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J. Manuf. Mater. Process., Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2019) – 31 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Electrochemical machining is a promising nontraditional manufacturing process that aims for high precision and difficult-to-manufacture parts. However, the complexity of the process prevents its usage in mass production. In this paper, a newly developed deep convolutional network with the Bayesian optimization algorithm was implemented to predict the diameters of the drilled holes from an electrochemical drilling process. The feed rate, pulse-on time, and voltage were used as input parameters. The embedded Bayesian parameter optimization algorithm locates optimal sets of parameters of the deep convolutional network that yield the minimum mean square error. Improved training speed and accuracy were observed in comparison with the traditional neural network and support vector regression. View this paper.
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Review
A Review on Binder Jet Additive Manufacturing of 316L Stainless Steel
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030082 - 09 Sep 2019
Cited by 38 | Viewed by 4184
Abstract
Binder jet additive manufacturing enables the production of complex components for numerous applications. Binder jetting is the only powder bed additive manufacturing process that is not fusion-based, thus manufactured parts have no residual stresses as opposed to laser-based additive manufacturing processes. Binder jet [...] Read more.
Binder jet additive manufacturing enables the production of complex components for numerous applications. Binder jetting is the only powder bed additive manufacturing process that is not fusion-based, thus manufactured parts have no residual stresses as opposed to laser-based additive manufacturing processes. Binder jet technology can be adopted for the production of various small and large metallic parts for specific applications, including in the biomedical and energy sectors, at a lower cost and shorter lead time. One of the most well-known types of stainless steels for various industries is 316L, which has been extensively manufactured using binder jet technology. Binder jet manufactured 316L parts have obtained near full density and, in some cases, similar mechanical properties compared to conventionally manufactured parts. This article introduces methods, principles, and applications of binder jetting of SS 316L. Details of binder jetting processes, including powder characteristics (shape and size), binder properties (binder chemistry and droplet formation mechanism), printing process parameters (such as layer thickness, binder saturation, drying time), and post-processing sintering mechanism and densification processes, are carefully reviewed. Furthermore, critical factors in the selection of feedstock, printing parameters, sintering temperature, time, atmosphere, and heating rate of 316L binder jet manufactured parts are highlighted and summarized. Finally, the above-mentioned processing parameters are correlated with final density and mechanical properties of 316L components to establish a guideline on feedstock selection and process parameters optimization to achieve desired density, structure and properties for various applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Development in Metal Additive Manufacturing)
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Article
Finite Element Modeling and Mechanical Testing of Metal Composites Made by Composite Metal Foil Manufacturing
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030081 - 06 Sep 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1308
Abstract
Foils of aluminum 1050 H14 ½ hard temper and 99.9% copper with 500-micron thickness have been used to manufacture similar and dissimilar composites by composite metal foil manufacturing (CMFM). The metal foils are bonded to each other using a special 80% zinc and [...] Read more.
Foils of aluminum 1050 H14 ½ hard temper and 99.9% copper with 500-micron thickness have been used to manufacture similar and dissimilar composites by composite metal foil manufacturing (CMFM). The metal foils are bonded to each other using a special 80% zinc and 20% aluminum by weight brazing paste. A 3D finite element model has been developed to numerically analyze the time required to heat the metal foils so that a strong bond can be developed by the paste. The numerical simulations run in ANSYS 19.1 have been validated through experiments and rectangular layered composite products have been developed for flexural testing. The flexural test results for layered Al and Al/Cu composites are compared with solid samples of Al 1050 and 99.9% pure copper made by subtractive method. The results show that the layered Al composite is 5.2% stronger whereas the Al/Cu sample is 11.5% stronger in resisting bending loads compared to a solid Al 1050 sample. A higher bend load indicates the presence of a strong intermetallic bond created by the brazing paste between the metal foils. Corrosion testing was also carried out on the composite samples to assess the effect of corrosion on flexural strength. The tests revealed that the composites made by CMFM are not affected by galvanic corrosion after 7 days of testing and the flexural loads remained consistent with composites that were not immersed in a solution of distilled water and NaCl. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Development in Metal Additive Manufacturing)
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Article
Precision Core Temperature Measurement of Metals Using an Ultrasonic Phase-Shift Method
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030080 - 04 Sep 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1124
Abstract
Temperature measurement is one of the most important aspects of manufacturing. There have been many temperature measuring techniques applied for obtaining workpiece temperature in different types of manufacturing processes. The main limitations of conventional sensors have been the inability to indicate the core [...] Read more.
Temperature measurement is one of the most important aspects of manufacturing. There have been many temperature measuring techniques applied for obtaining workpiece temperature in different types of manufacturing processes. The main limitations of conventional sensors have been the inability to indicate the core temperature of workpieces and the low accuracy that may result due to the harsh nature of some manufacturing environments. The speed of sound is dependent on the temperature of the material through which it passes. This relationship can be used to obtain the temperature of the material provided that the speed of sound can be reliably obtained. This paper investigates the feasibility of creating a cost-effective solution suitable for precision applications that require the ability to resolve a better than 0.5 °C change in temperature with ±1 °C accuracy. To achieve these, simulations were performed in MATLAB using the k-wave toolbox to determine the most effective method. Based upon the simulation results, experiments were conducted using ultrasonic phase-shift method on a steel sample (type EN24T). The results show that the method gives reliable and repeatable readings. Based on the results from this paper, the same setup will be used in future work in the machining environment to determine the effect of the harsh environment on the phase-shift ultrasonic thermometry, in order to create a novel technique for in-process temperature measurement in subtractive manufacturing processes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from LAMDAMAP 2019)
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Article
The Effect of Machined Surface Conditioning on the Coating Interface of High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF) Sprayed Coating
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030079 - 03 Sep 2019
Viewed by 1210
Abstract
Roughening the substrate surface is essential for thermal sprayed coatings. In this regard, sandblasting has established itself as an easy to use surface conditioning procedure. The quality of the obtained roughness depends on the conditions of the sandblasting material, adjusted parameters, and the [...] Read more.
