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Appl. Mech., Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2022) – 15 articles

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18 pages, 1042 KiB  
Article
Genotype-Phenotype Mapping for Applied Evolutionary Multi-Objective and Multi-Physics Topology Optimization
by Felix Schleifer and Kevin Deese
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(4), 1399-1416; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3040080 - 16 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1290
Abstract
We present a multi-objective topology optimization method based on the Non-Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). The presented approach is a tool for early-stage engineering applications capable of providing insights into the complex relationship between structural features and the performance of a design without [...] Read more.
We present a multi-objective topology optimization method based on the Non-Sorting Genetic Algorithm II (NSGA-II). The presented approach is a tool for early-stage engineering applications capable of providing insights into the complex relationship between structural features and the performance of a design without a priori assumptions about objective space. Mass reduction, linear elastic deformation, and stationary thermal conduction are considered simultaneously with three additional constraints. The specifically developed genotype-phenotype mapping ensures the practical benefit of obtained design propositions and significantly reduces computational effort to generate a dense set of Pareto solutions. The mapping procedure smooths probabilistically generated structures, removes unconnected material, and refines the spatial discretization for the subsequently used finite element solver. We present sets of Pareto optimal solutions to large three-dimensional design problems with multiple objectives and multiple near-application constraints that are feasible design propositions for engineering design. Geometrical features present in the obtained Pareto set are discussed. Full article
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14 pages, 5980 KiB  
Article
Flow Study on the Anemometers of the Perseverance Based on Towing Tank Visualization
by Ángel Antonio Rodríguez-Sevillano, María Jesús Casati-Calzada, Rafael Bardera-Mora, Alejandro Feliz-Huidobro, Claudia Calle-González and Jaime Fernández-Antón
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(4), 1385-1398; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3040079 - 08 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1228
Abstract
Flow visualization is necessary in fields such as engineering, since it allows us to know what is happening around the element being studied by means of a preliminary method, although it is relatively close to future research and computation methodology. The present project [...] Read more.
Flow visualization is necessary in fields such as engineering, since it allows us to know what is happening around the element being studied by means of a preliminary method, although it is relatively close to future research and computation methodology. The present project studies the interference at the anemometers of the Mars rover Perseverance, caused by the mast holding one of its cameras. After obtaining the model, manufactured by a 3D printer, it was placed inside a hydrodynamic towing tank, and red dye was added for a visual observation of the interference during the experiment. A comparison was made between the results achieved and those seen in a wind tunnel, realizing the high correlation they have. Finally, this paper promotes the use of the hydrodynamic towing tank in preliminary studies due to its low costs, considering the adequate comparison with other higher precision methodologies. Full article
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33 pages, 2866 KiB  
Article
On the Countering of Free Vibrations by Forcing: Part I—Non-Resonant and Resonant Forcing with Phase Shifts
by Luiz M. B. C. Campos and Manuel J. S. Silva
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(4), 1352-1384; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3040078 - 03 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1497
Abstract
The question addressed is whether the free oscillations of a continuous system can be suppressed, or at least the total energy reduced, by applying external forces, using as example the linear undamped transverse oscillations of a uniform elastic string. The non-resonant forcing at [...] Read more.
The question addressed is whether the free oscillations of a continuous system can be suppressed, or at least the total energy reduced, by applying external forces, using as example the linear undamped transverse oscillations of a uniform elastic string. The non-resonant forcing at an applied frequency, distinct from all natural frequencies, does not interact with the normal modes, whose energy is unchanged, and adds the energy of the forced oscillation, thus increasing the total energy, that is the opposite of the result being sought. The resonant forcing at an applied frequency, equal to one of the natural frequencies, leads to an amplitude growing linearly with time, and hence the energy is growing quadratically with time, implying an increase in total energy after a sufficiently long time. A reduction in total energy is possible over a short time, say over the first period of oscillation, by optimizing the forcing. In the case of a concentrated force, by optimizing its magnitude and location, the total energy with forcing in one period is reduced by a modest maximum of 2% relative to the free oscillation alone. The conclusion is similar for several concentrated forces. In the case of a continuously distributed force, by optimizing the spatial distribution, it is possible to reduce the energy of the total oscillation to one-fourth of that of the free oscillation over the first period of vibration. This shows that continuously distributed forces are more effective at vibration suppression than point forces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Applied Mechanics)
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15 pages, 7491 KiB  
Article
Explicit Analytic Solutions for the Subsurface Stress Field in Single Plane Contacts of Elastically Similar Truncated Cylinders or Wedges
by Emanuel Willert
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(4), 1337-1351; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3040077 - 29 Nov 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1276
Abstract
As has been pointed out recently, a possible solution strategy to the wear–fatigue dilemma in fretting, operating on the level of contact mechanics and profile geometries, can be the introduction of “soft” sharp edges to the contact profiles, for example, by truncating an [...] Read more.
