shovel B had a smaller EMM at greater tilt angles, that is, less amplitude of the vibrations at the frontmost edge point, and therefore a better edge control. Shovel A, however, had a smaller EMM at smaller tilt angles. Conclusion: The method developed in this study provides a reliable test for assessment of edge control of a snowboard under standardized test conditions. Full article
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12 pages, 2885 KiB  
Article
Effects of a Torsion Spring Used in a Flexible Delta Tricycle
by Jordi D’hondt, Peter Slaets, Eric Demeester and Marc Juwet
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 1040-1051; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030058 - 09 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1641
Abstract
A new tilting delta tricycle is developed as a last-mile vehicle. This vehicle has a hinge between the front driver module and the rear cargo module to allow the driver to tilt while maneuvering. The driver module resembles a conventional bicycle without a [...] Read more.
A new tilting delta tricycle is developed as a last-mile vehicle. This vehicle has a hinge between the front driver module and the rear cargo module to allow the driver to tilt while maneuvering. The driver module resembles a conventional bicycle without a rear wheel and the cargo module consists of a cargo area between two propelled rear wheels. The concept vehicle ensures proper handling qualities independent of the cargo. However, the driver module can still tip over when parked. Multiple solutions are being considered to improve the ergonomics of this vehicle. A metal-elastomer torsion spring with an integrated angle limit has the most advantages as this prevents the driver module from tipping over without requiring it to enable a mechanism while stepping off. Furthermore, the torsion system dampens vibrations while cycling and influences tilting while turning. These improvements are tested using the concept vehicle. The influence of this torsion system is calculated and validated with measurements. The influences of different torsion curves aimed to improve the low-speed stability are calculated. Full article
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21 pages, 4675 KiB  
Article
Modeling of a Blast Furnace with Both CFD and Thermodynamics Principles
by Tomas Grejtak, Sheldon Wang and Jianguo Shao
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 1019-1039; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030057 - 05 Aug 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1743
Abstract
In this paper, we revisit a turbulent mixing of gas and air in a gas burner with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The quality of such a turbulent mixture is based on temperature, pressure, and velocity distributions as well as the distributions of [...] Read more.
In this paper, we revisit a turbulent mixing of gas and air in a gas burner with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models. The quality of such a turbulent mixture is based on temperature, pressure, and velocity distributions as well as the distributions of different molecules, turbulent kinetic energy, and turbulent dissipation rate. In order to identify a precise combination of a gas and air mixture in a gas burner, which directly influences the quality of the combustion flame and reduces the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) emission in flue gases, thermodynamic principles are utilized based on the balancing ratio of molecular weights and the balancing ratio of mass flows between gas and air. Moreover, input parameters, such as volume flow rates, pressure, mass ratio, temperature, turbulent kinetic energy, and turbulent dissipation rate, are judiciously chosen with proper boundary conditions for both axisymmetric two-dimensional and three-dimensional models. It is confirmed that the effectiveness of gas and air mixture and combustion depends on the gas burner model, more specifically, on the sizes and locations of gas and air inlets and outlets as well as operation conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Thermodynamics: Modern Developments)
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24 pages, 5391 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Numerical Investigation of a Multifunctional CFRP towards Heat Convection under Aircraft Icing Conditions
by Maximilian Otto Heinrich Schutzeichel, Thorben Strübing, Ozan Tamer, Thomas Kletschkowski, Hans Peter Monner and Michael Sinapius
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 995-1018; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030056 - 03 Aug 2022
Viewed by 1977
Abstract
A combined experimental and numerical approach for the analysis of convective heat transfer from a multifunctional flat plate specimen under aircraft icing conditions is presented. The experimental setup including a heat control and measurement system that is installed in a de-icing test bed. [...] Read more.