Roughening the substrate surface is essential for thermal sprayed coatings. In this regard, sandblasting has established itself as an easy to use surface conditioning procedure. The quality of the obtained roughness depends on the conditions of the sandblasting material, adjusted parameters, and the kind of the process execution (manual or mechanical). These preconditions limit the reproducibility of the roughness obtained. Sandblasting causes residual compressive stress and may also lead to the inclusion of sand particles and notches in the roughened surface, which affects the interfacial properties of the coating, as well as the flexural strength of the coated parts. The hardness of the roughened surface plays, thereby, an important role. However, in order to reliably avoid these effects, microfinishing can be used as an alternative to generate a homogenous roughened substrate surface, control the induced residual stresses, and increase the reproducibility. In addition, the roughened surface pattern can be produced during the chip forming process of the to-be-coated parts. The utilization of the appropriate combination of machining processes and parameters should lead to the required surface pattern and thus to an enhanced coating adhesion and flexural strength of the coated part. The induced residual stresses and the quality of the obtained surface roughness have a significant influence on the coating adhesion and the lifespan of the coated parts. This paper aims to analyze, as a first step, the effect of the turning and microfinishing on the surface conditioning of the bearing steel 100Cr6 (AISI 52100). The investigation concludes by comparing the microfinished with the sandblasted surfaces with regard to the interface to and the adhesion of the WC–Co high velocity oxygen fuel (HVOF) sprayed coatings on them. Surface conditioning plays a decisive role by the induced residual stresses and the elimination of adhesion defects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Integrity in Machining)
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Article
Effect of Graphene on Machinability of Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP)
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 78; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030078 - 03 Sep 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1198
Abstract
Glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRPs) are used extensively in many industries because of their low cost and high mechanical properties. Even if composite manufacturing processes are well controlled and allow to fabricate near net shapes, machining operations are still necessary to complete the [...] Read more.
Glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRPs) are used extensively in many industries because of their low cost and high mechanical properties. Even if composite manufacturing processes are well controlled and allow to fabricate near net shapes, machining operations are still necessary to complete the manufacturing. As a composite material, GFRP machining remains difficult because of its heterogeneous and anisotropic character. This work intends to investigate the effect of graphene addition to the epoxy matrix of GFRP on its machinability. The epoxy was filled with 1 wt% graphene by mixing, sonicating, and then being used to produce unidirectional GFRP laminate by hand layup methods. Thermocouples were bonded on a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond coated tool in order to record cutting temperatures during the trimming process. The cutting forces were recorded and the resulting surface roughness after trimming was measured to qualify properly the machinability of the modified GFRP. Compared to the reference material (GFRP without graphene), the additive improved the machining process by decreasing the cutting temperature and forces as well as the surface roughness without deteriorating the inter-laminar shear strength. Full article
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Article
Fabrication of Piezoelectric Composites Using High-Temperature Dielectrophoresis
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 77; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030077 - 02 Sep 2019
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1574
Abstract
In this paper, we present a method to create a highly sensitive piezoelectric quasi 1–3 composite using a thermoplastic material filled with a piezoelectric powder. An up-scalable high-temperature dielectrophoresis (DEP) process is used to manufacture the quasi 1–3 piezoelectric polymer-ceramic composites. For this [...] Read more.
In this paper, we present a method to create a highly sensitive piezoelectric quasi 1–3 composite using a thermoplastic material filled with a piezoelectric powder. An up-scalable high-temperature dielectrophoresis (DEP) process is used to manufacture the quasi 1–3 piezoelectric polymer-ceramic composites. For this work, thermoplastic cyclic butylene terephthalate (CBT) is used as a polymer matrix and PZT (lead zirconium titanate) ceramic powder is chosen as the piezoelectric active filler material. At high temperatures, the polymer is melted to provide a liquid medium to align the piezoelectric particles using the DEP process inside the molten matrix. The resulting distribution of aligned particles is frozen upon cooling the composite down to room temperature in as little as 10 min. A maximum piezoelectric voltage sensitivity (g33) value of 54 ± 4 mV·m/N is reported for the composite with 10 vol% PZT, which is twice the value calculated for PZT based ceramics. Full article
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Article
Enhancing Signal Quality of Capacitive Displacement Measurements in Machine Tool Environments
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 76; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030076 - 30 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1141
Abstract
Capacitive displacement sensors are a valuable choice for high accuracy geometric spindle measurements. Although these sensors show the specified performance in electromagnetic friendly environments, the performance may degrade drastically in machine tool environments due to electromagnetic disturbances. An in-situ testing procedure based on [...] Read more.