As has been pointed out recently, a possible solution strategy to the wear–fatigue dilemma in fretting, operating on the level of contact mechanics and profile geometries, can be the introduction of “soft” sharp edges to the contact profiles, for example, by truncating an originally smooth profile. In that regard, analysis of possible mechanical failure of a structure, due to the contact interaction, requires the knowledge of the full subsurface stress state resulting from the contact loading. In the present manuscript, a closed-form exact solution for the subsurface stress state is given for the frictional contact of elastically similar truncated cylinders or wedges, within the framework of the half-plane approximation and a local-global Amontons–Coulomb friction law. Moreover, a fast and robust semi-analytical method, based on the appropriate superposition of solutions for parabolic contact, is proposed for the determination of the subsurface stress fields in frictional plane contacts with more complex profile geometries, and compared with the exact solution. Based on the analytical solution, periodic tangential loading of a truncated cylinder is considered in detail, and important scalar characteristics of the stress state, like the von-Mises equivalent stress, maximum shear stress, and the largest principal stress, are determined. Positive (i.e., tensile) principal stresses only exist in the vicinity of the contact edge, away from the pressure singularity at the edge of the profile, and away from the maxima of the von-Mises equivalent stress, or the maximum shear stress. Therefore, the fretting contact should not be prone to fatigue crack initiation. Full article
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10 pages, 1358 KiB  
Article
An Innovative Approach to Improving Residual Stress Distribution and Metallurgical Refinement of Forged AA7175 Applied in the Aeronautical Industry
by Kadiata Ba, Sasan Sattarpanah Karganroudi, Ahmad Aminzadeh, Mousa Javidani and Mohammad Saleh Meiabadi
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(4), 1327-1336; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3040076 - 28 Nov 2022
Viewed by 1394
Abstract
In this study, a novel approach for residual stress (RS) distribution on forged AA7175 is considered to replace and simplify the manufacturing process, based on the lean manufacturing concept. AA7175 alloy is a quench-sensitive material applied in the aeronautics industry, which is subjected [...] Read more.
In this study, a novel approach for residual stress (RS) distribution on forged AA7175 is considered to replace and simplify the manufacturing process, based on the lean manufacturing concept. AA7175 alloy is a quench-sensitive material applied in the aeronautics industry, which is subjected to vibration and cyclic loads leading to fatigue failure. Generally, costly postprocessing operations, such as shot peening, are used to modify RS on the surfaces of parts. Considering the fact that this operation is usually performed manually and is costly, the industrial sectors have been searching for an alternative to simplify the process. Here, quenching and T74 aging are found to advantageously modify RS distribution by forming compressive RS on parts’ surface layers. The proposed heat treatment allows for the removal of the shot-peening process, helping to reduce the costs associated with the manufacturing process and to increase production quality. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Fracture, Fatigue, and Wear)
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28 pages, 10035 KiB  
Review
A Survey on Non-Destructive Smart Inspection of Wind Turbine Blades Based on Industry 4.0 Strategy
by Mariya Dimitrova, Ahmad Aminzadeh, Mohammad Saleh Meiabadi, Sasan Sattarpanah Karganroudi, Hossein Taheri and Hussein Ibrahim
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(4), 1299-1326; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3040075 - 16 Nov 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5626
Abstract
Wind turbines are known to be the most efficient method of green energy production, and wind turbine blades (WTBs) are known as a key component of the wind turbine system, with a major influence on the efficiency of the entire system. Wind turbine [...] Read more.