A combined experimental and numerical approach for the analysis of convective heat transfer from a multifunctional flat plate specimen under aircraft icing conditions is presented. The experimental setup including a heat control and measurement system that is installed in a de-icing test bed. The ambient temperature (θa=[253,283]K), air velocity (va={0,15,30}ms), and angle of attack (α={10,30}) are varied, and their influence on heat transfer during local Joule heating is discussed. The numerical approach utilises the results to compute the convective heat transfer coefficients (HTC) based on Newton’s convective heat transfer condition. Results indicate that the numerical model represents the heat transfer behaviour with high accuracy. The HTC for free convection was found to hold h¯2.5Wm2K and h¯[10,40]Wm2K for forced convection conditions with minor scattering. The increase in HTC under forced convection conditions has a significant effect on the overall heat transfer behaviour, resulting in high temperature gradients within the material. The functional optimisation of multifunctional structures will benefit from including application related convection conditions, dealing with resulting temperature fields by structural design. It is expected that multifunctional structures for de-icing as well as for structural energy storage, morphing structures, or stiffness adaptive structures with similar material constituents will benefit from this recognition. Full article
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21 pages, 2339 KiB  
Article
Stochastic Static Analysis of Planar Elastic Structures with Multiple Spatially Uncertain Material Parameters
by Harri Hakula
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 974-994; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030055 - 02 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1273
Abstract
Engineering structures are often assembled from parts with different materials. When uncertainty quantification techniques are applied, the curse of dimensionality increases the computational complexity. Here, a stochastic Galerkin method for planar elasticity allowing for multiple regions with independent uncertain materials is introduced. The [...] Read more.
Engineering structures are often assembled from parts with different materials. When uncertainty quantification techniques are applied, the curse of dimensionality increases the computational complexity. Here, a stochastic Galerkin method for planar elasticity allowing for multiple regions with independent uncertain materials is introduced. The method allows for efficient solution of linear systems both in fully assembled and matrix-free formulations. The selection of the stochastic basis polynomials is performed using a priori knowledge of the decay of the random fields. The statistical quantities of interest are the expected solution and variance, both of which can be computed efficiently after the Galerkin system has been solved. Analysis of the results indicates that the proposed method is highly efficient in terms of both computational resource requirements and discretization of the stochastic dimensions. The results were verified with Monte Carlo and quasi-Monte Carlo methods. Full article
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18 pages, 6220 KiB  
Article
Development of Disposables and Accessories for ROSES and Their In Vitro Experimentation
by Guido Danieli, Pasquale F. Greco, Gabriele Larocca, Salvatore De Rosa, Ciro Indolfi, Alberto Polimeni, Massimo Massetti, Giovanni Tinelli, Yamume Tshomba and Luigi Venturini
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 956-973; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030054 - 02 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1515
Abstract
This paper describes the development of the disposables and accessories for ROSES (Robotic System for Endovascular Surgery). Initially developed exclusively for transcatheter percutaneous coronary angioplasty, it was later modified, initially leaving the components for angioplasty substantially unchanged to extend its use to endovascular [...] Read more.
This paper describes the development of the disposables and accessories for ROSES (Robotic System for Endovascular Surgery). Initially developed exclusively for transcatheter percutaneous coronary angioplasty, it was later modified, initially leaving the components for angioplasty substantially unchanged to extend its use to endovascular transcatheter surgery. These disposables are used to translate gear rotations into catheter or guide wire advancement or retraction and rotation of their body through friction wheels. The use of a new cart was necessary for endovascular surgery, to which a system to measure forces opposed by the patient’s body to catheter advancement was added. Moreover, since some endovascular catheters present with large diameters, minor mechanical modifications were also performed on the robot actuator (RA), previously defined as a slave, in order to allow large catheters to be pushed, such as those needed for the repair of some big aneurysms or for TAVI. However, in doing this, the possibility of separating the disposables into two components, upper and lower, was found, which allows the extraction of the disposable without having to remove the catheter or guide wire already positioned. Finally, the disposables, whose development is illustrated here, were subjected to various versions and tests and the results are reported. Full article
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21 pages, 1058 KiB  
Article
Thermodynamics of Extra-Toughness and Hidden-Length in Polymeric Materials with Sacrificial Bonds
by Romain Jorge Do Marco and Stefano Giordano
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 935-955; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030053 - 31 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2327
Abstract
Sacrificial bonds have been observed in several biological materials and structures and can increase their toughness, i.e., their resistance to fracture. They provide a reversible mechanism for dissipating mechanical energy before the possible system rupture. From a structural point of view, sacrificial bonds [...] Read more.