Capacitive displacement sensors are a valuable choice for high accuracy geometric spindle measurements. Although these sensors show the specified performance in electromagnetic friendly environments, the performance may degrade drastically in machine tool environments due to electromagnetic disturbances. An in-situ testing procedure based on a cap test setup is proposed, which enables a simplified error diagnosis and verification of sensor performance. The functionality of the device and the application to different practical cases are presented. The results of these tests suggest that a decisive part of disturbances may couple into the measurement system via electrical conduction at interfaces between the machine tool and measurement device parts. Disturbances originate in the power electronics of the machine tool and are passed on to the safety ground of the machine tool, which is connected to all structural components of the machine tool. The proposed counter measure targets a complete galvanic separation of the measurement system from machine tool parts. The effectiveness of this counter measure was verified in different tests on two different machine tools. It is shown that the application of the galvanic separation leads to a comparable sensor performance in machine tool environments as achieved by the manufacturer under calibration conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from LAMDAMAP 2019)
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Article
Temperature- and Time-Dependent Mechanical Behavior of Post-Treated IN625 Alloy Processed by Laser Powder Bed Fusion
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 75; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030075 - 29 Aug 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1398
Abstract
The microstructure and mechanical properties of IN625 alloy processed by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) and then subjected to stress relief annealing, high temperature solution treatment, and hot isostatic pressing were studied. Tensile testing to failure was carried out in the 25–871 °C [...] Read more.
The microstructure and mechanical properties of IN625 alloy processed by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) and then subjected to stress relief annealing, high temperature solution treatment, and hot isostatic pressing were studied. Tensile testing to failure was carried out in the 25–871 °C temperature range. Creep testing was conducted at 760 °C under 0.5–0.9 yield stress conditions. The results of the present study provided valuable insights into the static and creep properties of LPBF IN625 alloy, as compared to a wrought annealed alloy of similar composition. It was shown that at temperatures below 538 °C, the mechanical resistance and elongation to failure of the LPBF alloy were similar to those of its wrought counterpart, whereas at higher temperatures, the elongation to failure of the LPBF alloy became significantly lower than that of the wrought alloy. The solution-treated LPBF alloy exhibited significantly improved creep properties at 760 °C as compared to the wrought annealed alloy, especially under intermediate and low levels of stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anniversary Feature Papers)
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Article
Mechanical Performance Assessment of Internally-Defected Materials Manufactured Using Additive Manufacturing Technology
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030074 - 20 Aug 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1368
Abstract
Assessment of the mechanical performance of internally-defected components or struc-tures is of crucial importance to many industrial fields such as aerospace, automobile, marine, construction etc. Most of the studies available in the literature include only analytical or numerical solutions, due to difficulty in [...] Read more.
Assessment of the mechanical performance of internally-defected components or struc-tures is of crucial importance to many industrial fields such as aerospace, automobile, marine, construction etc. Most of the studies available in the literature include only analytical or numerical solutions, due to difficulty in the manufacturing of a testing sample with a specific internal defect geometry for experimental evaluations. In this study, Fusion Deposition Modeling (FDM) was utilized in the 3D-printing of Polylactic Acid (PLA) samples with internal cracks, aiming to assess their impact on the samples’ mechanical performance. The defect geometry, orientation, location along the sample gauge length and the influence of the process parameters, such as the infill percentage and the material color, were investigated. The influence of the internal defects is more pronounced for a 100% infill rate if compared with a 50% infill rate as a consequence of the porosity. A maximum drop of ~14% in the peak load of defect-free samples was recorded due to the presence of the internal defect. Moreover, the additive color to the PLA material might contribute to the material strength. Generally, the findings of this work could open another door for utilizing the additive manufacturing in many research areas, with potential industrial applications relevant to the assessment of internally-defected materials. Full article
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Article
Comparative Assessment of the Surface Integrity of AD730® and IN718 Superalloys in High-Speed Turning with a CBN Tool
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030073 - 19 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1191
Abstract
Nickel-based superalloys are typical materials used in components of aeroengines and gas turbine machinery. The strength properties of these alloys at high temperatures are crucial not only to the performance (e.g., power generation efficiency, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions) of aeroengines and [...] Read more.
Nickel-based superalloys are typical materials used in components of aeroengines and gas turbine machinery. The strength properties of these alloys at high temperatures are crucial not only to the performance (e.g., power generation efficiency, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions) of aeroengines and industrial gas turbines, but also to machinability during component manufacturing. This study comparatively evaluated the surface integrity of two superalloys, AD730® and Inconel 718 (IN718), during high-speed finishing turning using cubic boron nitride (CBN) tools. IN718 is a conventional superalloy used for the hot section components of aeroengines and industrial gas turbines, while AD730® is a novel superalloy with enhanced high-temperature mechanical properties and good potential as a next-generation superalloy for these components. High-speed turning tests of two superalloys were conducted using a CBN cutting tool and jet stream cooling. The achieved surface integrity of the AD730® and IN718 superalloys was characterized and analyzed to assess the comparability of these alloys. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Integrity in Machining)
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Article
Experimental Investigation of Laser Surface Transformation Hardening of 4340 Steel Spur Gears
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 72; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030072 - 15 Aug 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1285
Abstract
This paper presents an experimental investigation of laser surface transformation hardening (LSTH) of 4340 steel spur gears using regression analysis. The experimental work is focused on the effects of various LSTH parameters on the hardness profile shape and the hardened depth variation. The [...] Read more.