Wind turbines are known to be the most efficient method of green energy production, and wind turbine blades (WTBs) are known as a key component of the wind turbine system, with a major influence on the efficiency of the entire system. Wind turbine blades have a quite manual production process of composite materials, which induces various types of defects in the blade. Blades are susceptible to the damage developed by complex and irregular loading or even catastrophic collapse and are expensive to maintain. Failure or damage to wind turbine blades not only decreases the lifespan, efficiency, and fault diagnosis capability but also increases safety hazards and maintenance costs. Hence, non-destructive testing (NDT) methods providing surface and subsurface information for the blade are indispensable in the maintenance of wind turbines. Damage detection is a critical part of the inspection methods for failure prevention, maintenance planning, and the sustainability of wind turbine operation. Industry 4.0 technologies provide a framework for deploying smart inspection, one of the key requirements for sustainable wind energy production. The wind energy industry is about to undergo a significant revolution due to the integration of the physical and virtual worlds driven by Industry 4.0. This paper aims to highlight the potential of Industry 4.0 to help exploit smart inspections for sustainable wind energy production. This study is also elaborated by damage categorization and a thorough review of the state-of-the-art non-destructive techniques for surface and sub-surface inspection of wind turbine blades. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Applied Mechanics)
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11 pages, 2722 KiB  
Article
What Is the Internal Pressure That Initiates Damage in Cementitious Materials during Freezing and Thawing? A Micromechanical Analysis
by Jithender J. Timothy, Alexander Haynack, Thomas Kränkel and Christoph Gehlen
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(4), 1288-1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3040074 - 05 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1347
Abstract
Damage induced by repetitive freezing and thawing processes is one of the critical factors that affect concrete durability in cold climates. This deterioration process manifests as surface scaling and internal damage. The damage processes are governed by physicochemical mechanisms that are active across [...] Read more.
Damage induced by repetitive freezing and thawing processes is one of the critical factors that affect concrete durability in cold climates. This deterioration process manifests as surface scaling and internal damage. The damage processes are governed by physicochemical mechanisms that are active across multiple scales. In this contribution, we present a novel multiscale theoretical framework for estimating the critical pressure required for microcrack initiation during freezing and thawing of cementitious mortar. Continuum micromechanics and fracture mechanics is used to model the phenomena of microcrack initiation and growth. Damage at the microscale is upscaled to the level of the specimen using multilevel homogenization. The critical pressure is estimated using poromechanics at the microscopic scale. A theoretical analysis shows that in the frozen state, the material can resist higher pressures. As a consequence, the material is more susceptible to damage during thawing. The micromechanical predictions are within the range of the predictions obtained by electrokinetic theory. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fracture Mechanics and Durability of Engineering Materials)
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18 pages, 6917 KiB  
Article
Stiction and Friction of Nano- and Microtextured Liquid Silicon Rubber Surface Formed by Injection Molding
by Christof Koplin, Dennis F. Weißer, Alexander Fromm and Matthias H. Deckert
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(4), 1270-1287; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3040073 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1511
Abstract
The use of cross-linking polymers such as liquid silicone rubber (LSR) can replicate serviceable surfaces with nano- and microstructures via the injection molding process. Laser ablation can be used to introduce microstructures into molding tools, while nanostructures are generated via PVD coating processes [...] Read more.