Sacrificial bonds have been observed in several biological materials and structures and can increase their toughness, i.e., their resistance to fracture. They provide a reversible mechanism for dissipating mechanical energy before the possible system rupture. From a structural point of view, sacrificial bonds consist of short polymer chains that short-circuit parts of a main macromolecular chain (generating hidden lengths) and absorb energy by breaking them instead of the main chain. The toughness increase due to the presence of sacrificial bonds is typically named extra-toughness. Here, we developed a statistical mechanics and thermodynamics-based theory able to estimate the force–extension relation for chains with sacrificial bonds and to calculate the corresponding extra-toughness. The model is useful to better understand the sacrificial bond effects in biomaterials but also to apply the biomimetic paradigm and foster the development of high-performance artificial polymeric materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Thermodynamics: Modern Developments)
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30 pages, 10256 KiB  
Article
A Deterministic Methodology to Calibrate Pressure-Independent Anisotropic Yield Criteria in Plane Strain Tension Using Finite-Element Analysis
by A. Abedini, A. Narayanan and C. Butcher
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 905-934; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030052 - 28 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1791
Abstract
The yield strength of materials under plane strain deformation is often not characterized experimentally due to difficulties that arise in interpreting the results of plane strain tensile tests. The strain and stress fields in the gauge region of these tests are inhomogeneous, making [...] Read more.
The yield strength of materials under plane strain deformation is often not characterized experimentally due to difficulties that arise in interpreting the results of plane strain tensile tests. The strain and stress fields in the gauge region of these tests are inhomogeneous, making it challenging to extract the constitutive response from experimental measurements. Consequently, the plane strain yield stress is instead predicted using phenomenological plasticity models calibrated using uniaxial and biaxial tension data. To remove this uncertainty, a simple finite-element based inverse technique is proposed to determine the arc of the associated yield locus from uniaxial-to-plane strain tension using a constrained form of Vegter’s anisotropic yield criterion to analyze a notch tensile test. The inverse problem is formulated under associated deviatoric plasticity and constrained such that only a single parameter, the major principal yield stress under plane strain deformation, needs to be identified from the finite-element simulations. The methodology was applied to two different automotive steel grades, an ultra-high strength DP1180 and a DC04 mild steel. The predictive accuracy of the constitutive models was then evaluated using an alternate notch geometry that provides an intermediate stress state between uniaxial and plane strain tension. By performing notch tensile tests in three sheet orientations, three arcs of the yield surface were obtained and employed to calibrate the widely used Yld2000 yield function. The study shows that for DP1180, the normalized plane strain yield stress was in the range of 1.10 to 1.14 whereas for DDQ steel, the normalized plane strain yield stress was notably stronger, with values ranging from 1.22 to 1.27, depending on the orientation. The proposed methodology allows for a wealth of anisotropic plasticity data to be obtained from simple notch tests while ensuring the plane strain state is accurately characterized, since it governs localization and fracture in many forming operations. Full article
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16 pages, 778 KiB  
Article
A New Algorithm to Solve the Extended-Oxley Analytical Model of Orthogonal Metal Cutting in Python
by Olivier Pantalé, Maxime Dawoua Kaoutoing and Raymond Houé Ngouna
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 889-904; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030051 - 14 Jul 2022
Viewed by 2066
Abstract
This paper presents a new implementation method of the Extended-Oxley analytical model, previously proposed by Lalwani in 2009, for orthogonal cutting of metals with a Johnson–Cook thermo-elastoplastic flow law. The present work aims to improve the implementation of this analytical model in order [...] Read more.
