Next Issue
Volume 6, March
Previous Issue
Volume 6, January
 
 

Fire, Volume 6, Issue 2 (February 2023) – 44 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): This paper addresses the understudied issue of fire impacts on sport climbing areas, particularly susceptible to be affected by forest fires, especially in the Mediterranean climate. Fire impacts on climbing areas may include hazards for climbers, economic loss to the industry around this sport, and damage to iconic climbing routes that may be considered cultural heritage. Non-destructive techniques were used in this paper to assess the damage of rock surfaces because of fires in two climbing areas in Spain. The results showed mechanical weathering, such as cracking, spalling, granular disaggregation, and thermochemical weathering with different temperature thresholds. Observed thermochemical reactions included reddening, CaCO3 calcination, and quartz cracking, involving a major rock outcrop transformation and an acceleration of fire-induced weathering processes. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
17 pages, 2846 KiB  
Review
Combustion and Stubble Burning: A Major Concern for the Environment and Human Health
by Ishita Chanana, Aparajita Sharma, Pradeep Kumar, Lokender Kumar, Sourabh Kulshreshtha, Sanjay Kumar and Sanjay Kumar Singh Patel
Fire 2023, 6(2), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020079 - 20 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 6114
Abstract
Combustion is an essential process for humanity, but it has created turbulence in society due to the pollutant emissions from the partial completion of its process and its byproducts. The regular population is unaware of the repercussions being faced in terms of health [...] Read more.
Combustion is an essential process for humanity, but it has created turbulence in society due to the pollutant emissions from the partial completion of its process and its byproducts. The regular population is unaware of the repercussions being faced in terms of health deterioration, product quality degradation, biodiversity loss, and environmental harm. Although strategic planning against the effects is being applied sideways by the authorities to the local population and industrial facilities, the awareness in the local population is still minimal. The indicators for bioremediation being required, observed through increased sales of pharmaceutical medicines and supplements, air filters, and new techniques, include smog, elevation in respiratory disease, health immune system deterioration, decreasing life span, increasing mortality rate, and degradation in the food and water quality. This article gives a brief overview of the problems being faced due to uncontrolled combustion activities, the sources of pollutants, their creation, emission, and dispersal process, along with the mitigation techniques developed to overcome the after-effects on human health and environment. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 4786 KiB  
Article
Behavior and Capacity of Moment-Frame Members and Connections during Fire
by Supriya N. Chinivar and Kadir C. Sener
Fire 2023, 6(2), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020078 - 19 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1494
Abstract
This paper focuses on investigating the structural behavior of members and connections that are part of moment frames under the combined effect of bending moment and thermally induced axial force during a compartment-fire event. The finite-element analysis method was employed to conduct this [...] Read more.
This paper focuses on investigating the structural behavior of members and connections that are part of moment frames under the combined effect of bending moment and thermally induced axial force during a compartment-fire event. The finite-element analysis method was employed to conduct this study using models benchmarked against experimental data from several past studies while utilizing temperature-dependent material models. A numerical parametric study on typical floor beams with slender elements for compression were conducted under combined bending and axial loading to develop interaction-capacity curves at temperatures representing fire events. The results were compared against the member-strength equations provided in the AISC Specification. The analysis results demonstrated that the AISC beam-column strength equations including the combined effects of axial-load and bending moment provided reasonable estimates for member-slenderness ratios greater than 60, but overestimated the strength of beams with slender elements for low member-slenderness ratios. Combined-load-strength studies were also conducted on a typical connection used in moment frames. The moment-connection behavior was governed by failure modes exhibited at the ends of floor beams. Therefore, the interaction equations available for beam columns resulted in conservative estimates and are recommended for calculating moment-connection capacity during compartment-fire scenarios. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structures in Fire: Focus on Steel and Composite Structures)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 14085 KiB  
Article
Exploring Spatial Distributions of Land Use and Land Cover Change in Fire-Affected Areas of Miombo Woodlands of the Beira Corridor, Central Mozambique
by Victorino Américo Buramuge, Natasha Sofia Ribeiro, Lennart Olsson and Romana Rombe Bandeira
Fire 2023, 6(2), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020077 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1633
Abstract
Miombo woodlands (MW) are increasingly experiencing widespread land use and land cover change (LULCC). This study explores the influence of fire, agriculture, and slope variability on LULCC in the miombo of the Beira Corridor. Land use and land cover data were derived from [...] Read more.
Miombo woodlands (MW) are increasingly experiencing widespread land use and land cover change (LULCC). This study explores the influence of fire, agriculture, and slope variability on LULCC in the miombo of the Beira Corridor. Land use and land cover data were derived from three Landsat images for 2001, 2008, and 2018. Slope attributes were derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). Monthly burned data of Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were used to map fire frequency. The derived data were then used to investigate the relationship between LULCC and fire, agriculture, and slope, based on geographically weighted regression (GWR). In addition, the relationship between LULCC and slope was assessed. Our findings indicate that fire frequency, agriculture, and slope were significantly spatially non-stationary. We found that LULCC was negatively correlated with agriculture in open miombo, but positively correlated in dense miombo. A positive relationship between LULCC and fire was found for dense and open miombo. Changes in agriculture, dense miombo, and open miombo increased towards high slopes. The study improves the understanding of the spatial effect of LULCC drivers. The development and implementation of effective fire management actions is required to promote sustainable forest management and preservation of critical ecosystem services. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire in Savanna Landscapes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 4774 KiB  
Article
Vegetation Cover Type Classification Using Cartographic Data for Prediction of Wildfire Behaviour
by Mohammad Tavakol Sadrabadi and Mauro Sebastián Innocente
Fire 2023, 6(2), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020076 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1541
Abstract
Predicting the behaviour of wildfires can help save lives and reduce health, socioeconomic, and environmental impacts. Because wildfire behaviour is highly dependent on fuel type and distribution, their accurate estimation is paramount for accurate prediction of the fire propagation dynamics. This paper studies [...] Read more.
Predicting the behaviour of wildfires can help save lives and reduce health, socioeconomic, and environmental impacts. Because wildfire behaviour is highly dependent on fuel type and distribution, their accurate estimation is paramount for accurate prediction of the fire propagation dynamics. This paper studies the effect of combining automated hyperparameter tuning with Bayesian optimisation and recursive feature elimination on the accuracy of three boosting (AdaB, XGB, CatB), two bagging (Random Forest, Extremely Randomised Trees), and three stacking ensemble models with respect to their ability to estimate the vegetation cover type from cartographic data. The models are trained on the University of California Irvine (UCI) cover type dataset using five-fold cross-validation. Feature importance scores are calculated and used in recursive feature elimination analysis to study the sensitivity of model accuracy to the different feature combinations. Our results indicate that the implemented fine-tuning procedure significantly affects the accuracy of all models investigated, with XGB achieving an overall accuracy of 97.1% slightly outperforming the others. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Measurement of Fuels and Fuel Properties)
Show Figures