The use of cross-linking polymers such as liquid silicone rubber (LSR) can replicate serviceable surfaces with nano- and microstructures via the injection molding process. Laser ablation can be used to introduce microstructures into molding tools, while nanostructures are generated via PVD coating processes on the tools. This is why nanostructures are built using self-organized layer growth. The aim of this study was to generate evidence of direction-dependent coefficients of friction of elastomeric surfaces in dry or lubricated contact in boundary friction. Models of the dry friction of elastomeric surfaces, such as Schallamach waves or stick-slip cycles, were used to describe the friction modulation of such surfaces. Assumptions for model contacts against smooth partners, both dry and with lubrication, as well as assumptions for the interaction of structures with smooth surfaces, were investigated. It was found that for elastomer surfaces with Shore hardness 50, nanostructures are suitable for creating a direction-dependent friction increase in static and sliding friction. Friction reductions with defined microstructures are possible if their periodicity seems to interact with the wavelength of possible Schallamach waves. The choice of lubrication determines the forced wetting of the contact, but due to the structuring, there is a continuous transition to mixed friction. Full article
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16 pages, 3505 KiB  
Article
Local Stability in the Process of Excavation Located in High Permeability Saturated Sand of Diaphragm Wall Construction
by Yuhang Liu, Linchun Wei, Yanfei Zhu and Xiaoying Zhuang
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(4), 1254-1269; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3040072 - 31 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1521
Abstract
The stability of the slurry trench is very important in the construction of the underground diaphragm wall. In the current research, the local instability of the slurry trench is mainly investigated after the excavation of a unit slot is completely completed. However, the [...] Read more.
The stability of the slurry trench is very important in the construction of the underground diaphragm wall. In the current research, the local instability of the slurry trench is mainly investigated after the excavation of a unit slot is completely completed. However, the local stability in the process of excavation has received little attention. In this paper, the local stability in the process of excavation located in high permeability strata of diaphragm wall construction is investigated. A slurry infiltration experiment was carried out to investigate the distribution of the excess pore pressure in the high permeability strata, which can determine the effective support pressure. Then, the local stability of the slurry trench in the process of excavation located in high permeability saturated sand is calculated. The results show that the same types of sand according to the design code cannot be simply treated to have the same permeability and similar distribution of the excess pore pressure, since whether the filter cake can be formed and the quality of the filter cake are the key factors to determine the distribution of the excess pore pressure. This is also crucial for the local stability in the process of excavation located in high permeability saturated sand. It is suggested that attention should be paid to the local stability in the process of excavation located in high permeability strata when the slurry infiltration mode is the pure permeable zone. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Applied Mechanics)
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14 pages, 38912 KiB  
Article
Design and Fabrication of Untethered Light-Actuated Microbots in Fluid for Biomedical Applications
by Md Faiyaz Jamil, Mishal Pokharel and Kihan Park
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(4), 1240-1253; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3040071 - 17 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1783
Abstract
Untethered mobile robots at the micro-scale have the ability to improve biomedical research by performing specialized tasks inside complex physiological environments. Light-controlled wireless microbots are becoming the center of interest thanks to their accuracy in navigation and potential to carry out operations in [...] Read more.
Untethered mobile robots at the micro-scale have the ability to improve biomedical research by performing specialized tasks inside complex physiological environments. Light-controlled wireless microbots are becoming the center of interest thanks to their accuracy in navigation and potential to carry out operations in a non-invasive manner inside living environments. The pioneering light-engineered microbots are currently in the early stage of animal trials. There is a long way ahead before they can be employed in humans for therapeutic applications such as targeted drug delivery, cancer cell diagnosis, tissue engineering, etc. The design of light-actuated microbots is one of the challenging parts along with the biocompatibility and precision control for in vivo applications. Recent progress in light-activated microbots has revealed a few innovative design concepts. In this study, we presented a framework on the different aspects with a comparative analysis of potential designs for the next generation of light-controlled microbots. Utilizing numerical simulations of fluid-structure interactions, limiting design elements of the microbots are addressed. We envision that this study will eventually facilitate the integration of robotic applications into the real world owing to the described design considerations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Applied Mechanics)
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16 pages, 2194 KiB  
Article
Undamped Free Vibration Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams: A Dynamic Finite Element Approach
by Aaron Gee and Seyed M. Hashemi
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(4), 1223-1239; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3040070 - 07 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1782
Abstract
A Dynamic Finite Element (DFE) method for coupled axial–flexural undamped free vibration analysis of functionally graded beams is developed and subsequently used to investigate the system’s natural frequencies and mode shapes. The formulation is based on the Euler–Bernoulli beam theory and material grading [...] Read more.