This paper presents a new implementation method of the Extended-Oxley analytical model, previously proposed by Lalwani in 2009, for orthogonal cutting of metals with a Johnson–Cook thermo-elastoplastic flow law. The present work aims to improve the implementation of this analytical model in order to propose a unified solution that overcomes the main shortcomings of the original model: the non-uniqueness of the solution, the low accuracy of the obtained solution, and the relatively long computational time for a purely analytical approach. In the proposed implementation, the determination of the optimal set of model parameters is based on an optimization method using the Python LMFIT library with which we have developed a dual Levenberg–Marquardt optimization algorithm. In this paper, the performance and efficiency of the developed model are presented by comparing our results for a 1045 steel with the simulation results obtained in the original paper proposed by Lalwani. The comparison shows a considerable gain in terms of computational speed (more than 2000 times faster than the original model), uniqueness of the obtained solution, and accuracy of the obtained numerical solution (almost zero force imbalance). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Applied Mechanics)
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34 pages, 4761 KiB  
Article
Non-Linear Model of Predictive Control-Based Slip Control ABS Including Tyre Tread Thermal Dynamics
by Vincenzo Maria Arricale, Andrea Genovese, Abhishek Singh Tomar, Karel Kural and Aleksandr Sakhnevych
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 855-888; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030050 - 06 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2623
Abstract
Vehicle dynamics can be deeply affected by various tyre operating conditions, including thermodynamic and wear effects. Indeed, tyre temperature plays a fundamental role in high performance applications due to the dependencies of the cornering stiffness and potential grip in such conditions. This work [...] Read more.
Vehicle dynamics can be deeply affected by various tyre operating conditions, including thermodynamic and wear effects. Indeed, tyre temperature plays a fundamental role in high performance applications due to the dependencies of the cornering stiffness and potential grip in such conditions. This work is focused on the evaluation of a potentially improved control strategy’s performance when the control model is fed by instantaneously varying tyre parameters, taking into account the continuously evolving external surface temperature and the vehicle boundary conditions. To this end, a simplified tyre thermal model has been integrated into a model predictive control strategy in order to exploit the thermal dynamics’ dependents within a proposed advanced ABS control system. We evaluate its performance in terms of the resulting braking distance. In particular, a non-linear model predictive control (NMPC) based ABS controller with tyre thermal knowledge has been integrated. The chosen topic can possibly lay a foundation for future research into autonomous control where the detailing of decision-making of the controllers will reach the level of multi-physical phenomena concerning the tyre–road interaction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Applied Mechanics)
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25 pages, 5863 KiB  
Review
A Review of Robots, Perception, and Tasks in Precision Agriculture
by Andrea Botta, Paride Cavallone, Lorenzo Baglieri, Giovanni Colucci, Luigi Tagliavini and Giuseppe Quaglia
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 830-854; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030049 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 41 | Viewed by 10158
Abstract
This review reports the recent state of the art in the field of mobile robots applied to precision agriculture. After a brief introduction to precision agriculture, the review focuses on two main topics. First, it provides a broad overview of the most widely [...] Read more.
This review reports the recent state of the art in the field of mobile robots applied to precision agriculture. After a brief introduction to precision agriculture, the review focuses on two main topics. First, it provides a broad overview of the most widely used technologies in agriculture related to crop, field, and soil monitoring. Second, the main robotic solutions, with a focus on land-based robots, and their salient features are described. Finally, a short case study about a robot developed by the authors is introduced. This work aims to collect and highlight the most significant trends in research on robotics applied to agriculture. This review shows that the most studied perception solutions are those based on vision and cloud point detection and, following the same trend, most robotic solutions are small robots dedicated exclusively to monitoring tasks. However, the robotisation of other agricultural tasks is growing. Full article
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15 pages, 14901 KiB  
Article
Investigation of Working Fluid Performance through a Centrifugal Compression System
by James Bull, James M. Buick and Jovana Radulovic
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 815-829; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030048 - 02 Jul 2022
Viewed by 1796
Abstract
Commonly, researchers have investigated many factors that impact the performance of air conditioning and refrigeration systems, such as varied cooling configurations, operating conditions and optimization of specific system components. Although there is an abundance of research detailing the importance of working fluid selection, [...] Read more.