Figure 1

23 pages, 10636 KiB  
Article
Optimizing Fuel Treatments Allocation to Protect the Wildland–Urban Interface from Large-Scale Wildfires in Greece
by Margarita Bachantourian, Kostas Kalabokidis, Palaiologos Palaiologou and Kyriakos Chaleplis
Fire 2023, 6(2), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020075 - 18 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1851
Abstract
A crucial risk governance priority of the Greek forest managers is to reduce damages in the wildland–urban interface (WUI) by controlling wildfire behavior through fuel management practices. To support decisions for where management should be applied and how, this study experimented with new [...] Read more.
A crucial risk governance priority of the Greek forest managers is to reduce damages in the wildland–urban interface (WUI) by controlling wildfire behavior through fuel management practices. To support decisions for where management should be applied and how, this study experimented with new methods for fuel treatments allocation over a typical Mediterranean fire-prone landscape in the peninsula of Kassandra (an area of 350 km2), northern Greece. The Minimum Travel Time (MTT) fire simulation algorithm and the Treatment Optimization Model were used to produce eight spatial exclusionary and non-exclusionary datasets that were used as criteria for the spatial optimization of fuel management interventions. We used the Multicriteria Decisions Analysis method with Geographical Information Systems to cartographically intersect the criteria to produce two priority maps for two forest management scenarios (i.e., a control and a realistic one). The results revealed that 48 km2 of the study area was characterized as high-priority locations in the control scenario (i.e., with equally weighted management priorities), while 60 km2 was assigned to the high-priority class in the realistic scenario (i.e., with different weighted management priorities). Further analysis showed a substantial variation in treatment priority among the four major forest land cover types (broadleaves, sparse Mediterranean shrublands, conifers, and dense Mediterranean shrublands), revealing that the latter two had the highest selection values. Our methodological framework has already been operationally used by the Greek Forest Service branch of Kassandra to decide the most effective landscape fuel treatment allocation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Incorporating Fire in Social-Ecological Models)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 4020 KiB  
Review
Modern Kiln Burner Technology in the Current Energy Climate: Pushing the Limits of Alternative Fuel Substitution
by Maria Margarida Mateus, Teresa Neuparth and Duarte Morais Cecílio
Fire 2023, 6(2), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020074 - 17 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 5030
Abstract
The current manuscript presents a review on existing kiln burner technologies for the cement production process, in the context of the current climate of energy transition and environmental remediation. Environmental legislation has become ever stricter in response to global climate change, and cement [...] Read more.
The current manuscript presents a review on existing kiln burner technologies for the cement production process, in the context of the current climate of energy transition and environmental remediation. Environmental legislation has become ever stricter in response to global climate change, and cement plants need to adapt to this new reality in order to remain competitive in the market and ensure their longevity. The cement production process is a well-established technology with more than a century of existence. There are several plants in operation whose process is outdated by modern standards, particularly considering the current industry decarbonization needs. The cement process requires tremendous amounts of energy, mainly recovered from the combustion of solid, liquid or gaseous fuels, which yields massive emissions of greenhouse gases. Thus, an important onus is placed upon the minimization of pollutant emission in the combustion system, as well as a substitution of fossil fuels with more sustainable alternatives. One of the sustainable alternative fuels comes in the form of refuse derived fuels (RDF). These high caloric fractions of municipal solid waste present a double advantage by reducing the amount of fossil fuels used and reducing the landfilling fraction of waste. However, their use in rotary kiln burners comes with important limitations for burner operation, namely that a high degree of control over primary air supply is needed to ensure complete combustion with minimal pollutant emission. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 3072 KiB  
Article
Canadian Fire Management Agency Readiness for WildFireSat: Assessment and Strategies for Enhanced Preparedness
by Colin B. McFayden, Emily S. Hope, Den Boychuk, Lynn M. Johnston, Ashlin Richardson, Matthew Coyle, Meghan Sloane, Alan S. Cantin, Joshua M. Johnston and Timothy J. Lynham
Fire 2023, 6(2), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020073 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2381
Abstract
Wildfires are worsening in Canada and globally, partly due to climate change. The government of Canada is designing and building WildFireSat, the world’s first purpose-built operational satellite system for wildfire monitoring. It will provide new fire intelligence to support decision-making. It takes time [...] Read more.
Wildfires are worsening in Canada and globally, partly due to climate change. The government of Canada is designing and building WildFireSat, the world’s first purpose-built operational satellite system for wildfire monitoring. It will provide new fire intelligence to support decision-making. It takes time for fire management agencies to use new information: to understand it and its implications, change processes, develop training, and modify computer systems. Preparing for the system’s prelaunch will allow agencies to benefit more rapidly from the new information. We present (1) an assessment of the readiness of 12 Canadian fire management agencies to integrate WildFireSat information and (2) guidance for reducing readiness gaps. We used survey and other data to score readiness indicators for three readiness components: understanding, organization, and information technology. We weighted the influence of each indicator score on each component. We modelled scoring and weighting uncertainties and used Monte Carlo simulation to generate distributions of aggregated agency readiness. The results indicated that most agencies have a moderate level of readiness while others have a higher level of readiness. Cluster analysis was used to group agencies by similarity in multiple dimensions. Strategies for increasing readiness are highlighted. This identifies opportunities for agencies and the WildFireSat team to collaborate on enhancing readiness for the forthcoming WildFireSat data products. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 4633 KiB  
Article
Fire Danger Assessment Using Moderate-Spatial Resolution Satellite Data
by Nataliia Kussul, Oleh Fedorov, Bohdan Yailymov, Liudmyla Pidgorodetska, Liudmyla Kolos, Hanna Yailymova and Andrii Shelestov
Fire 2023, 6(2), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020072 - 16 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1702
Abstract
Fire is one of the most common disturbances in natural ecosystems. The analysis of various sources of information (official and unofficial) about the fires in Ukraine (2019–2020) showed a lack of timely and reliable information. Satellite observation is of crucial importance to provide [...] Read more.
Fire is one of the most common disturbances in natural ecosystems. The analysis of various sources of information (official and unofficial) about the fires in Ukraine (2019–2020) showed a lack of timely and reliable information. Satellite observation is of crucial importance to provide accurate, reliable, and timely information. This paper aims to modify the index of fire danger of a forest’s FWI by increasing its precision, based on the use of higher spatial resolution satellite data. A modification of the FWI method involves the utilization of the soil moisture deficit, in addition to the six subindices of the FWI system. In order to calculate the subindices values, weather data from the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service were used. Soil moisture deficit is calculated using Sentinel-1 radar satellite data on the water saturation degree of the soil surface layer and geospatial parameters from the 3D Soil Hydraulic Database of Europe. The application of the proposed methodology using the specified satellite, weather, and geospatial data makes it possible to assess fire danger on a continental scale with a spatial resolution of 250 m, 1 km, and a daily temporal resolution. Validation of the proposed method for modifying the FWI system demonstrates an improvement in the precision and relevance of fire danger prediction. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Fire Science Models, Remote Sensing, and Data)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1882 KiB  
Article
Cyclic Trends of Wildfires over Sub-Saharan Africa
by Reason L. Machete and Kebonyethata Dintwe
Fire 2023, 6(2), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020071 - 16 Feb 2023
Viewed by 3130
Abstract
In this paper, the patterns of the occurrences of fire incidents over sub-Saharan Africa are studied on the basis of satellite data. Patterns for the whole sub-Saharan Africa are contrasted with those for northern sub-Saharan Africa and southern-hemisphere Africa. This paper attempts to [...] Read more.
In this paper, the patterns of the occurrences of fire incidents over sub-Saharan Africa are studied on the basis of satellite data. Patterns for the whole sub-Saharan Africa are contrasted with those for northern sub-Saharan Africa and southern-hemisphere Africa. This paper attempts to unravel linear trends and overriding oscillations using regression and spectral techniques. It compares fire patterns for aggregated vegetation with those for specific types, which are savannahs, grasslands, shrublands, croplands, and forests, to identify key trend drivers. The underlying cyclic trends are interpreted in light of climate change and model projections. Considering sub-Saharan Africa, northern sub-Saharan Africa, and southern-hemisphere Africa, we found declining linear trends of wildfires with overriding cyclic patterns that have a period of ∼5 years, seemingly largely driven by savannahs, grasslands, and croplands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Forest Fire Behaviour Modelling Using Remote Sensing)
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 12659 KiB  
Article
Simulation of Low-Temperature Oxidation and Combustion of N-Dodecane Droplets under Microgravity Conditions
by Sergey M. Frolov and Valentin Y. Basevich
Fire 2023, 6(2), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020070 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1368
Abstract
Fires are considered among the most dangerous accidents on manned spacecraft. That is why several programs of combustion experiments were implemented at the International Space Station (ISS) since 2008. In the experiments with n-heptane and n-dodecane droplet combustion, a new phenomenon was discovered, [...] Read more.
Fires are considered among the most dangerous accidents on manned spacecraft. That is why several programs of combustion experiments were implemented at the International Space Station (ISS) since 2008. In the experiments with n-heptane and n-dodecane droplet combustion, a new phenomenon was discovered, namely, the phenomenon of the radiative extinction of a burning droplet with subsequent multiple flashes of flame. In this paper, n-dodecane droplet ignition, combustion, radiative extinction, and subsequent low-temperature oxidation with multiple flashes of cool, blue, and hot flames under microgravity conditions are studied computationally. The mathematical model takes into account multiple elementary chemical reactions in the vicinity of a droplet in combination with heat and mass transfer in liquid and gas, heat release, convection, soot formation, and heat removal by radiation. The model is based on the non-stationary one-dimensional differential equations of the conservation of mass and energy in liquid and gas phases with variable thermophysical properties within the multicomponent diffusion concept in the gas phase. Calculations confirm the important role of the soot shell formed around the droplet and low-temperature reactions in the phenomenon of droplet radiative extinction with multiple flame flashes in the space experiment at the ISS. Calculations reveal the decisive role of the blue flame, arising due to the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, in the multiple flame flashes. Calculations with forced ignition of the droplet reveal the effect of the ignition procedure on droplet evolution in terms of the timing and the number of cool, blue, and hot flame flashes, as well as in terms of the combustion rate constant of the droplet. Calculations with droplet self-ignition reveal the possible existence of new modes of low-temperature oxidation of droplets with the main reaction zone located very close to the droplet surface and with only partial conversion of fuel vapor in it. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire and Combustion in Microgravity)
Show Figures