A Dynamic Finite Element (DFE) method for coupled axial–flexural undamped free vibration analysis of functionally graded beams is developed and subsequently used to investigate the system’s natural frequencies and mode shapes. The formulation is based on the Euler–Bernoulli beam theory and material grading is assumed to follow a power law variation through the thickness direction. Using the closed-form solutions to the uncoupled segments of the system’s governing differential equations as the basis functions of approximation space, the dynamic, frequency-dependent, trigonometric interpolation functions are developed. The interpolation functions are used with the weighted residual method to develop the DFE of the system. The resulting nonlinear eigenvalue problem is then solved to determine the coupled natural frequencies. Example elements using DFE, Finite Element Method (FEM) and the Dynamic Stiffness Method (DSM) are implemented in MATLAB for testing, verification, and validation. Good agreement was observed and the DFE formulation exhibited superior convergence performance compared to the FEM. Full article
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17 pages, 5446 KiB  
Article
A Novel Technique for Temporarily Repair and Improvement of Damaged Pin Joint Support Bores
by Øyvind Karlsen, Hirpa G. Lemu and Imad Berkani
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(4), 1206-1222; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3040069 - 06 Oct 2022
Viewed by 2100
Abstract
Damaged support bores due to wear and ovality can be critical for a machine and its operation, in addition to representing a safety problem and risk of pin breakage. It can be a costly operation to perform the required repairs in between planned [...] Read more.
Damaged support bores due to wear and ovality can be critical for a machine and its operation, in addition to representing a safety problem and risk of pin breakage. It can be a costly operation to perform the required repairs in between planned service periods, especially because of the unplanned down time. A joint with a standard cylindrical pin will often experience wear and ovality in the support bore surfaces, and at some point, repairs will have to be performed. This study investigates and compares five options when a joint with a cylindrical pin has reached a severe level of wear and ovality, outside its planned service stop. The work involved testing the viability of 3D scanning of the damaged bore surface, 3D printing of a metal bushing, and inserting the bushing into the damaged joint. In addition, two pin solutions, i.e., a standard cylindrical pin and an expanding pin type, were installed into the repaired joint, loaded, and the strain on the pin ends close to the supports was measured. For the sake of comparison, the supports had both smooth circular bore and severe wear and ovality. It was concluded that it is possible to produce and install the 3D-printed bushing insert without major problems; the insert had satisfactory capability during test loading, and it most probably represents a good solution when it comes to the reduction in unwanted downtime during unplanned repairs of damaged joints. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Applied Mechanics)
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16 pages, 10280 KiB  
Article
Application-Oriented Digital Image Correlation for the High-Speed Deformation and Fracture Analysis of AISI 1045 and Ti6Al4V Materials
by Lars Gerdes, Sebastian Berger, Jannis Saelzer, Pascal Franck, Ramon Helwing, Andreas Zabel and Frank Walther
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(4), 1190-1205; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3040068 - 05 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1481
Abstract
In order to achieve realistic simulations of the chip formation, high quality input data regarding the flow stress and damage behavior of the materials are required. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test setup for the characterization of highly dynamic material properties offers [...] Read more.
