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J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol., Volume 5, Issue 2 (June 2020) – 23 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Women athletes are at higher risk for bone diseases; yet, information on their vitamin D status is limited. Women collegiate athletes from volleyball, basketball, and track and field were measured for 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), vitamin D binding protein, bioavailable 25(OH)D, body composition, bone mineral density, and skin pigmentation. Overall mean 25(OH)D was 70.5 ± 32.25 nmol/L, and 28% of participants were deemed inadequate. Although there were no differences between sports in serum 25(OH)D, women’s volleyball and track and field had higher bioavailable 25(OH)D than basketball. No relationships were found between vitamin D status and body composition. Consistent monitoring of vitamin D status is recommended to sustain athlete health and performance. View this paper
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Brief Report
Alterations in Adiponectin, Leptin, Resistin, Testosterone, and Cortisol across Eleven Weeks of Training among Division One Collegiate Throwers: A Preliminary Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 44; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020044 - 19 Jun 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1442
Abstract
Cytokine and hormone concentrations can be linked to the manipulation of training variables and to subsequent alterations in performance. Subjects: Nine D-1 collegiate throwers and 4 control subjects participated in this preliminary and exploratory report. Methods: Hormone (testosterone (T) and cortisol (C)) and [...] Read more.
Cytokine and hormone concentrations can be linked to the manipulation of training variables and to subsequent alterations in performance. Subjects: Nine D-1 collegiate throwers and 4 control subjects participated in this preliminary and exploratory report. Methods: Hormone (testosterone (T) and cortisol (C)) and adipokine (adiponectin, leptin, and resistin) measurements were taken at weeks 1, 7, and 11 for the throwers and weeks 1 and 11 for the control group. The throwers participated in an 11-week periodized resistance training and throws program during the fall preparatory period. Volume load was recorded throughout the study. Results: Hormone values did not exhibit statistically significant changes across time; however, there were notable changes for C, the testosterone to cortisol ratio (T:C), and adiponectin. Conclusions: T:C was increased as volume load decreased, and adiponectin increased in concert with decreases in C and increases in the T:C, possibly suggesting a lesser degree of obesity-related inflammation and a higher degree of “fitness” and preparedness. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sport Physiology and Performance)
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Article
Associations between Activity Pacing, Fatigue, and Physical Activity in Adults with Multiple Sclerosis: A Cross Sectional Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020043 - 15 Jun 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1641
Abstract
Fatigue is common in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Activity pacing is a behavioral way to cope with fatigue and limited energy resources. However, little is known about how people with MS naturally pace activities to manage their fatigue and optimize daily activities. [...] Read more.
Fatigue is common in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Activity pacing is a behavioral way to cope with fatigue and limited energy resources. However, little is known about how people with MS naturally pace activities to manage their fatigue and optimize daily activities. This study explored how activity pacing relates to fatigue and physical activity in people with MS. Participants were 80 individuals (60 females, 20 males) with a diagnosis of MS. The participants filled in questionnaires on their activity pacing, fatigue, physical activity, and health-related quality of life, 3–6 weeks before discharge from rehabilitation. The relationships between the variables were examined using hierarchical regression. After controlling for demographics, health-related quality of life, and perceived risk of overactivity, no associations were found between activity pacing and fatigue (β = 0.20; t = 1.43, p = 0.16) or between activity pacing and physical activity (β = −0.24; t = −1.61, p = 0.12). The lack of significant associations between activity pacing and fatigue or physical activity suggests that without interventions, there appears to be no clear strategy amongst people with MS to manage fatigue and improve physical activity. People with MS may benefit from interventions to manage fatigue and optimize engagement in physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
Editorial
Research and Publication Ethics in Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 42; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020042 - 10 Jun 2020
Viewed by 969
Abstract
Research is required to minimize uncertainty and to be reproducible, that is, the design, implementation, evaluation, interpretation, and reporting of the presented data, must follow a good practice. An appropriate experimental design, an accurate execution of the study, a strict criticism of the [...] Read more.
Research is required to minimize uncertainty and to be reproducible, that is, the design, implementation, evaluation, interpretation, and reporting of the presented data, must follow a good practice. An appropriate experimental design, an accurate execution of the study, a strict criticism of the obtained data while avoiding overestimation, as well as a suitable interpretation of main outcomes, represent key aspects in reporting and disseminating research to the scientific community. Furthermore, author contribution, responsibility, funding, acknowledgement, and adequately declaring any conflict of interest play important roles in science. The Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (JFMK), a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), is committed to the highest scientific and ethical standards and encourages all authors to take into account and to comply, as much as possible, with the contents and issues reported in this technical note. This could be useful to improve the quality of the manuscripts and avoid misconduct, as well as to stimulate interest and debate, reflecting upon uses and misuses within our disciplines belonging to the medicine area (sports medicine and movement sciences) categories: anatomy, histology, orthopedics and sports medicine, rheumatology, sports sciences, physical therapy, sports therapy, and rehabilitation. Full article
Article
The Effects of Short-Term High-Intensity Interval Training and Moderate Intensity Continuous Training on Body Fat Percentage, Abdominal Circumference, BMI and VO2max in Overweight Subjects
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 41; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020041 - 10 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2458
Abstract
We aimed to compare the effects of a personalized short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs. standard moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) on body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, BMI and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in overweight volunteers. Twenty overweight sedentary volunteers (24.9 [...] Read more.