This paper presents an experimental investigation of laser surface transformation hardening (LSTH) of 4340 steel spur gears using regression analysis. The experimental work is focused on the effects of various LSTH parameters on the hardness profile shape and the hardened depth variation. The investigations are based on a structured design of experiments and improved statistical analysis tools. The experimentations are carried out on AISI 4340 steel spur gears using a commercial 3 kW Nd:YAG laser system. Laser power, scanning speed, and rotation speed are used as process parameters to evaluate the variation of the hardened depth and to identify the possible relationship between the process parameters and the hardened zone physical and geometrical characteristics. Based on the experimental data and analysis of variance, the direct and interactive contributions of the process parameters on the variation of the hardness profile shape and the hardened depth are analyzed. The main effects and the interaction effects are also evaluated. The results reveal that all the process parameters are relevant. The cumulative contribution of the three parameters in the hardened depth variation represents more than 80% with a clear predominance of laser power. The contribution of the interactions between the parameters represents 12% to 16%. The resulting hardness values are relatively similar for all the experimental tests with about 60 HRC. The evaluation of the produced regression models for hardened depth prediction shows limited performance suggesting that the predictive modeling process can be improved. Full article
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Article
Influence of Magnesium on Spatter Behavior in Laser Deep Penetration Welding of Aluminum Alloys
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030071 - 15 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1132
Abstract
The quality of welds, as well as the necessity of post-processing, is challenged by spatter generation during the laser keyhole welding process. In this study, the influence of the magnesium content on spatter behavior is studied for three aluminum alloys (Al99.5, AlMg3, and [...] Read more.
The quality of welds, as well as the necessity of post-processing, is challenged by spatter generation during the laser keyhole welding process. In this study, the influence of the magnesium content on spatter behavior is studied for three aluminum alloys (Al99.5, AlMg3, and AlMg5). A synchronized dual high-speed camera system is used to observe the spatter behavior and to reconstruct 3D spatter trajectories as well as determine the characteristics of spatter velocity, flight path angle, and approximate spatter size. The mean spatter velocities and flight path angles of the welding experiments with the three alloys were in welding direction between 4.1 m/s and 4.6 m/s and 44.8° and 51.0°, respectively. Furthermore, the AlMg alloys show excessive spatter behavior with spray events of more than 50 spatters at a time, and less frequently spatter explosions. Spatter spray events show a character similar to spatter explosions. Volumetric evaporation is proposed as effecting these events. In contrast, and resulting from a different mechanism, pure aluminum (Al99.5) shows group ejection events with at least 10 spatters at a time. In this study, there are no correlations between spatter velocities and flight path angles, nor between velocities and approximate spatter sizes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Laser-Based Manufacturing)
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Article
Analytical and Simulation-Based Prediction of Surface Roughness for Micromilling Hardened HSS
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030070 - 12 Aug 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1816
Abstract
The high quality demand for machined functional surfaces of forming tools, entail extensive investigations for the adjustment of the manufacturing process. Since the surface quality depends on a multitude of influencing factors in face micromilling, a complex optimization problem arises. Through analytical and [...] Read more.
The high quality demand for machined functional surfaces of forming tools, entail extensive investigations for the adjustment of the manufacturing process. Since the surface quality depends on a multitude of influencing factors in face micromilling, a complex optimization problem arises. Through analytical and simulative approaches, the scope of the experimental investigation to meet the requirements for surface roughness can be significantly reduced. In this contribution, both analytical and simulation-based approaches are presented in the context of predicting the roughness of a machined surface. The consideration of actual tool geometry and shape deviations are used in a simulation system to achieve the agreement with experimental results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Integrity in Machining)
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Article
3D Forging Simulation of a Multi-Partitioned Titanium Alloy Billet for a Medical Implant
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 69; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030069 - 09 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1204
Abstract
The medical healthcare industry uses titanium and its alloys to manufacture structural implants such as hip and knee replacement joints, which require an interface with bone, as well biocompatibility with soft tissue. These components can be manufactured with a variety of processing routes; [...] Read more.
The medical healthcare industry uses titanium and its alloys to manufacture structural implants such as hip and knee replacement joints, which require an interface with bone, as well biocompatibility with soft tissue. These components can be manufactured with a variety of processing routes; however, forging has been one of the traditionally used, successful methods. In order to enhance a medical implant component’s properties such as fracture toughness, strength, microstructure and biocompatibility, it is of interest to understand a capability to develop forging methods which can produce a finished component such that different initial partitions of the billet occupy specific locations. As such, a 3D finite element (FE) modelling framework was established to simulate the coupled thermal and mechanical processes experienced during the forging of a workpiece containing multiple titanium-alloy material partitions, using the commercial FE software, Deform. A series of four models were simulated which contained differing arrangements of partitioning the initial billet, with different titanium alloys assigned to partitions. The forging operation was simulated with the same nominal processing parameters. The locations of these partitions within the final forging have been predicted, with varying success. One partition combination gave a very unsuccessful filling of the die, whilst the other models all filled the die correctly, and had different partitions maintained at key component locations. Thus, allowing for a manufacturing methodology to be presented which can potentially target specific component locations for specific materials to enhance component performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Metal Forming Processes)
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Article
Designing Self Supported SLM Structures via Topology Optimization
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 68; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030068 - 08 Aug 2019
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2041
Abstract
The potential of Additive Manufacturing (AM) is high, with a whole new set of manufactured parts with unseen complexity being offered. However, the process has limitations, and for the sake of economic competitiveness, these should also be considered. Therefore, a computational methodology, capable [...] Read more.