Figure 1

12 pages, 19099 KiB  
Technical Note
Fire Has a Positive Effect on the Abundance of Sun Spiders (Arachnida: Solifugae) in the Cerrado-Pantanal Ecotone
by Bruno Arguelho Arrua, Leonardo Sousa Carvalho, Thiago Silva Teles, Maxwell da Rosa Oliveira and Danilo Bandini Ribeiro
Fire 2023, 6(2), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020069 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1817
Abstract
Fire is an important disturbance factor in shrublands, grasslands, and savannas. It alters the habitat of a multitude of species and, under natural dynamics, is a major determinant of landscape vegetation patterns. Here, we evaluate the effects of different wildfire regimes on the [...] Read more.
Fire is an important disturbance factor in shrublands, grasslands, and savannas. It alters the habitat of a multitude of species and, under natural dynamics, is a major determinant of landscape vegetation patterns. Here, we evaluate the effects of different wildfire regimes on the abundance of sun spiders in the Cerrado-Pantanal ecotone. To study how different fire regimes affect the number of individual sun spiders, we considered the frequency of fire occurrences in the last 20 years and classified locations as high frequency or low frequency. We also classified the time of the last fire in 2020 as occurring in the first or second half of the year. In addition, we compared the number of individual sun spiders before and after fire. We found no effects of fire frequency and period when the fire occurred in 2020, but the number of individual sun spiders was higher after wildfires. Although ground-dwelling are considered fire sensitive, some can employ strategies to tolerate fire so that they are able to not only survive, but also reproduce in fire-prone landscapes. Thus, we suggest that sun spiders are resilient, can explore sites under different fire regimes, and can be considered pyrophilous species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire in Savanna Landscapes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 573 KiB  
Article
Critical Factors Affecting Fire Safety in High-Rise Buildings in the Emirate of Sharjah, UAE
by Musab Omar, Abdelgadir Mahmoud and Sa’ardin Bin Abdul Aziz
Fire 2023, 6(2), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020068 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4552
Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to identify the critical factors affecting fire accidents in high-rise residential buildings in the Emirate of Sharjah in order to find solutions that contribute to reducing injuries and deaths from fire accidents. A large urban expansion of [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper is to identify the critical factors affecting fire accidents in high-rise residential buildings in the Emirate of Sharjah in order to find solutions that contribute to reducing injuries and deaths from fire accidents. A large urban expansion of the Emirate of Sharjah has taken place in the form of high-rise buildings, and the Emirate is now third in the UAE in terms of the number of high-rise buildings and is home to 19% of the population. As a consequence, an increase in the rate of fire accidents has also been observed. As such, there is a need to conduct research on enhancing fire safety in high-rise buildings by conducting a literature review, in which nineteen factors affecting fire globally were identified. Because the fire characteristic is unique in every country, to identify the nature of fire in the Emirate of Sharjah, we consulted sixteen subject matter experts in the field of fire in the Emirate of Sharjah to identify the factors applicable to the Emirate. We used the failure mode, effect, and criticality analysis methodology to accomplish this goal. The outcome of the consultations resulted in the three main factor categories, which are management factors, human factors, and technical factors, and the critical factors affecting the high-rise buildings in the Emirate of Sharjah were identified, which are: fire regulations, fire enforcement regulations, accident investigation, rescue speed, human behavior, lack of proper maintenance, fire training, building design, fire knowledge, combustible materials, fire culture of society, and urbanization. Using the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) tools implemented to measure the effect level of the sub-critical fire factors, 45 effects were identified, and the most common effects were: the building is fully covered by cladding, the effect of stopping activities in HRBs that are non-compliant with fire regulations, the residents practice activities related to fire knowledge, fire regulations efficiency, the training of new employees by their employers, and the residents have fire-related knowledge. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 2566 KiB  
Article
Fire-Induced Alterations of Soil Properties in Albic Podzols Developed under Pine Forests (Middle Taiga, Krasnoyarsky Kray)
by Alexey A. Dymov, Viktor V. Startsev, Evgenia V. Yakovleva, Yurii A. Dubrovskiy, Evgenii Yu. Milanovsky, Dariy A. Severgina, Alexey V. Panov and Anatoly S. Prokushkin
Fire 2023, 6(2), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020067 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1533
Abstract
Fires are one of the most widespread factors of changes in the ecosystems of boreal forests. The paper presents the results of a study of the morphological and physicochemical properties and soil organic matter (SOM) of Albic Podzols under pine forests (Pinus [...] Read more.
Fires are one of the most widespread factors of changes in the ecosystems of boreal forests. The paper presents the results of a study of the morphological and physicochemical properties and soil organic matter (SOM) of Albic Podzols under pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) of the middle taiga zone of Siberia (Krasnoyrsky kray) with various time passed after a surface fire (from 1 to 121 years ago). The influence of forest fires in the early years on the chemical properties of Albic Podzols includes a decrease in acidity, a decrease in the content of water-soluble compounds of carbon and nitrogen and an increase in the content of light polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in organic and upper mineral horizons. Podzols of pine forests that were affected by fires more than forty-five years ago are close to manure forest soils according to most physical and chemical properties. Significant correlations were found between the thickness (r = 0.75, p < 0.05), the moisture content (r = 0.90, p < 0.05) of organic horizons and the content of ∑PAHs in the organic horizon (r = −0.71, p < 0.05) with the time elapsed after the fire (i.e., from 1 to 121 years). The index of the age of pyrogenic activity (IPA) calculated as the ratio of ∑ PAHs content in the organic horizon to ∑ PAHs at the upper mineral horizon is significantly higher in forests affected by fires from 1 to 23 years than for plots with «older» fires (45–121 years). Thus, the article presents the conserved and most changing factors under the impact of fires in the boreal forests of Russia. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