In order to achieve realistic simulations of the chip formation, high quality input data regarding the flow stress and damage behavior of the materials are required. The split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) test setup for the characterization of highly dynamic material properties offers a suitable method for generating high strain rates, similar to those in the chip formation zone. However, the strain measurement in SHPB is usually performed by means of strain gauges. This leads to an unreliable evaluation of strain rate and flow stress/shear flow stress in the case of an inhomogeneous material deformation, since this method presents the total strain whilst excluding local deformations. Inhomogeneous deformations are induced deliberately in special shear specimens, as they are also observed in the investigated cylindrical specimens. The present work deals with this issue by providing two additional measurement techniques, which are applied in SHPB tests for cylindrical specimens made of AISI 1045 and Ti6Al4V. To enable a local strain resolution, digital image correlation (DIC) is applied to high-speed images of the deformation process. In order to allow for the detection of shear bands in the specimens, a deep-learning-based approach is presented. The two measurement methods (strain gauges and DIC) are compared and discussed. In particular, the findings regarding the inhomogeneous deformation of Ti6Al4V allow for future improvements in the result quality of SHPB tests. The presented algorithm shows promising predictions for shear band detection and creates the basis for an automated evaluation of shear sample results, as well as an AI-based pre-selection of frames for the DIC evaluation of SHPB tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Fracture, Fatigue, and Wear)
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14 pages, 4114 KiB  
Article
Multidisciplinary Design Optimization of a Re-Entry Spacecraft via Radau Pseudospectral Method
by Masoud Kabganian, Seyed M. Hashemi and Jafar Roshanian
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(4), 1176-1189; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3040067 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1766
Abstract
The design and optimization of re-entry spacecraft or its subsystems is a multidisciplinary or multiobjective optimization problem by nature. Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) focuses on using numerical optimization in designing systems with several subsystems or disciplines that have interactions and independent actions. In [...] Read more.
The design and optimization of re-entry spacecraft or its subsystems is a multidisciplinary or multiobjective optimization problem by nature. Multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) focuses on using numerical optimization in designing systems with several subsystems or disciplines that have interactions and independent actions. In the present paper, the system-level optimizer, trajectory, geometry and shape, aerodynamics, and aerothermodynamics differential equations, are converted to algebraic equations using the Radau pseudospectral method (RPM) since a spacecraft is a nonlinear, extensive, and sparse system. The solution to the problem with the help of MDO is reached by iterating all the disciplines together; one can simultaneously enhance the design, decrease the time and cost of the entire design cycle, and minimize the structural mass of a re-entry spacecraft. Considering various methods presented in earlier research works, a combined and innovative all-at-once (AAO), RPM-based MDO method, including the key subsystems in the design process of a re-entry capsule-shape spacecraft with a low lift-to-drag ratio (L/D), is presented. Considering the applicable state and control variables, various constraints, and parameters applied to several geometric shapes of a blunt capsule and using Apollo’s aerodynamic and aerothermodynamic coefficients, the optimized dimensions for a re-entry spacecraft are presented. The introduced optimization scheme led to a 17% mass reduction compared to the original mass of the Apollo vehicle. Fast computing and simplified models are used together in this method to analyze a wide range of vehicle shapes and entry types during conceptual design. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Applied Mechanics)
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13 pages, 7173 KiB  
Article
Theoretical and Experimental Comparisons of Total Solar Transmittance for Polycarbonate Sheet with Twin Wall Rectangular Structure
by Zbigniew Zapałowicz and Agnieszka Garnysz-Rachtan
Appl. Mech. 2022, 3(4), 1163-1175; https://doi.org/10.3390/applmech3040066 - 20 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1681
Abstract
Multiwall polycarbonate sheets are applied as construction elements. Modelling and analysis of thermal processes that occur in this material demand the knowledge of solar transmittance. Values of this parameter determined in laboratory conditions are given in the technical specification of the product. However, [...] Read more.
Multiwall polycarbonate sheets are applied as construction elements. Modelling and analysis of thermal processes that occur in this material demand the knowledge of solar transmittance. Values of this parameter determined in laboratory conditions are given in the technical specification of the product. However, the parameter is in practice a complex function depending on the number of factors. This paper presents theoretical and experimental research results for total solar transmittance (TST) for a polycarbonate sheet with twin wall rectangular structure. Theoretical TST is calculated as a product of transmissivity after accounting for light absorption in polycarbonate and of transmissivity after accounting for multiple reflections of solar rays from walls of a channel. The first kind of transmissivity is insignificant and can be neglected. The second one depends on the number of reflection layers, season, and time of day. Experimental TST is determined as the ratio of irradiance under and above the polycarbonate sheet measured by pyranometers. Experimental TST is also a function of time of day and season. Both kinds of TST have an approximately constant value in the time about noon. The theoretical values of TST (0.74) are approximately equal to experimental values of TST (0.75) for the selected summer day. The value of TST in catalogue is equal to 0.82. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Thermodynamics: Modern Developments)
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