The potential of Additive Manufacturing (AM) is high, with a whole new set of manufactured parts with unseen complexity being offered. However, the process has limitations, and for the sake of economic competitiveness, these should also be considered. Therefore, a computational methodology, capable of including the referenced limitations and providing initial solid designs for Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is the subject of the present work. The combination of Topology Optimization (TO) with the simplified fabrication model is the selected methodology. Its formulation, implementation, and integration on the classic TO algorithm is briefly discussed, being capable of addressing the minimum feature size and the overhang constraint limitations. Moreover, the performance and numerical stability of the methodology is evaluated, and numerical variables, such as the accuracy of structural equilibrium equations and the material interpolation model, are considered. A comparative study between these variables is presented. The paper then proposes an enhanced version of the selected methodology, with a better convergence towards a discrete solution. Full article
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Article
Process Analysis on Milled Optical Surfaces in Hardened Stainless Steel
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030067 - 06 Aug 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
The capability to produce surfaces in optical quality is of rising prominence in the manufacturing industry. The die and mold industry have to meet rising requirements with regard to the surface finish and geometric precision, to keep pace with technological advances in sectors [...] Read more.
The capability to produce surfaces in optical quality is of rising prominence in the manufacturing industry. The die and mold industry have to meet rising requirements with regard to the surface finish and geometric precision, to keep pace with technological advances in sectors such as illumination, optical sensors, and fiber technology. This paper focuses on the challenges of developing a sample milling process for optical surface finishes in 53 HRC STAVAX stainless steel. Besides the expected process and tooling parameter variations, three prominent material analytics methods were used to evaluate all experiments. The tool wear was analyzed and monitored via SEM and EDS. To verify the milling process capabilities, a sample was produced through manual polishing and then analyzed for material faults via nanoindentation and BSE analysis. The finished results were measured for their surface roughness via bifocal laser microscopy and for their topography SEM. In the practical application, a surface roughness Ra in the single digit nano-meter range was achieved. A stable finishing process was achieved at high rotational speed with feed rates up to 750 mm/min. A practical cleaning solution with the use of a mild lye was found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from LAMDAMAP 2019)
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Article
Effect of Tool Design and Process Parameters on Lap Joints Made by Right Angle Friction Stir Welding (RAFSW)
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 66; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030066 - 02 Aug 2019
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1163
Abstract
In recent decades, friction stir welding (FSW) has attracted extensive attention of academic and industrial sectors as the most considerable development in metal joining processes. FSW lap joint is an interesting alternative for rivets, fusion welds and bonding particularly in the transportation industry. [...] Read more.
In recent decades, friction stir welding (FSW) has attracted extensive attention of academic and industrial sectors as the most considerable development in metal joining processes. FSW lap joint is an interesting alternative for rivets, fusion welds and bonding particularly in the transportation industry. In this paper, the effect of tool design and process parameters on the generated downward axial force and strength of AA6061-T6 lap joints is studied. The welds are made by a low-cost friction stir welding technique at right angle (RAFSW). The studied tool design parameters are shoulder diameter, shoulder groove depth, pin length, pin angle, pin base diameter and pin lead. Moreover, the effect of tool rotational speed, traverse speed, plunge depth and lap joint configuration is evaluated. The Taguchi method is used to design the experiments and artificial neural network (ANN) modeling is applied to predict the plunging force and the strength of the joints. The results indicate that a quality weld can be obtained at low downward axial forces during welding by proper selection of tool design and process parameters. It is identified that one can achieve a quality lap joint at traverse speeds as high as 1400 mm/min and downward axial forces as low as 3.2 kN by a low-cost RAFSW technique. Full article
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Article
Automated Laser Ablation of Inhomogeneous Metal Oxide Films to Manufacture Uniform Surface Temperature Profile Electrical Heating Elements
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030065 - 02 Aug 2019
Viewed by 1224
Abstract
This paper presents automated laser ablation strategies to improve the temperature distribution across the surface of inhomogeneous Ni-Fe-Cr-NiO electrical heating elements during joule heating. A number of iterative closed-loop laser control algorithms have been developed and analyzed in order to assess their impact [...] Read more.
This paper presents automated laser ablation strategies to improve the temperature distribution across the surface of inhomogeneous Ni-Fe-Cr-NiO electrical heating elements during joule heating. A number of iterative closed-loop laser control algorithms have been developed and analyzed in order to assess their impact on the efficacy of the heating element, in terms of homogeneous temperature control, and on the implications for automated fabrication of inhomogeneous metal oxide films. Analysis shows that the use of the leading method, i.e., use of a temperature-dependent variable-power approach with memory of previous processes, showed a 68% reduction in the standard deviation of the temperature distribution of the heating element and a greater uniformity of temperature profile as compared to existing manual methods of processing. Full article
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Review
A Systematic Survey of FDM Process Parameter Optimization and Their Influence on Part Characteristics
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030064 - 29 Jul 2019
Cited by 75 | Viewed by 4348
Abstract
Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) process that is often used to fabricate geometrically complex shaped prototypes and parts. It is gaining popularity as it reduces cycle time for product development without the need for expensive tools. However, the commercialization [...] Read more.
Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) process that is often used to fabricate geometrically complex shaped prototypes and parts. It is gaining popularity as it reduces cycle time for product development without the need for expensive tools. However, the commercialization of FDM technology in various industrial applications is currently limited due to several shortcomings, such as insufficient mechanical properties, poor surface quality, and low dimensional accuracy. The qualities of FDM-produced products are affected by various process parameters, for example, layer thickness, build orientation, raster width, or print speed. The setting of process parameters and their range depends on the section of FDM machines. Filament materials, nozzle dimensions, and the type of machine determine the range of various parameters. The optimum setting of parameters is deemed to improve the qualities of three-dimensional (3D) printed parts and may reduce post-production work. This paper intensively reviews state-of-the-art literature on the influence of parameters on part qualities and the existing work on process parameter optimization. Additionally, the shortcomings of existing works are identified, challenges and opportunities to work in this field are evaluated, and directions for future research in this field are suggested. Full article
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Article
An Investigation into Tool Wear and Hole Quality during Low-Frequency Vibration-Assisted Drilling of CFRP/Ti6Al4V Stack
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030063 - 27 Jul 2019
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1786
Abstract
The use of lightweight material such as CFRP/Ti6Al4V in stacked structures in the aerospace industry is associated with improved physical and mechanical characteristics. The drilling process of nonuniform structures plays a significant role prior to the assembly operation. However, this drilling process is [...] Read more.
The use of lightweight material such as CFRP/Ti6Al4V in stacked structures in the aerospace industry is associated with improved physical and mechanical characteristics. The drilling process of nonuniform structures plays a significant role prior to the assembly operation. However, this drilling process is typically associated with unacceptable CFRP delamination, hole accuracy, and high tool wear. These machining difficulties are attributed to high thermal load and poor chip evacuation mechanism. Low-frequency vibration-assisted drilling (LF-VAD) is an advanced manufacturing technique where the dynamic change of the uncut chip thickness is used to manipulate the cutting energy. An efficient chip evacuation mechanism was achieved through axial tool oscillation. This study investigates the effect of vibration-assisted drilling machining parameters on tool wear mechanisms. The paper also presents the effect of tool wear progression on drilled hole quality. Hole quality is described by CFRP entry and exit delamination and hole accuracy. The results showed a significant reduction in the thrust force, cutting torque, cutting temperature, and flank wear-land. Full article
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Article
Phase Change with Density Variation and Cylindrical Symmetry: Application to Selective Laser Melting
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030062 - 25 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1179
Abstract
In this paper we introduce an analytical approach for predicting the melting radius during powder melting in selective laser melting (SLM) with minimum computation duration. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the suggested analytical expression in determining the melt pool geometry [...] Read more.
In this paper we introduce an analytical approach for predicting the melting radius during powder melting in selective laser melting (SLM) with minimum computation duration. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the suggested analytical expression in determining the melt pool geometry for SLM processes, by considering heat transfer and phase change effects with density variation and cylindrical symmetry. This allows for rendering first findings of the melt pool numerical prediction during SLM using a quasi-real-time calculation, which will contribute significantly in the process design and control, especially when applying novel powders. We consider the heat transfer problem associated with a heat source of power Q ˙   ( W / m ) per unit length, activated along the span of a semi-infinite fusible material. As soon as the line heat source is activated, melting commences along the line of the heat source and propagates cylindrically outwards. The temperature field is also cylindrically symmetric. At small times (i.e., neglecting gravity and Marangoni effects), when the density of the solid material is less than that of the molten material (i.e., in the case of metallic powders), an annulus is created of which the outer interface separates the molten material from the solid. In this work we include the effect of convection on the melting process, which is shown to be relatively important. We also justify that the assumption of constant but different properties between the two material phases (liquid and solid) does not introduce significant errors in the calculations. A more important result; however, is that, if we assume constant energy input per unit length, there is an optimum power of the heat source that would result to a maximum amount of molten material when the heat source is deactivated. The model described above can be suitably applied in the case of selective laser melting (SLM) when one considers the heat energy transferred to the metallic powder bed during scanning. Using a characteristic time and length for the process, we can model the energy transfer by the laser as a heat source per unit length. The model was applied in a set of five experimental data, and it was demonstrated that it has the potential to quantitatively describe the SLM process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selective Laser Melting: Materials and Applications)
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Article
Sustainability Assessment during Machining Ti-6Al-4V with Nano-Additives-Based Minimum Quantity Lubrication
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030061 - 24 Jul 2019
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 1812
Abstract
The implementation of sustainable machining process can be accomplished by different strategies including process optimization and selection of the proper lubrication techniques and cutting conditions. The present study is carried out from the perspective of a sustainability assessment of turning Ti-6Al-4V by employing [...] Read more.
The implementation of sustainable machining process can be accomplished by different strategies including process optimization and selection of the proper lubrication techniques and cutting conditions. The present study is carried out from the perspective of a sustainability assessment of turning Ti-6Al-4V by employing minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and MQL-nanofluid with consideration of the surface quality, tool wear, and power consumption. A sustainability assessment algorithm was used to assess the cutting processes of Ti-6Al-4V alloy under a minimum quantity of lubrication–nanofluid to estimate the levels of sustainable design variables. The assessment included the sustainable indicators as well as the machining responses in a single integrated model. The sustainable aspects included in this study were; environmental impact, management of waste, and safety and health issues of operators. The novelty here lies in employing a comprehensive sustainability assessment model to discuss and understand the machining process with MQL-nanofluid, by not only considering the machining quality characteristics, but also taking into account different sustainability indicators. In order to validate the effectiveness of the sustainability results, a comparison between the optimal and predicted responses was conducted and a good agreement was noticed. It should be stated that MQL-nanofluid showed better results compared to the cutting tests conducted under using classical MQL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Towards Sustainable Manufacturing Processes)
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Article
Possibility of Fabricating Anisotropic Conductive Film with a Line-and-Space-Like Pattern by Stick-Slip Accompanying Abrasion
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030060 - 23 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1108
Abstract
The development of an anisotropic conductive film was attempted using original microfabrication (stick-slip (SS) processing) involving SS accompanying abrasion. During SS processing, the film surface was periodically scraped with a razor. For a metal-deposited polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film (metal/PET film), fine periodic structures [...] Read more.