19 pages, 5182 KiB  
Article
Assessment of the Effects of the 2021 Caldor Megafire on Soil Physical Properties, Eastern Sierra Nevada, USA
by Brad Sion, Vera Samburova, Markus Berli, Christopher Baish, Janelle Bustarde and Sally Houseman
Fire 2023, 6(2), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020066 - 11 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1659
Abstract
The Caldor fire burned ~222,000 acres of the Eastern Sierra Nevada during summer–fall 2021. We evaluated the effects of this “megafire” on the physical properties of a sandy soil developed from glacial tills to document fire-induced soil modifications in this region. We measured [...] Read more.
The Caldor fire burned ~222,000 acres of the Eastern Sierra Nevada during summer–fall 2021. We evaluated the effects of this “megafire” on the physical properties of a sandy soil developed from glacial tills to document fire-induced soil modifications in this region. We measured soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions as well as the thermal properties of five core samples from control (unburned) areas and eight core samples from burned soil of the same soil unit. Soil water repellency was measured in terms of water drop penetration time (WDPT) in the field and apparent contact angle in the laboratory on control and burned soil as well as ash samples. Soil organic matter (SOM) and particle and aggregate size distributions were determined on control and burned soil samples. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to image microaggregates of control and burned soil samples. We found a significant difference in SOM content and sand and silt aggregate size distribution between control and burned samples, which we associated with the disintegration of microaggregates due to the fire. We found no significant difference between soil water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions of control and burned soil but observed greater variation in saturated hydraulic conductivity and systematic shifts in thermal conductivity functions of burned compared to control samples. WDPT and apparent contact angle values were significantly higher for burned soils, indicating the occurrence of fire-induced soil hydrophobicity (FISH). Interestingly, the average apparent contact angle of the control soil was >90°, indicating that even the unburned soil was hydrophobic. However, the ash on top of the burned soil was found to be hydrophilic, having apparent contact angles <10°. Our results indicate that SOM and microaggregates were readily affected by the Caldor fire, even for sandy soil with a weakly developed structure. The fire seemed to have moderated thermal properties, significantly and soil wettability but had only minimal effects on water retention and hydraulic conductivity functions. Our findings demonstrate the complex nature of fire-soil interactions in a natural environment and highlight the need for additional investigation into the causes and processes associated with FISH and structure alterations due to fire to improve our ability to rapidly determine potential problem areas in terms of hazards commonly associated with fire-affected soils. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 3168 KiB  
Article
Development of a Novel Quantitative Risk Assessment Tool for UK Road Tunnels
by Razieh Khaksari Haddad and Zambri Harun
Fire 2023, 6(2), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020065 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1815 | Correction
Abstract
Some of the most critical transportation infrastructures are road tunnels. Underground passageways for motorists are provided through this cost-effective engineering solution, which allows for high traffic volumes. A crucial aspect of the operation of road tunnels is fire safety. Risk assessments have been [...] Read more.
Some of the most critical transportation infrastructures are road tunnels. Underground passageways for motorists are provided through this cost-effective engineering solution, which allows for high traffic volumes. A crucial aspect of the operation of road tunnels is fire safety. Risk assessments have been established to ensure the level of safety in tunnels. As the existing quantitative risk analysis (QRA) models are inapplicable to assess the fire risk in UK road tunnels, this paper presents a novel QRA model, named LBAQRAMo, for UK road tunnels. This model consists of two main sections: quantitative frequency analysis, to estimate the frequency of fire incidents via an event tree; and quantitative consequences analysis, to model the consequences of fire incidents. LBAQRAMo covers the risk to tunnel users. The result of the risk analysis is the expected value of the societal risk of the investigated tunnel, presented via F/N curve. Another major result of this model is the estimation of the number of fatalities for each scenario based on the comparison between required safe egress time (RSET) and available safe egress time (ASET). Risk evaluation was carried out by comparison of the tunnel under study with the UK ALARP limit. The operation of the model is demonstrated by its application to the Gibraltar Airport Tunnel as a case study. Simulation of 34 different possible scenarios show that the tunnel is safe for use. The sensitivity of the model to HGV fire incident frequency and basic pre-movement times was studied as well. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5443 KiB  
Article
Integrating Space Syntax and Location-Allocation Model for Fire Station Location Planning in a China Mega City
by Fengshi Tian, Junjun Lei, Xin Zheng and Yanfu Yin
Fire 2023, 6(2), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020064 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1468
Abstract
The appropriate planning of infrastructure protects people’s lives and property. Fire stations are an essential part of a city’s infrastructure and they must be precisely located to shorten emergency response times and reduce casualties. Recently, the focus of the city emergency service has [...] Read more.
The appropriate planning of infrastructure protects people’s lives and property. Fire stations are an essential part of a city’s infrastructure and they must be precisely located to shorten emergency response times and reduce casualties. Recently, the focus of the city emergency service has shifted from fire suppression to technical rescues. We compared the spatial distribution of fire suppression and technical rescues at a city scale to show the variation in their influences. An integrated road-network accessibility and location-allocation model (RNALA) for the location planning of a fire station was proposed. Specific sites for fire stations were identified using the L-A model. Then, the spatial design network analysis was performed to quantify areas around the selected site with high road network accessibility. The RNALA model was used to extend the selection from a point to a region by introducing road network accessibility to accomplish coverage and efficiency requirements. A quantitative and universal approach that focuses on fire station location planning based on emergency services is proposed. This methodology provides a practical solution for implementation, as a specific identified location might not be available for implementation. These results can serve as a reference for identifying fire station locations in cities. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 4753 KiB  
Article
Increasing Fuel Loads, Fire Hazard, and Carbon Emissions from Fires in Central Siberia
by Elena A. Kukavskaya, Evgeny G. Shvetsov, Ludmila V. Buryak, Pavel D. Tretyakov and Pavel Ya. Groisman
Fire 2023, 6(2), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020063 - 09 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2327
Abstract
The vast Angara region, with an area of 13.8 million ha, is located in the southern taiga of central Siberia, Russia. This is one of the most disturbed regions by both fire and logging in northern Asia. We have developed surface and ground [...] Read more.
The vast Angara region, with an area of 13.8 million ha, is located in the southern taiga of central Siberia, Russia. This is one of the most disturbed regions by both fire and logging in northern Asia. We have developed surface and ground fuel-load maps by integrating satellite and ground-based data with respect to the forest-growing conditions and the disturbance of the territory by anthropogenic and natural factors (fires and logging). We found that from 2001 to 2020, fuel loads increased by 8% in the study region, mainly due to a large amount of down woody debris at clearcuts and burned sites. The expansion of the disturbed areas in the Angara region resulted in an increase in natural fire hazards in spring and summer. Annual carbon emissions from fires varied from 0.06 to 6.18 Mt, with summer emissions accounting for more than 95% in extreme fire years and 31–68% in the years of low fire activity. While the trend in the increase in annual carbon emissions from fires is not statistically significant due to its high interannual variability and a large disturbance of the study area, there are significantly increasing trends in mean carbon emissions from fires per unit area (p < 0.005) and decadal means (p < 0.1). In addition, we found significant trends in the increase in emissions released by severe fires (p < 0.005) and by fires in wetter, dark, coniferous (spruce, p < 0.005 and Siberian pine, p < 0.025) forests. This indicates deeper burning and loss of legacy carbon that impacts on the carbon cycle resulting in climate feedback. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 1652 KiB  
