Fracture Mechanics and Durability of Engineering Materials

A special issue of Applied Mechanics (ISSN 2673-3161).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (21 October 2022) | Viewed by 12782

Special Issue Editors


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Guest Editor
MS-Schramberg GmbH & Co. KG, Max-Planck-Straße 15, 78713 Schramberg, Germany
Interests: fracture mechanics; lifetime prediction; material characterization; elastomer; mechanics of materials; damage

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Guest Editor
Department of Structural, Geotechnical and Building Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
Interests: fracture mechanics; brittle crack onset; fatigue limit; crack paths; size effects; notch sensitivity; nonlinear elasticity
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Fracture mechanics and durability have been major issues in science and industry for decades. The methods and concepts are constantly evolving in order to better understand crack formation, fields on the crack front, and crack growth. If a technical component containing cracks is subjected to cyclical loading and if the critical crack resistance value is exceeded, the crack can propagate, which under certain circumstances can lead to the total failure of the component.

Estimating the durability of technical components is still a very challenging and complex task, as several aspects such as the material behavior, the load, and the reliability of the prediction have a strong influence on the results. Materials used in the automotive sectors such as metals, plastics, polymers, and ceramics behave very differently. The crack propagation can be described by linear and non-linear fracture mechanics models depending on the stress and strain fields at the crack tip as well as the crack criteria.

We invite researchers to submit technical papers that address new aspects of fracture mechanics and durability. Among the areas to be emphasized are the development and new derivations of fracture criteria and damage criteria; application of linear and non-linear fracture mechanics; application of phase fields in fracture mechanics and durability; prediction of crack growth and durability; and experimental and numerical description of fracture mechanics.

In this Special Issue, original research and review articles, as well as short communications, within the field of fracture mechanics and durability have the opportunity to be published. Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:

  • Continuum mechanics and micromechanics;
  • Linear and non-linear fracture mechanics;
  • Damage mechanics;
  • Probabilistic fracture mechanics;
  • Phase fields;
  • Analysis of crack tip fields;
  • Criteria for linear and non-linear fracture mechanics;
  • Crack initiation and crack propagation;
  • Cohesive zones;
  • Prediction of durability and crack propagation behavior.

Dr. Mohammed El Yaagoubi
Prof. Dr. Alberto Sapora
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Applied Mechanics is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1200 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • cracks
  • crack propagation
  • durability
  • brittle and ductile fracture mechanics
  • phase-field

Published Papers (7 papers)