We aimed to compare the effects of a personalized short-term high-intensity interval training (HIIT) vs. standard moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) on body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, BMI and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in overweight volunteers. Twenty overweight sedentary volunteers (24.9 ± 2.9y; BMI: 26.1 ± 1 kgm−2) were randomly assigned to 2 groups, HIIT or MICT. HIIT trained 6 weeks (3-days/week), 40-min sessions as follows: 6-min warm-up, 20-min resistance training (RT) at 70% 1-RM, 8-min HIIT up to 90% of the predicted Maximal Heart Rate (HRmax), 6-min cool-down. MICT trained 6 weeks (3-days/week) 60-min sessions as follows: 6-min warm-up, 20-min RT at 70% 1-RM, 30-min MICT at 60–70% of the predicted HRmax, 4-min cool-down. Two-way ANOVA was performed in order to compare the efficacy of HIIT and MICT protocols, and no significant interaction between training x time was evidenced (p > 0.05), indicating similar effects of both protocols on all parameters analyzed. Interestingly, the comparison of Δ mean percentage revealed an improvement in VO2max (p = 0.05) together with a positive trend in the reduction of fat mass percentage (p = 0.06) in HIIT compared to MICT protocol. In conclusion, 6 weeks of personalized HIIT, with reduced training time (40 vs. 60 min)/session and volume of training/week, improved VO2max and reduced fat mass percentage more effectively compared to MICT. These positive results encourage us to test this training in a larger population. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Exercise for Health Promotion)
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Article
Nocebo Effects on Perceived Muscle Soreness and Exercise Performance Following Unaccustomed Resistance Exercise: A Pilot Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 40; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020040 - 09 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1122
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of nocebo administration on perceived soreness and exercise performance following unaccustomed resistance exercise. Untrained males were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: (1) control or (2) negative-belief. For the negative-belief group, participants [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of nocebo administration on perceived soreness and exercise performance following unaccustomed resistance exercise. Untrained males were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: (1) control or (2) negative-belief. For the negative-belief group, participants were given a capsule before exercise containing 400 mg of an inert substance (gluten-free cornstarch) and were told the supplement would increase muscle soreness. The control group received no treatment. An algometer and pain scale was used to obtain soreness, and a goniometer was used to measure elbow range of motion (ROM). Participants completed an eccentric bicep curl pyramid with their non-dominant arm. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and repetitions were recorded. Then, 48 h after the initial exercise bout, participants repeated all procedures. Perceived soreness, ROM, average RPE, and total repetitions performed were analyzed. Perceived soreness was significantly higher in both control and negative-belief groups 48 h after exercise (p < 0.001; η2 = 0.23). ROM was significantly lower 48 h post in the negative-belief group (p = 0.004; d = 1.83) while no differences existed for controls (p = 0.999; d = 0.16). Average RPE was unaffected between groups (p = 0.282; η2 = 0.07). Total repetitions were significantly lower 48 h post in the negative-belief group (p < 0.001; d = 2.51) while no differences existed for the controls (p = 0.999; d = 0.08). Findings suggest that 48 h after unaccustomed resistance exercise, negative expectation does not worsen soreness but hinders ROM and exercise performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Overtraining Prevention)
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Case Report
Secondary Scoliosis as a Complication of Acute Transverse Myelitis in a Child
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020039 - 09 Jun 2020
Viewed by 900
Abstract
Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is a rare neurological condition that affects the spinal cord. Several events, including infections, autoimmune conditions, inflammatory, and drug-induced factors, may cause this disorder. Correct and rapid etiological diagnosis is necessary in order to start appropriate treatment that mainly [...] Read more.
Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is a rare neurological condition that affects the spinal cord. Several events, including infections, autoimmune conditions, inflammatory, and drug-induced factors, may cause this disorder. Correct and rapid etiological diagnosis is necessary in order to start appropriate treatment that mainly consists of immunomodulating therapy, high dose intravenous corticosteroids, and in plasma exchange in noninfectious cases. The outcome is varied and depends on several factors. In children, the prognosis is usually good. We report a case of an 11-year-old boy who presented with interscapular pain, right leg steppage, homolateral hyposthenia of the upper limb, and signs of autonomic dysfunction. After performing specific and instrumental exams, a diagnosis of transverse myelitis was reached, and appropriate therapy was performed. A few days post-treatment, the child developed a secondary scoliosis, involving a thoracolumbar curve with loss of cervical and lumbar lordosis. After rehabilitative treatment was undertaken for 12 months, a complete recovery and normal restoration of spinal physiological curves was obtained. The pediatric cases of ATM have a good response to steroid therapy combined with physiotherapy. Collaboration among the various specialists is worthwhile, in order to lead to a correct and rapid diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
Article
Body Fat Assessment in International Elite Soccer Referees
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020038 - 06 Jun 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1580
Abstract
Soccer referees are a specific group in the sports population that are receiving increasing attention from sports scientists. A lower fat mass percentage (FM%) is a useful parameter to monitor fitness status and aerobic performance, while being able to evaluate it with a [...] Read more.