Article
Evaluating Urban Fire Risk Based on Entropy-Cloud Model Method Considering Urban Safety Resilience
by Minghao Bai and Qiong Liu
Fire 2023, 6(2), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020062 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1608
Abstract
Creating a safe and resilient urban environment is a crucial part of sustainable urban development. Therefore, it is imperative that a city’s safety resilience is evaluated from various perspectives. To evaluate and improve the resilience of urban fire safety more scientifically, this study [...] Read more.
Creating a safe and resilient urban environment is a crucial part of sustainable urban development. Therefore, it is imperative that a city’s safety resilience is evaluated from various perspectives. To evaluate and improve the resilience of urban fire safety more scientifically, this study proposes a theoretical framework for evaluating urban safety resilience based on the triangle model and an index system including fire hazard, regional characteristics, and fire resilience is established. The entropy weight method and cloud model are used for quantitative evaluation, and the weights and risk level ratings are analyzed and discussed. The results demonstrate that the method considering urban safety resilience plays a significant role in promoting the development of urban fire safety and can provide a reference for policymakers in improving fire services. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 2415 KiB  
Article
An Empirical Modelling and Simulation Framework for Fire Events Initiated by Vegetation and Electricity Network Interactions
by Roy Wilson, Rohan Wickramasuriya and Dean Marchiori
Fire 2023, 6(2), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020061 - 08 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1466
Abstract
Electrical infrastructure is one of the major causes of bushfire in Australia alongside arson and lightning strikes. The two main causes of electrical-infrastructure-initiated fires are asset failure and powerline vegetation interactions. In this paper, we focus on powerline–vegetation interactions that are caused by [...] Read more.
Electrical infrastructure is one of the major causes of bushfire in Australia alongside arson and lightning strikes. The two main causes of electrical-infrastructure-initiated fires are asset failure and powerline vegetation interactions. In this paper, we focus on powerline–vegetation interactions that are caused by vegetation falling onto or blowing onto electrical infrastructure. Currently, there is very limited understanding of both the spatio-temporal variability of these events and their causative factors. Bridging this knowledge gap provides an opportunity for electricity utility companies to optimally allocate vegetation management resources and to understand the risk profile presented by vegetation fall-in initiated fires, thereby improving both operational planning and strategic resource allocation. To bridge this knowledge gap, we developed a statistical rare-event modelling and simulation framework based on Endeavour Energy’s fire start and incident records from the last 10 years. The modelling framework consists of nested, rare-event-corrected, conditional probability models for vegetation events and consequent ignition events that provide an overall model for vegetation-initiated ignitions. Model performance was tested on an out-of-time test set to determine the predictive utility of the models. Predictive performance was reasonable with test set AUC values of 0.79 and 0.66 for the vegetation event and ignition event models, respectively. The modelling indicates that wind speed and vegetation features are strongly associated with vegetation events, and that Forest Fire Danger Index (FFDI) and soil type are strongly associated with ignition events. The framework can be used by energy utilities to optimize resource allocation and prepare future networks for climate change. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Statistics and Operational Research for Wildfires Management)
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 5216 KiB  
Article
Recent Trends in Fire Regimes and Associated Territorial Features in a Fire-Prone Mediterranean Region
by Francisco Moreira, Miguel Leal, Rafaello Bergonse, Maria João Canadas, Ana Novais, Sandra Oliveira, Paulo Flores Ribeiro, José Luís Zêzere and José Lima Santos
Fire 2023, 6(2), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020060 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2077
Abstract
Fire regimes in Mediterranean countries have been shifting in recent decades, including changes in wildfire size and frequency. We sought to describe changes in fire regimes across two periods (1975–1995 and 1996–2018) in a fire-prone region of central Portugal, explore the relationships between [...] Read more.
Fire regimes in Mediterranean countries have been shifting in recent decades, including changes in wildfire size and frequency. We sought to describe changes in fire regimes across two periods (1975–1995 and 1996–2018) in a fire-prone region of central Portugal, explore the relationships between these regimes and territorial features, and check whether these associations persisted across periods. Two independent indicators of fire regimes were determined at parish level: fire incidence and burn concentration. Most parishes presented higher values of both indicators in the second period. Higher values of fire incidence were associated with lower population densities, lower proportions of farmland areas and higher proportions of natural vegetation. Higher levels of burn concentration were associated with smaller areas of farmland and natural vegetation. These associations differed across periods, reflecting contrasting climatic and socio-economic contexts. Keeping 40% of a parish territory covered by farmland was effective to buffer the increased wildfire risks associated with different management and climate contexts. The effectiveness of higher population densities in keeping fire incidence low decreased in the last decades. The results can improve the knowledge on the temporal evolution of fire regimes and their conditioning factors, providing contributions for spatial planning and forest/wildfire management policies. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 784 KiB  
Communication
Kinetic Study of Pyrolysis of Coniferous Bark Wood and Modified Fir Bark Wood
by Olga Yu. Fetisova, Nadezhda M. Mikova, Anna I. Chudina and Aleksandr S. Kazachenko
Fire 2023, 6(2), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020059 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1198
Abstract
We report on the kinetics of pyrolysis of bark wood of four coniferous tree species: fir (Abies sibirica), larch (Larix sibirica), spruce (Picea obovata), and cedar (Pinus sibirica) denoted as FB, LB, SB, and CB, [...] Read more.
We report on the kinetics of pyrolysis of bark wood of four coniferous tree species: fir (Abies sibirica), larch (Larix sibirica), spruce (Picea obovata), and cedar (Pinus sibirica) denoted as FB, LB, SB, and CB, respectively. Thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) methods were used to study the influence of KCl and K3PO4 compounds on the process of thermal decomposition of fir bark and determine the main thermal effects accompanying this process. As a result of the studies carried out, it was found that KCl additives practically do not affect the decomposition of hemicelluloses, but they shift the maximum decomposition of the cellulose peak in the direction of decreasing temperature to 340.9 °C compared to untreated bark (357.5 °C). K3PO4 promotes the simultaneous decomposition of hemicelluloses and cellulose in the temperature range with a maximum of 277.8 °C. In both cases, the additions of KCl and K3PO4 reduce the maximum rate of weight loss, which leads to a higher yield of carbon residues: the yield of char from the original fir bark is 28.2%, in the presence of K3PO4 and KCl it is 52.6 and 65.0%, respectively. Using the thermogravimetric analysis in the inert atmosphere, the reaction mechanism has been established within the Criado model. It is shown that the LB, SB, and CB thermal decomposition can be described by a two-dimensional diffusion reaction (D2) in a wide range (up to 0.5) of conversion values followed by the reactions with orders of three (R3). The thermal decomposition of the FB occurs somewhat differently. The diffusion mechanism (D2) of the FB thermal decomposition continues until a conversion value of 0.6. As the temperature increases, the degradation of the FB sample tends to R3. It has been found by the thermogravimetric analysis that the higher cellulose content prevents the degradation of wood. The bark wood pyrolysis activation energy has been calculated within the Coats–Redfern and Arrhenius models. The activation energies obtained within these models agree well and can be used to understand the complexity of biomass decomposition. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