Commonly, researchers have investigated many factors that impact the performance of air conditioning and refrigeration systems, such as varied cooling configurations, operating conditions and optimization of specific system components. Although there is an abundance of research detailing the importance of working fluid selection, very few studies focus on how the working fluid selection influences the performance of the individual components of the system, such as the compressor. In this paper, the performances of a selection of working fluids are compared through a centrifugal compressor using CFD. The working fluids considered are R1234ze, R1234yf, R152a, R444a, R445a, R290 and R600a and were selected due to suitability as replacements to R134a. Each fluid, including R134a, was compared based on the performance of a centrifugal compressor with fixed inlet conditions across two operational speeds. The results indicate that R1234ze and R1234yf demonstrated the best performance as replacements to R134a, achieving the highest overall pressure ratios. Additionally, R1234ze also displayed similar power required through the compressor to R134a indicating greater suitability as a drop-in replacement. The working fluids R444a and R445a both displayed performance similar to that of R134a across both operational speeds, indicating reasonable suitability as a replacement to R134a. Alternatively, R152a, R290 and R600a displayed reduced performance compared to R134a and subsequently, are not suitable replacements based on the compression system considered in this study. As well as considering the observed differences in the performance from the selected working fluids, the implications of the results for industrial applications are also considered, along with avenues for further work. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Thermodynamics: Modern Developments)
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16 pages, 4141 KiB  
Article
Spectral Properties of Water Hammer Wave
by Shiblu Sarker and Tonmoy Sarker
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 799-814; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030047 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2134
Abstract
The prevention of excessive pressure build-up in pipelines requires a thorough understanding of water hammer phenomena. Using theoretical techniques, researchers have investigated this phenomenon and proposed productive solutions. In this article, we demonstrate a power spectral density approach on the pressure wave generated [...] Read more.
The prevention of excessive pressure build-up in pipelines requires a thorough understanding of water hammer phenomena. Using theoretical techniques, researchers have investigated this phenomenon and proposed productive solutions. In this article, we demonstrate a power spectral density approach on the pressure wave generated by water hammer in order to improve our understanding on the frequency domain approach as well as their fractal nature and complexity. This approach has the ability to explain some valuable attributes of the unsteady flow at a specific section, such as vulnerability and complexity that allow us more dynamic variables for effective analysis of pipe network design. Therefore, we aim to test a simple pipe system to simulate the proposed approach, which may offer useful physical information about pipeline network construction. The proposed method is expected to be beneficial and effective in acquiring a better understanding of the complicated features of unsteady flows as well as the sound acoustics within a pipe system and its design. In specific, our findings demonstrate the possibility for engineering design to comprehend the robustness, vulnerability, and complexity of pipe networks, as well as their sustainable construction. Full article
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20 pages, 8929 KiB  
Article
Composite Material Elastic Effective Coefficients Optimization by Means of a Micromechanical Mechanical Model
by Ioannis Zyganitidis, Alexandros Arailopoulos and Dimitrios Giagopoulos
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 779-798; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030046 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1957
Abstract
The presented research work demonstrates an efficient methodology based on a micromechanical framework for the prediction of the effective elastic properties of strongly bonded long-fiber-reinforced materials (CFRP) used for the construction of tubular structures. Although numerous analytical and numerical micromechanical models have been [...] Read more.