The development of an anisotropic conductive film was attempted using original microfabrication (stick-slip (SS) processing) involving SS accompanying abrasion. During SS processing, the film surface was periodically scraped with a razor. For a metal-deposited polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film (metal/PET film), fine periodic structures (line and space (L/S)-like patterns) were formed on its surface because the metal layer was periodically scraped. This result proved that SS processing can be applied not only to polymers but also to metals. Moreover, the line interval of an SS-processed metal/PET film shortened as the contact force decreased, and the depth of the line became shallower in proportion to the line interval. In addition, SS-processed copper/PET (Cu/PET) film did not conduct electricity in the direction perpendicular to the Cu line; however, it conducted electricity in the direction parallel. Thus, this study shows the possibility of using SS processing for fabricating an anisotropic conductive film. Full article
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Article
Influencing the Properties of the Generated Surface by Adjusted Rake and Clearance Angles in Side Milling of Aluminum Matrix Composites with MCD-Tipped Tools
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030059 - 23 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1377
Abstract
The application of aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) allows the reduction of moving loads for increased efficiency in modern technical systems. However, the presence of reinforcing particles leads to challenges in machining of AMCs, typically requiring diamond cutting materials. Single-edged MCD-tipped tools are used [...] Read more.
The application of aluminum matrix composites (AMCs) allows the reduction of moving loads for increased efficiency in modern technical systems. However, the presence of reinforcing particles leads to challenges in machining of AMCs, typically requiring diamond cutting materials. Single-edged MCD-tipped tools are used to investigate the influence of different clearance and rake angles on the resulting surface properties in milling, while the cutting parameters are kept constant. The specimens are manufactured from an aluminum wrought alloy comparable to EN AW-2017, reinforced with 10 vol.% of SiC particles. The surface properties are evaluated considering the surface structure, the residual stress state, and the microstructure of the surface layer. A clearance angle of the minor cutting edge of about 3° on average leads to the lowest Rz values and a reduced fluctuation of surface roughness values. Using a tool with a positive rake angle of 5° entails the highest absolute values of the compressive residual stresses and an increase compared to the initial state of up to about 290%. The results contribute to an understanding of the relations between tool geometry and the generated surface properties required for a targeted enhancement of the functional performance when machining AMCs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Integrity in Machining)
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Article
Hot Extrusion of ZnSb-Based Thermoelectric Materials; A Novel Approach for Scale-Up Production
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 58; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030058 - 19 Jul 2019
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1681
Abstract
Hot extrusion is employed to produce bulk ZnSb and Zn13Sb10 thermoelectric materials. The extrusion parameters are optimized to achieve high purity products with high density and acceptable mechanical strength for further fabrication processing. Microstructural analysis is performed to investigate the [...] Read more.
Hot extrusion is employed to produce bulk ZnSb and Zn13Sb10 thermoelectric materials. The extrusion parameters are optimized to achieve high purity products with high density and acceptable mechanical strength for further fabrication processing. Microstructural analysis is performed to investigate the products. X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry show high stability of the ZnSb phase during the extrusion that lead to high purity products. However, the Zn13Sb10 compound decomposes during the extrusion, yielding a bulk sample consisting of several other phases. Hot extrusion shows a great potential for scaled up production of high quality ZnSb thermoelectric materials. Full article
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Article
Bayesian Optimized Deep Convolutional Network for Electrochemical Drilling Process
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030057 - 14 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2006
Abstract
Electrochemical machining is a promising non-traditional manufacturing process to make high-quality parts. The benefits of minimal thermally and mechanically induced stresses, free of burr, and a low surface roughness are appealing for industry and research institutes. However, the combined chemical reaction, electric field, [...] Read more.
Electrochemical machining is a promising non-traditional manufacturing process to make high-quality parts. The benefits of minimal thermally and mechanically induced stresses, free of burr, and a low surface roughness are appealing for industry and research institutes. However, the combined chemical reaction, electric field, fluid mechanics, and material properties involve a significant number of independent parameters which are difficult to analyze in order to draw comprehensive conclusions. To our current knowledge, process responses such as the material removal rate, optimal feed rate, and cutting profile cannot be represented accurately by analytical solutions. In recent years, deep learning has had tremendous success in analyzing sophisticated systems. The improved computation efficiency and reduced size of the training dataset required for deep learning have enabled various prediction models in the manufacturing industry. In this paper, a new approach is developed using the deep convolutional network with the Bayesian optimization algorithm to predict the diameters of the drilled hole from an electrochemical machining process. The Keras application programming interface (API) was used to build the deep convolutional network; the feed rate, pulse-on time, and voltage were used as input parameters to provide a fair comparison with a neural network from previous research. Random dropout layers were added to prevent overfitting of the network. Instead of tuning the network parameter by trial and error, the Bayesian parameter optimization algorithm was implemented to find the optimal set of parameters of the deep convolutional network that yields the minimum mean square error. The proposed algorithm was compared with a previously developed neural network with partially embedded physical knowledge. Improved training speed and accuracy were observed in comparison with the traditional neural network. The prediction model using the proposed deep learning algorithm demonstrated better prediction accuracy and provided a more systematic way to select the hyperparameter for the deep convolutional network. Full article
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Article
Impact of the Process Parameters, the Measurement Conditions and the Pre-Machining on the Residual Stress State of Deep Rolled Specimens
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030056 - 10 Jul 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1317
Abstract
Mechanical surface treatments, e.g., deep rolling, are widely spread finishing processes due to their ability to enhance the fatigue strength of the treated materials with means of cold working and inducement of favorable compressive residual stresses. Despite of the clear advantages of deep [...] Read more.
Mechanical surface treatments, e.g., deep rolling, are widely spread finishing processes due to their ability to enhance the fatigue strength of the treated materials with means of cold working and inducement of favorable compressive residual stresses. Despite of the clear advantages of deep rolling, the controlled generation of compressive residual stresses is still a challenging task, as the process can be influenced by the pre-machining stress state of the treated material. Additionally, the exact characterization of the induced residual stress field is impacted by the specific characteristics of the applied measurement technique. Therefore, this paper is focused on the X-ray diffraction residual stress analysis of deep rolled specimens, pre-machined to achieve rough or polished surface. The deep rolling process was realized as a single-trace to avoid the influence of the other process parameters and the resulted residual stress field on the surface and in depth was investigated. Additionally, the surface residual stress profiles were determined using two different measuring devices to analyze the impact of the different measurement conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Integrity in Machining)
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Article
Stress-Induced Phase Transformation and Its Correlation with Corrosion Properties of Dual-Phase High Carbon Steel
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030055 - 09 Jul 2019
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1502
Abstract
It is well known that stress-induced phase transformation in dual-phase steel leads to the degradation of bulk corrosion resistance properties. Predicting this behaviour in high carbon steel is imperative for designing this grade of steel for more advanced applications. Dual-phase high carbon steel [...] Read more.
It is well known that stress-induced phase transformation in dual-phase steel leads to the degradation of bulk corrosion resistance properties. Predicting this behaviour in high carbon steel is imperative for designing this grade of steel for more advanced applications. Dual-phase high carbon steel consists of a martensitic structure with metastable retained austenite which can be transformed to martensite when the required energy is attained, and its usage has increased in the past decade. In this study, insight into the influence of deformed microstructures on corrosion behaviour of dual-phase high carbon steel was investigated. The generation of strain-induced martensite formation (SIMF) by residual stress through plastic deformation, misorientation and substructure formation was comprehensively conducted by EBSD and SEM. Tafel and EIS methods were used to determine corrosion intensity and the effect of corrosion behaviour on hardness properties. As a result of the static compression load, the retained austenite transformed into martensite, which lowered its corrosion rate by 5.79% and increased the dislocation density and the length of high-angle grain boundaries. This study demonstrates that balancing the fraction of the martensite phase in structure and dislocation density, including the length of high-angle grain boundaries, will result in an increase in the corrosion rate in parallel with the applied compression load. Full article
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Article
The Effect of Switchback Parameters on Root Pass Formation of Butt Welds with Variable Gap
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030054 - 05 Jul 2019
Viewed by 1351
Abstract
Root pass manufacturing in automated welding is still a challenge when the backing plate is not feasible. Using the concept of bead formation in an original way, the GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) switchback technique was assessed against linear movement as a means [...] Read more.
Root pass manufacturing in automated welding is still a challenge when the backing plate is not feasible. Using the concept of bead formation in an original way, the GMAW (Gas Metal Arc Welding) switchback technique was assessed against linear movement as a means of facing this challenge. Experimental work was applied, keeping the process parametrization and joint configuration, so that only the switchback parameters were modified, i.e., the stroke lengths and speeds. Thermography was used to estimate the effect of the switchback parameters on bead formation. The results showed the potential of the switchback technique as a means of favoring weld pool control. Surprisingly, the operational gap range is not necessarily larger when switchback is applied. The strong influence of stroke lengths and speeds on the process performance was characterized. In general, the results showed that linear movement leads to larger pools and deeper penetrations, more adequate for gaps with no clearances. Shorter stroke lengths and slower stroke speeds (intermediate pool size) better suit root gaps that are not too wide, while longer stroke lengths and faster stroke speeds (smaller pool size, more easily sustainable) are applicable to larger root gaps. Full article
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Article
Prediction of Surface Quality Based on the Non-Linear Vibrations in Orthogonal Cutting Process: Time Domain Modeling
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(3), 53; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3030053 - 26 Jun 2019
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1312
Abstract
This work presents an analysis of relationships between the non-linear vibrations in machining and the machined surface quality from an analytical model based on a predictive machining theory. In order to examine the influences of tool oscillations, several non-linear mechanisms were considered. Additionally, [...] Read more.
This work presents an analysis of relationships between the non-linear vibrations in machining and the machined surface quality from an analytical model based on a predictive machining theory. In order to examine the influences of tool oscillations, several non-linear mechanisms were considered. Additionally, to solve the non-linear problem, a new computational strategy was developed. The resolution algorithm significantly reduces the computational times and makes the iterative approach more stable. In the present approach, the coupling between the tool oscillations and (i) the regenerative effect due to the variation of the uncut chip thickness between two successive passes and/or when the tool leaves the work (i.e., the tool disengagement from the cut), (ii) the friction conditions at the tool–chip interface, and (iii) the tool rake angle was considered. A parametric study was presented. The correlation between the surface quality, the cutting speed, the tool rake angle, and the friction coefficient was analyzed. The results show that, during tool vibrations, the arithmetic mean deviation of the waviness profile is highly non-linear with respect to the cutting conditions, and the model can be useful for selecting optimal cutting conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Surface Integrity in Machining)
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