22 pages, 8747 KiB  
Article
A POIs Based Method for Location Optimization of Urban Fire Station: A Case Study in Zhengzhou City
by Mengmeng Chen, Kai Wang, Yingfeng Yuan and Chao Yang
Fire 2023, 6(2), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020058 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1438
Abstract
In order to strengthen urban rescue capabilities, a new method is proposed to optimize the spatial distribution of fire stations in urban areas. Potential fire risk places are simplified into points of interest (POIs). Based on the Minimize Facilities Method and Maximize Coverage [...] Read more.
In order to strengthen urban rescue capabilities, a new method is proposed to optimize the spatial distribution of fire stations in urban areas. Potential fire risk places are simplified into points of interest (POIs). Based on the Minimize Facilities Method and Maximize Coverage Algorithm, the number and location of fire stations are determined. In addition, the POIs assigned to the stations are also determined. Moreover, the service area of the fire station is identified according to topological convex hull theory. After that, the coverage rate of the POIs and the sensitivity of the accessible area to the driving time are discussed. At last, Zhongyuan District of Zhengzhou City is taken as an example to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results reveal that current fire stations are insufficient for protecting fire safety. It is necessary to construct three new stations, which will significantly enhance firefighting capabilities. Thus, the areas capable of being timely reached by fire forces in 4.3 min reach 108.8 km2, covering more than 50% of the target district. About 94 percent of the area composed of the target district can be reached in 10 min. Good accessibility indicates the proposed method is capable of optimizing the location of the urban fire station. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 4881 KiB  
Article
Simulation of RC Beams during Fire Events Using a Nonlinear Numerical Fully Coupled Thermal-Stress Analysis
by Mohamed Elshorbagi and Mohammad AlHamaydeh
Fire 2023, 6(2), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020057 - 07 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1494
Abstract
The collapse and deterioration of infrastructures due to fire events are documented annually. These fire incidents result in multiple deaths and property loss. In this paper, a reliable and practical numerical methodology was introduced to facilitate the whole process of fire simulations and [...] Read more.
The collapse and deterioration of infrastructures due to fire events are documented annually. These fire incidents result in multiple deaths and property loss. In this paper, a reliable and practical numerical methodology was introduced to facilitate the whole process of fire simulations and increase the practicality of performing comprehensive parametric studies in the future. These parametric studies are crucial for understanding the factors that affect thermal–structural responses and avoiding the high cost of destructive tests. The proposed algorithm comprises a fully nonlinear coupled thermal-stress analysis involving thermal and structural material nonlinearity and the thermal–structural response during a fire. A detailed numerical modeling analysis was performed with ABAQUS to achieve the proposed algorithm. The results of the proposed numerical methodology were validated against published experimental work. The experimental work includes a full-scale RC beam loaded with working loads and standard heating conditions to simulate real-life scenarios. The tested beam failed during the fire, and its fire resistance was recorded. The results demonstrated a good correlation with the experimental results in thermal and structural responses. Moreover, this paper presents the direct coupling technique (DCT) and the advantages of using DCT over the traditional sequential coupling technique (SCT). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire Numerical Simulation)
Show Figures