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Research

18 pages, 3498 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Reverse Yielding on the Plastic Conditioning of Interference Fits in Power Transmission Engineering
by Mario Schierz and Alexander Hasse
Appl. Mech. 2024, 5(1), 73-90; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech5010005 - 25 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1218
Abstract
Interference fits are very common shaft–hub connections due to their low manufacturing costs and excellent technical properties. The Plastic Conditioning of this machine element is a new and not very well-known method. During the development of this method, it was discovered that Reverse [...] Read more.
Interference fits are very common shaft–hub connections due to their low manufacturing costs and excellent technical properties. The Plastic Conditioning of this machine element is a new and not very well-known method. During the development of this method, it was discovered that Reverse Yielding occurs in certain applications and has a negative impact on the result. This paper examines the effects of Reverse Yielding on the technology of Plastic Conditioning of interference fits in Power Transmission Engineering. Based on the Shear Stress Hypothesis (SH), the Plane Stress State (PSS), and the ideal plastic behavior of materials, established stress–mechanical relationships are used to find the influencing parameters of Reverse Yielding on the technology of Plastic Conditioning and their limits. As a result, a new computational concept is developed that allows the user to maximize Plastic Conditioning while avoiding Reverse Yielding. Analytical calculation suggestions and diagrams for practical application are provided. Furthermore, the deviations in the obtained results, taking into account other material models such as the Von Mises Yield Criterion (VMYC) and material hardening, as well as the Bauschinger effect, are examined in comparison with our own numerical results from the development of Plastic Conditioning, and the resulting need for further research is defined. In addition, the method of Plastic Conditioning of interference fits is introduced and its basic principles are briefly explained. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture Mechanics and Durability of Engineering Materials)
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28 pages, 9815 KiB  
Article
Inelastic Behavior of Steel and Composite Frame Structure Subjected to Earthquake Loading
by P. D. Gajbhiye, Nuha S. Mashaan, V. Bhaiya, Rajan L. Wankhade and S. P. Vishnu
Appl. Mech. 2023, 4(3), 899-926; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech4030047 - 16 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1454
Abstract
Steel construction is used more often these days as an alternative to the R.C.C. when lightweight, high-strength, large-span structures with a faster erection are required. Extensive studies have been conducted by researchers to study the seismic performance of reinforced concrete and steel structures, [...] Read more.
Steel construction is used more often these days as an alternative to the R.C.C. when lightweight, high-strength, large-span structures with a faster erection are required. Extensive studies have been conducted by researchers to study the seismic performance of reinforced concrete and steel structures, both in terms of elastic and inelastic behavior. Composite construction is also a recent advancement in the building industry with similar advantages. However, no emphasis has been given to the comparison between the inelastic behavior of steel and composite structures when subjected to lateral loads. This study compares the inelastic behavior of steel and a composite frame designed to have the same plastic moment capacity for structural members. The responses, such as the formation of hinges, story drifts, story displacements, lateral stiffness, ductility, maximum strength, energy dissipated, joint accelerations, and performance points, are compared with the aid of the building analysis and design software ETABS-18. For this, response spectrum analysis, pushover analysis, and nonlinear direct integration time history analysis have been performed on both frames. For design and analysis, international codes, such as IS 800-2007, IS 875 (Part I, II, IV), IS 1893-2002, AISC 360 (16 and 10), and FEMA 440, have been used. Part of this study also aims at comparing the response of these frames when subjected to near-field and far-field earthquakes. It can be concluded from the results that the post-yield performance of the composite frame is superior to that of the steel frame when seismically excited. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture Mechanics and Durability of Engineering Materials)
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16 pages, 8475 KiB  
Article
Experimental Investigation on Local and Global Texture Evolution in Drawing Seamless Copper Tubes
by Somayeh Khani, Heinz Palkowski, Adele Carradò and Farzad Foadian
Appl. Mech. 2023, 4(1), 93-108; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech4010007 - 20 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1581
Abstract
Mass flow inequality in the initial stage of tube processing can lead to eccentricity and micro- and nano-structural changes that affect residual stress and texture development. In this study, the macro- and micro-texture development of copper tubes drawn with a tilted die was [...] Read more.
Mass flow inequality in the initial stage of tube processing can lead to eccentricity and micro- and nano-structural changes that affect residual stress and texture development. In this study, the macro- and micro-texture development of copper tubes drawn with a tilted die was investigated using three methods: synchrotron, neutron diffraction, and electron backscatter diffraction, in the positions of maximum and minimum wall thickness of the tubes. Understanding how a tilted die can affect the texture development in copper tubes is the main aim of this study. The micro-texture results of EBSD examinations showed the same behavior at the maximum and minimum sides of the as-received tube, as observed using the synchrotron diffraction method as well as macro-texture measurements. The cube texture component was found to be the predominant orientation in the as-received tube. However, it almost disappeared after drawing with −5° tilting. By contrast, the Cu texture component increased significantly. Before drawing, the cube component varied strongly across the wall thickness. After drawing, however, there was no noticeable texture gradient across the wall thickness. The analyses showed that tilting is not creating an inhomogeneous texture development over the circumference. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture Mechanics and Durability of Engineering Materials)
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26 pages, 4867 KiB  
Article
Anisortopic Modeling of Hydraulic Fractures Height Growth in the Anadarko Basin
by Ahmed Merzoug, Abdulaziz Ellafi, Vamegh Rasouli and Hadi Jabbari
Appl. Mech. 2023, 4(1), 44-69; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech4010004 - 9 Jan 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1978
Abstract
Correct estimation of hydraulic fracture height growth is a critical step in the design of Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) treatment, as it maximizes the reservoir stimulation and returns on investment. The height of the fractures is governed by several in situ conditions, especially stress [...] Read more.