The presented research work demonstrates an efficient methodology based on a micromechanical framework for the prediction of the effective elastic properties of strongly bonded long-fiber-reinforced materials (CFRP) used for the construction of tubular structures. Although numerous analytical and numerical micromechanical models have been developed to predict the mechanical response of CFRPs, either they cannot accurately predict complex mechanical responses due to limits on the input parameters or they are resource intensive. The generalized method of cells (GMC) is capable of assessing more detailed strain fields in the vicinity of fiber–matrix interfaces since it allows for a plethora of material and structural parameters to be defined while being computationally effective. The GMC homogenization approach is successfully combined with the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA–ES) to identify the effective elasticity tensor Cij of CFRP materials. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed methodology are validated by comparing predicted effective properties with previously measured experimental data on CFRP cylindrical samples made of 3501-6 epoxy matrix reinforced with AS4 carbon fibers. The proposed and validated method can be successively used in both analyzing the mechanical responses of structures and designing new optimized composite materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture Mechanics and Durability of Engineering Materials)
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22 pages, 25930 KiB  
Article
Fault Detection in Offshore Structures: Influence of Sensor Number, Placement and Quality
by Andreas Tockner, Jixiang Lei and Katrin Ellermann
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 757-778; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030045 - 27 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1583
Abstract
Within the Space@Sea project floating offshore islands, designed as an assembly of platforms, are used to create space in offshore environments. Offshore structures are exposed to harsh environment conditions. High wind speeds, heavy rainfall, ice and wave forces lead to highly stressed structures. [...] Read more.
Within the Space@Sea project floating offshore islands, designed as an assembly of platforms, are used to create space in offshore environments. Offshore structures are exposed to harsh environment conditions. High wind speeds, heavy rainfall, ice and wave forces lead to highly stressed structures. The platforms at the Space@Sea project are connected by ropes and fenders. There exists the risk of a rope failing which is therefore investigated subsequently. To ensure the safety of the structure, the rope parameters are monitored by the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). For platform arrangements, a large number of sensors is required for accurate fault diagnosis of these ropes, leading to high investment costs. This paper presents a strategy to optimize the number and placement of acceleration sensors attached to the floating platforms. There are also high demands on the sensors due to the harsh offshore conditions. Material deterioration and overloading may lead to decayed sensor performance or sensor defects. Maintenance of offshore sensors is difficult, expensive and often not feasible within a short time. Therefore, sensor measurement deviations must not affect reliable structure fault detection. The influence of defect sensors on the rope fault detection is examined in this study: Types, intensities, number, place of occurrence of defect sensors and the distance between defect sensors and rope faults are varied. Full article
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17 pages, 7364 KiB  
Article
The Role of Splitting Phenomenon under Fracture of Low-Carbon Microalloyed X80 Pipeline Steels during Multiple Charpy Impact Tests
by Matvey Matveevich Kantor, Konstantin Grigorievich Vorkachev, Vyacheslav Aleksandrovich Bozhenov and Konstantin Aleksandrovich Solntsev
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 740-756; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030044 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2097
Abstract
The ambiguity of the splitting effect on X80 low-carbon microalloyed pipeline steels’ tendency towards brittle fracture prompted an experimental study of impact toughness scattering based on multiple Charpy impact tests in a temperature range from 20 °C to −100 °C. A fractographic analysis [...] Read more.
The ambiguity of the splitting effect on X80 low-carbon microalloyed pipeline steels’ tendency towards brittle fracture prompted an experimental study of impact toughness scattering based on multiple Charpy impact tests in a temperature range from 20 °C to −100 °C. A fractographic analysis of a large number of fractured samples was carried out. The relationships between impact toughness, deformability and splitting characteristics were studied. A number of common features of three X80 low-carbon microalloyed pipeline steel fractures were revealed. It was experimentally established that the reason for the scattering of the impact toughness values during completely ductile fracture of specimens, as well as during fracture accompanied by the splitting formation, is the local inhomogeneity of plastic properties. The higher the susceptibility to the formation of splits for a particular steel, the lower the impact toughness. Using the electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) technique, an uneven distribution of local plasticity in the plastic zone of impact-fractured specimens was established. A comparative analysis of specimens with equal impact toughness values at different test temperatures makes it possible to identify the mechanism of negative splitting influence compensation by the increased plasticity of certain specimen. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Impact Mechanics of Materials and Structures)
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16 pages, 11401 KiB  
Article
Green Forging of Titanium and Titanium Alloys by Using the Carbon Supersaturated SKD11 Dies
by Shunsuke Ishiguro, Tatsuhiko Aizawa, Tatsuya Funazuka and Tomomi Shiratori
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 724-739; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030043 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1805
Abstract
The carbon-supersaturated SKD11 punch was proposed as a green, or, a galling-free, long-life and low energy-consuming forging tool of pure titanium and β-titanium alloy that works with low friction and less work hardening and without galling. The reduction in thickness was increased up [...] Read more.