Figure 1

32 pages, 10649 KiB  
Article
Multi-Indices Diagnosis of the Conditions That Led to the Two 2017 Major Wildfires in Portugal
by Cristina Andrade and Lourdes Bugalho
Fire 2023, 6(2), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020056 - 06 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2671
Abstract
Forest fires, though part of a natural forest renewal process, when frequent and on a large -scale, have detrimental impacts on biodiversity, agroforestry systems, soil erosion, air, and water quality, infrastructures, and the economy. Portugal endures extreme forest fires, with a record extent [...] Read more.
Forest fires, though part of a natural forest renewal process, when frequent and on a large -scale, have detrimental impacts on biodiversity, agroforestry systems, soil erosion, air, and water quality, infrastructures, and the economy. Portugal endures extreme forest fires, with a record extent of burned areas in 2017. These complexes of extreme wildfire events (CEWEs) concentrated in a few days but with highly burned areas are, among other factors, linked to severe fire weather conditions. In this study, a comparison between several fire danger indices (named ‘multi-indices diagnosis’) is performed for the control period 2001–2021, 2007 and 2017 (May–October) for the Fire Weather Index (FWI), Burning Index (BI), Forest Fire Danger Index (FFDI), Continuous Haines Index (CHI), and the Keetch–Byram Drought Index (KBDI). Daily analysis for the so-called Pedrógão Grande wildfire (17 June) and the October major fires (15 October) included the Spread Component (SC), Ignition Component (IC), Initial Spread Index (ISI), Buildup Index (BUI), and the Energy Release Component (ERC). Results revealed statistically significant high above-average values for most of the indices for 2017 in comparison with 2001–2021, particularly for October. The spatial distribution of BI, IC, ERC, and SC had the best performance in capturing the locations of the two CEWEs that were driven by atmospheric instability along with a dry environment aloft. These results were confirmed by the hotspot analysis that showed statistically significant intense spatial clustering between these indices and the burned areas. The spatial patterns for SC and ISI showed high values associated with high velocities in the spread of these fires. The outcomes allowed us to conclude that since fire danger depends on several factors, a multi-indices diagnosis can be highly relevant. The implementation of a Multi-index Prediction Methodology should be able to further enhance the ability to track and forecast unique CEWEs since the shortcomings of some indices are compensated by the information retrieved by others, as shown in this study. Overall, a new forecast method can help ensure the development of appropriate spatial preparedness plans, proactive responses by civil protection regarding firefighter management, and suppression efforts to minimize the detrimental impacts of wildfires in Portugal. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mediterranean Fires)
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 6328 KiB  
Technical Note
Development and Experimental Study of Mobile Fire Smoke Decontamination System
by Hongyong Yuan, Yang Zhou, Fan Zhou, Lida Huang and Tao Chen
Fire 2023, 6(2), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020055 - 03 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1137
Abstract
Fire smoke decontamination equipment, such as fire-fighting robots and smoke exhaust robots, is mainly used in long and narrow spaces such as underground garages. In several recent decades, the study of fire smoke spread in narrow spaces and fire smoke decontamination equipment stimulated [...] Read more.
Fire smoke decontamination equipment, such as fire-fighting robots and smoke exhaust robots, is mainly used in long and narrow spaces such as underground garages. In several recent decades, the study of fire smoke spread in narrow spaces and fire smoke decontamination equipment stimulated the interests of many researchers. However, present equipment cannot eliminate insoluble toxic gases such as CO and may decrease the height of the smoke layer, causing great difficulty to rescue. In this study, a novel mobile fire smoke decontamination process and system are proposed. The experimental study and theoretical prediction of the system are conducted. The results show that the developed equipment is able to eliminate fire smoke particles and CO, cool the space, and improve the visibility of the fire site. The developed equipment can reduce the space temperature to below 60 °C, reduce the CO concentration to below 145 ppm, and enhance the visibility to more than 50 m in the rectangular tunnel after operating for 30 min under 4 MW fire condition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire Detection and Public Safety)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 805 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Effect of Oxidants on the Quantification and Characterization of Charcoal in Two Southeast Australian Sedimentary Records
by Mark Constantine IV, Xiaohong Zhu, Haidee Cadd and Scott Mooney
Fire 2023, 6(2), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020054 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1758
Abstract
This study examined the effects of commonly used oxidants in sedimentary macroscopic charcoal analysis on two sediment cores from Thirlmere Lakes National Park, Southeast Australia. The cores, from Lake Werri Berri (WB3) and Lake Couridjah (LC2), span ~900 years and 135,000 years, respectively. [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of commonly used oxidants in sedimentary macroscopic charcoal analysis on two sediment cores from Thirlmere Lakes National Park, Southeast Australia. The cores, from Lake Werri Berri (WB3) and Lake Couridjah (LC2), span ~900 years and 135,000 years, respectively. The Charcoal Accumulation Rate (CHAR) for both charcoal area and count was quantified using four different chemical treatments and compared to a control using only water. We also quantified the Charring Intensity (CI) of isolated charcoal fragments, a proxy for the severity/intensity of fire, determined using the FTIR spectral characteristics of the remaining charcoal after each treatment. We found significant differences in both the area and number of particles across all treatments in both cores. Significantly, we found substantial differences in CI between treatments, with few charcoal particles formed in low-severity fire (e.g., below ~400 °C or 3.0 °C.s.106) in groups treated with an oxidant. In contrast, the control group displayed a wider range of CI values and contained lightly pyrolyzed particles. This suggests that methods using an oxidant to concentrate sedimentary charcoal are potentially biasing records towards high-intensity or -severity fires. We suggest that consideration should be used when choosing laboratory methods based on the hypotheses being tested. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 7823 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Mechanical Properties of Lightweight Foamed Concrete at Varying Elevated Temperatures
by Md Azree Othuman Mydin
Fire 2023, 6(2), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020053 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1750
Abstract
Lightweight foamed concrete (LFC) made from cementitious materials with air pores entrapped in the matrix by mechanically entrained foam in the mortar slurry has several economic and environmental benefits. Most recently, LFC has been heralded as the next generation of lightweight construction industry [...] Read more.
Lightweight foamed concrete (LFC) made from cementitious materials with air pores entrapped in the matrix by mechanically entrained foam in the mortar slurry has several economic and environmental benefits. Most recently, LFC has been heralded as the next generation of lightweight construction industry concrete because of its versatility and technological advancements. Owing to its many desirable qualities, including low density, low cost, low thermal conductivity, low dimensional change, amazing load-bearing capacity, great workability, and low weight, it is considered an adaptable and flexible construction material. Given that LFC is a brittle building material and since fire is among the most frequent catastrophes to affect structures, it is crucial to consider the structural performance of LFC subjected to high temperatures. Hence, this experiment attempts to ascertain the effect of varying elevated temperatures on the LFC’s strength properties. Three LFC densities of 500, 1000 and 1500 kg/m3 were prepared. The LFC specimens were exposed to predetermined ambient and elevated temperatures of 20, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 °C, and the LFC samples were assessed for porosity, compressive and flexural strengths. The outcomes of this investigation showed that, regardless of density, the loss of LFC stiffness exposed to elevated temperatures happened primarily after 90 °C. This shows that the underlying process triggering stiffness loss is internal cracking, that transpires when water grows and dissolves from a porous medium. Lowering the LFC dry density diminishes its strength and rigidity. The LFC-normalized strength and stiffness–temperature relationships of various dry densities, on the other hand, are very comparable. From ambient temperature up until 400 °C, all densities exhibit a moderate and constant loss in strength and stiffness. Nevertheless, the decline is faster up to 600 °C or 800 °C, at which point it loses its ability to support any given weight. This study emphasized the necessity for more study and codes’ provisions that take into consideration various LFC constituent types and cutting-edge construction material technologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Performance-Based Design in Structural Fire Engineering, Volume II)
Show Figures