Correct estimation of hydraulic fracture height growth is a critical step in the design of Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) treatment, as it maximizes the reservoir stimulation and returns on investment. The height of the fractures is governed by several in situ conditions, especially stress variation with depth. The common workflow to estimate stress is by building the mechanical earth model (MEM) and calibrating it using the Diagnostic Fracture Injection Test (DFIT). However, DFIT interpretation is a complex task, and depending on the method used, different results may be obtained that will consequently affect the predicted hydraulic fracture height. This work used the tangent and compliance methods for DFIT interpretation, along with isotropic and anisotropic stress profiles, to estimate the HF height growth using numerical modeling in a 3D planar HF simulator. Data from two wells in the Anadarko Basin were used in this study. The predicted height was compared with microseismic data. The results showed that even though the tangent method fits better to the isotropic stress profile, HF did not match with the microseismic data. On the contrary, the anisotropic stress profile showed a good match between the compliance DFIT model and the microseismic events. Based on the discussions presented in this study, the validity of the DFIT interpretation is debatable, and when the formations are anisotropic, the isotropic model fails to correctly estimate the minimum stress profile, which is the main input for the estimation of the fracture height. This is in addition to the fact that some researchers have questioned the use of the tangent method in low-permeability formations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture Mechanics and Durability of Engineering Materials)
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11 pages, 2722 KiB  
Article
What Is the Internal Pressure That Initiates Damage in Cementitious Materials during Freezing and Thawing? A Micromechanical Analysis
by Jithender J. Timothy, Alexander Haynack, Thomas Kränkel and Christoph Gehlen
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(4), 1288-1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3040074 - 5 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1419
Abstract
Damage induced by repetitive freezing and thawing processes is one of the critical factors that affect concrete durability in cold climates. This deterioration process manifests as surface scaling and internal damage. The damage processes are governed by physicochemical mechanisms that are active across [...] Read more.
Damage induced by repetitive freezing and thawing processes is one of the critical factors that affect concrete durability in cold climates. This deterioration process manifests as surface scaling and internal damage. The damage processes are governed by physicochemical mechanisms that are active across multiple scales. In this contribution, we present a novel multiscale theoretical framework for estimating the critical pressure required for microcrack initiation during freezing and thawing of cementitious mortar. Continuum micromechanics and fracture mechanics is used to model the phenomena of microcrack initiation and growth. Damage at the microscale is upscaled to the level of the specimen using multilevel homogenization. The critical pressure is estimated using poromechanics at the microscopic scale. A theoretical analysis shows that in the frozen state, the material can resist higher pressures. As a consequence, the material is more susceptible to damage during thawing. The micromechanical predictions are within the range of the predictions obtained by electrokinetic theory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture Mechanics and Durability of Engineering Materials)
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20 pages, 8929 KiB  
Article
Composite Material Elastic Effective Coefficients Optimization by Means of a Micromechanical Mechanical Model
by Ioannis Zyganitidis, Alexandros Arailopoulos and Dimitrios Giagopoulos
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 779-798; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030046 - 30 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2068
Abstract
The presented research work demonstrates an efficient methodology based on a micromechanical framework for the prediction of the effective elastic properties of strongly bonded long-fiber-reinforced materials (CFRP) used for the construction of tubular structures. Although numerous analytical and numerical micromechanical models have been [...] Read more.
The presented research work demonstrates an efficient methodology based on a micromechanical framework for the prediction of the effective elastic properties of strongly bonded long-fiber-reinforced materials (CFRP) used for the construction of tubular structures. Although numerous analytical and numerical micromechanical models have been developed to predict the mechanical response of CFRPs, either they cannot accurately predict complex mechanical responses due to limits on the input parameters or they are resource intensive. The generalized method of cells (GMC) is capable of assessing more detailed strain fields in the vicinity of fiber–matrix interfaces since it allows for a plethora of material and structural parameters to be defined while being computationally effective. The GMC homogenization approach is successfully combined with the covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMA–ES) to identify the effective elasticity tensor Cij of CFRP materials. The accuracy and efficiency of the proposed methodology are validated by comparing predicted effective properties with previously measured experimental data on CFRP cylindrical samples made of 3501-6 epoxy matrix reinforced with AS4 carbon fibers. The proposed and validated method can be successively used in both analyzing the mechanical responses of structures and designing new optimized composite materials. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture Mechanics and Durability of Engineering Materials)
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16 pages, 11401 KiB  
Article
Green Forging of Titanium and Titanium Alloys by Using the Carbon Supersaturated SKD11 Dies
by Shunsuke Ishiguro, Tatsuhiko Aizawa, Tatsuya Funazuka and Tomomi Shiratori
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(3), 724-739; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3030043 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1903
Abstract
The carbon-supersaturated SKD11 punch was proposed as a green, or, a galling-free, long-life and low energy-consuming forging tool of pure titanium and β-titanium alloy that works with low friction and less work hardening and without galling. The reduction in thickness was increased up [...] Read more.
The carbon-supersaturated SKD11 punch was proposed as a green, or, a galling-free, long-life and low energy-consuming forging tool of pure titanium and β-titanium alloy that works with low friction and less work hardening and without galling. The reduction in thickness was increased up to 50% to investigate the friction process on the contact interface and the work-hardening behavior. The nitrogen-supersaturated SKD11 punch was utilized as a reference tool for this forging experiment. Three-dimensional finite element analysis was employed to derive the regression curve between the contact interface width and the friction coefficient. The friction coefficient was estimated in forging the pure titanium wires by using the regression curves. The work-hardening process was analyzed by the hardness mapping on the cross-section of forged wires. The SEM-EDX analysis on the contact interface proved that no adhesion of fresh metallic titanium and titanium oxide debris was seen on the interface between the carbon-supersaturated SKD11 punch and the titanium work. In particular, the work hardening is suppressed without shear localization in forging the β-titanium. Finally, the uniform carbon layer was derived from the supersaturated carbon solute from the punch matrix and wrought as a friction film on the contact interface to reduce the friction and the work hardening as well as suppress the chemical galling. This in situ carbon lubrication must be essential in green forging to highly qualify the titanium and titanium alloy products and to prolong the punch-and-die lives in practical operation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture Mechanics and Durability of Engineering Materials)
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