The carbon-supersaturated SKD11 punch was proposed as a green, or, a galling-free, long-life and low energy-consuming forging tool of pure titanium and β-titanium alloy that works with low friction and less work hardening and without galling. The reduction in thickness was increased up to 50% to investigate the friction process on the contact interface and the work-hardening behavior. The nitrogen-supersaturated SKD11 punch was utilized as a reference tool for this forging experiment. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was employed to derive the regression curve between the contact interface width and the friction coefficient. The friction coefficient was estimated in forging the pure titanium wires by using the regression curves. The work-hardening process was analyzed by the hardness mapping on the cross-section of forged wires. The SEM-EDX analysis on the contact interface proved that no adhesion of fresh metallic titanium and titanium oxide debris was seen on the interface between the carbon-supersaturated SKD11 punch and the titanium work. In particular, the work hardening is suppressed without shear localization in forging the β-titanium. Finally, the uniform carbon layer was derived from the supersaturated carbon solute from the punch matrix and wrought as a friction film on the contact interface to reduce the friction and the work hardening as well as suppress the chemical galling. This in situ carbon lubrication must be essential in green forging to highly qualify the titanium and titanium alloy products and to prolong the punch-and-die lives in practical operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture Mechanics and Durability of Engineering Materials)
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19 pages, 16785 KiB  
Article
Waterproof Design of Soft Multi-Directional Force Sensor for Underwater Robotic Applications
by Liam B. Cross, Rafsan Al Shafatul Islam Subad, Md Mahmud Hasan Saikot and Kihan Park
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 705-723; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030042 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2363
Abstract
Directional force sensing is an intrinsic feature of tactile sensing. As technologies of exploratory robots evolve, with special emphasis on the emergence of soft robotics, it is crucial to equip robotic end-effectors with effective means of characterizing trends in force detection and grasping [...] Read more.
Directional force sensing is an intrinsic feature of tactile sensing. As technologies of exploratory robots evolve, with special emphasis on the emergence of soft robotics, it is crucial to equip robotic end-effectors with effective means of characterizing trends in force detection and grasping phenomena, while these trends are largely derived from networks of tactile sensors working together, individual sensors must be built to meet an intended function and maintain functionality with respect to environmental operating conditions. The harshness of underwater exploration imposes a unique set of circumstances onto the design of tactile sensors. When exposed to underwater conditions a tactile sensor must be able to withstand the effects of increased pressure paired with water intrusion while maintaining computational and mechanical integrity. Robotic systems designed for the underwater environment often become expensive and cumbersome. This paper presents the design, fabrication, and performance of a low-cost, soft-material sensor capable of multi-directional force detection. The fundamental design consists of four piezo-resistive flex elements offset at 90 increments and encased inside of a hemispherical silicone membrane filled with a non-compressive and non-conductive fluid. The sensor is simulated numerically to characterize soft-material deformation and is experimentally interrogated with indentation equipment to investigate sensor-data patterns when subject to different contact forces. Furthermore, the sensor is subject to a cyclic loading test to analyze the effects of hysteresis in the silicone and is submerged underwater for a 7-day period to investigate any effect of water intrusion at a shallow depth. The outcome of this paper is the proposed design of a waterproofed, soft-material tactile sensor capable of directional force detection and contact force localization. The overall goal is to widen the scope of tactile sensor concepts outfitted for the underwater environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Applied Mechanics)
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