Figure 1

25 pages, 7773 KiB  
Article
The Pyrogeography of Methane Emissions from Seasonal Mosaic Burning Regimes in a West African Landscape
by Paul Laris, Moussa Koné, Fadiala Dembélé, Christine M. Rodrigue, Lilian Yang, Rebecca Jacobs, Quincy Laris and Facourou Camara
Fire 2023, 6(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020052 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1370
Abstract
People have set fire to the savannas of West Africa for millennia, creating a pyrogeography. Fires render the landscape useful for many productive activities, but there is also a long history of efforts to regulate indigenous burning practices. Today, savanna fires are under [...] Read more.
People have set fire to the savannas of West Africa for millennia, creating a pyrogeography. Fires render the landscape useful for many productive activities, but there is also a long history of efforts to regulate indigenous burning practices. Today, savanna fires are under scrutiny because they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, especially methane. Policy efforts aimed at reducing emissions by shifting fire regimes earlier are untested. Most emissions estimates contain high levels of uncertainty because they are based on generalizations of diverse landscapes burned by complex fire regimes. To examine the importance of seasonality and other factors on methane emissions, we used an approach grounded in the practices of people who set fires. We conducted 107 experimental fires, collecting data for methane emissions and a suite of environmental variables. We sampled emissions using a portable gas analyzer, recording values for CO, CO2, and CH4. The fires were set both as head and backfires for three fire periods—the early, middle, and late dry season. We also set fires randomly to test whether the emissions differed from those set according to traditional practices. We found that methane emission factors and densities did not increase over the dry season but rather peaked mid-season due to higher winds and fuel moisture as well as green leaves on small trees. The findings demonstrate the complexity of emissions from fires and cast doubt on efforts to reduce emissions based on simplified characterizations of fire regimes and landscapes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire in Savanna Landscapes)
Show Figures

Figure 1

16 pages, 5992 KiB  
Article
Fire Safety Index for High-Rise Buildings in the Emirate of Sharjah, UAE
by Musab Omar, Abdelgadir Mahmoud and Sa’ardin Bin Abdul Aziz
Fire 2023, 6(2), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020051 - 01 Feb 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3052
Abstract
The purpose of this paper was to develop a fire index system for measuring the compliance of high-rise residential buildings with fire requirements in the Emirate of Sharjah, and also to develop an index system for measuring the fire response efficiency, which is [...] Read more.
The purpose of this paper was to develop a fire index system for measuring the compliance of high-rise residential buildings with fire requirements in the Emirate of Sharjah, and also to develop an index system for measuring the fire response efficiency, which is linked the two indexes, and the higher the compliance rate, the greater chance of a successful response. The two systems depend on the automation of the firefighting system management processes using the techniques of the fourth industrial revolution, and they were developed based on consultation with subject matter experts in the field and used multiple methods, such as the analytic hierarchy process, failure mode effect, criticality analysis, and Delphi techniques. The main criteria of the indexes were identified as the fire risk assessment, fire suppression system, fire accident management, fire alarm system, fire extinguisher, employees, residents, service rooms, lifts, gas connections, waste, housekeeping, and evacuation facilities. Each main criterium was detailed in the sub-criteria and weighted to achieve the index for each sub-criteria based on the fire legislation in UAE, the fire response index (developed based on the high-rise building fire index), the category of the building in terms of floor numbers, and the distance between building and the fire station. The two index systems can contribute to improving emergency preparedness in high-rise residential buildings in the Emirate of Sharjah and are also considered as measurement indexes for compliance with fire requirements in the Emirate of Sharjah. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 5611 KiB  
Technical Note
Study on the Effect of Blockage Ratio on Maximum Smoke Temperature Rise in the Underground Interconnected Tunnel
by Zhisheng Xu, Yaxing Zhen, Baochao Xie, Sylvain Marcial Sakepa Tagne, Jiaming Zhao and Houlin Ying
Fire 2023, 6(2), 50; https://doi.org/10.3390/fire6020050 - 31 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 944
Abstract
The model-scale tunnel is used in this investigation to analyze the maximum smoke temperature rise of the interconnected tunnel for various longitudinal ventilation velocities, blockage ratios, and heat release rates where the fire is at the confluence of the underground interconnected tunnel. The [...] Read more.
The model-scale tunnel is used in this investigation to analyze the maximum smoke temperature rise of the interconnected tunnel for various longitudinal ventilation velocities, blockage ratios, and heat release rates where the fire is at the confluence of the underground interconnected tunnel. The results showed that the longitudinal ventilation velocities of both the ramp upstream of the fire source and the adjacent ramp influenced the maximum temperature rise under the underground interconnected tunnel, and the ventilation of both ramps jointly affected the maximum temperature rise. The change in the maximum temperature rise depends on who is more affected by the longitudinal ventilation velocity or the vehicle blockage ratio. As the longitudinal ventilation velocity in the interconnected tunnel increases, the convective heat transfer near the fire source increases, resulting in a decrease in the maximum temperature rise, and the effect of the blockage ratio on the maximum temperature rise is reduced. In this paper, a maximum temperature rise prediction model suitable for the case of blockage in the interconnected tunnel is proposed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fire-Induced Smoke Movement and Control)
Show Figures

Figure 1

Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop