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Balancing WAAM Production Costs and Wall Surface Quality through Parameter Selection: A Case Study of an Al-Mg5 Alloy Multilayer-Non-Oscillated Single Pass Wall

1
Center for Research and Development of Welding Processes (Laprosolda), Federal University of Uberlandia (UFU), Uberlândia, MG 38408-100, Brazil
2
Högström Väst (University West), Department of Engineering Science, Production Technology West, Division of Welding Technology, 461 32 Trollhättan, Sweden
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmmp3020032
Received: 21 March 2019 / Revised: 7 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
The purpose of the study was to propose a strategy to assess the potential reduction of the production cost during wire+arc additive manufacturing (WAAM) based on the combination of wire feed speed (related to deposition rate) and travel speed (related to deposition time). A series of experiments, using a multilayer-non-oscillated single pass wall made of an Al-Mg alloy, was conducted. The quality of the wall was assessed through the lateral surface waviness and top layer undulation. The concepts of Surface Waviness and Buy-to-Apply indices were introduced. Initially, the range of travel speed (TS) that provided layers with acceptable quality was determined for a given wire feed speed (WFS), corresponding to a constant current. Then, the effect of the increase of production capacity of the process (though current raising, yet maintaining the ratio WFS/TS constant) on the wall quality for a given condition within the TS range was assessed. The results showed that the useful range of TS prevents too rough a waving surface below the lower limit and top surface undulation over the higher limit. However, inside the range, there is little quality variation for the case under study. Finally, simulations of deposition time were developed to demonstrate the weight of the TS on the final deposition time and wall quality as a function of a target wall width. This respective weight showed the existence of a complex and unpredictable, yet determined, power of a combination of TS, target wall geometry, and dead time between subsequent layers. It was verified to be possible to find optimized TS as a function of different target geometries. View Full-Text
Keywords: WAAM; GMAW; CMT; aluminum; wall quality; production cost WAAM; GMAW; CMT; aluminum; wall quality; production cost
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Yehorov, Y.; da Silva, L.J.; Scotti, A. Balancing WAAM Production Costs and Wall Surface Quality through Parameter Selection: A Case Study of an Al-Mg5 Alloy Multilayer-Non-Oscillated Single Pass Wall. J. Manuf. Mater. Process. 2019, 3, 32.

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