Soccer referees are a specific group in the sports population that are receiving increasing attention from sports scientists. A lower fat mass percentage (FM%) is a useful parameter to monitor fitness status and aerobic performance, while being able to evaluate it with a simple and quick field-based method can allow a regular assessment. The aim of this study was to provide a specific profile for referees based on morphological and body composition features while comparing the accuracy of different skinfold-based equations in estimating FM% in a cohort of soccer referees. Forty-three elite international soccer referees (age 38.8 ± 3.6 years), who participated in the 2018 Russian World Cup, underwent body composition assessments with skinfold thickness and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Six equations used to derive FM% from skinfold thickness were compared with DXA measurements. The percentage of body fat estimated using DXA was 18.2 ± 4.1%, whereas skinfold-based FM% assessed from the six formulas ranged between 11.0% ± 1.7% to 15.6% ± 2.4%. Among the six equations considered, the Faulkner’s formula showed the highest correlation with FM% estimated by DXA (r = 0.77; R2 = 0.59 p < 0.001). Additionally, a new skinfold-based equation was developed: FM% = 8.386 + (0.478 × iliac crest skinfold) + (0.395 × abdominal skinfold, r = 0.78; R2 = 0.61; standard error of the estimate (SEE) = 2.62 %; p < 0.001). Due to these findings, national and international federations will now be able to perform regular body composition assessments using skinfold measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
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Article
Energetic and Biomechanical Contributions for Longitudinal Performance in Master Swimmers
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 37; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020037 - 05 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 913
Abstract
Background: The current study aimed to verify the changes in performance, physiological and biomechanical variables throughout a season in master swimmers. Methods: Twenty-three master swimmers (34.9 ± 7.4 years) were assessed three times during a season (December: M1, March: M2 [...] Read more.
Background: The current study aimed to verify the changes in performance, physiological and biomechanical variables throughout a season in master swimmers. Methods: Twenty-three master swimmers (34.9 ± 7.4 years) were assessed three times during a season (December: M1, March: M2, June: M3), in indoor 25 m swimming pools. An incremental 5 × 200 m test was used to evaluate the speed at 4 mmol·L−1 of blood lactate concentration (sLT), maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), peak blood lactate ([La-]peak) after the test, stroke frequency (SF), stroke length (SL), stroke index (SI) and propelling efficiency (ηp). The performance was assessed in the 200 m front crawl during competition. Results: Swimming performance improved between M1, M2 (2%, p = 0.03), and M3 (4%, p < 0.001). Both sLT and VO2max increased throughout the season (4% and 18%, p < 0.001, respectively) but not [La-]peak. While SF decreased 5%, SL, SI and ηp increased 5%, 7%, and 6% (p < 0.001) from M1 to M3. Conclusions: Master swimmers improved significantly in their 200 m front crawl performance over a season, with decreased SF, and increased SL, ηp and SI. Despite the improvement in energetic variables, the change in performance seemed to be more dependent on technical than energetic factors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Kinesiology and Biomechanics)
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Article
Craniomandibular Disorders in Pregnant Women: An Epidemiological Survey
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 36; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020036 - 04 Jun 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1264
Abstract
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder has been reported to be 1.5 to two times more common in women than men. Such a gender-based difference could be attributed to behavioral, hormonal, anatomical, and psychological characteristics. Physiological hormonal differences between genders could be one of the [...] Read more.
Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorder has been reported to be 1.5 to two times more common in women than men. Such a gender-based difference could be attributed to behavioral, hormonal, anatomical, and psychological characteristics. Physiological hormonal differences between genders could be one of the possible explanations for the higher incidence of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) in women. As the plasma level of certain female hormones increases during gestation, it could be assumed that there is a higher prevalence of dysfunctional signs and symptoms in pregnant women. We performed an epidemiological survey based on screening for TMD in a group of 108 pregnant women and found that 72% of young women reported significant signs of TMJ disorders, 9% of the young women reported mild signs of TMJ disorders, and 19% of the included subjects reported no signs or symptoms of TMD. The presence of estrogen receptors in the temporomandibular joint of female baboons could be the basis of an explanation for the increased prevalence of dysfunction in young women reported in the literature and the high feedback we have seen of joint noises in pregnant women. On the basis of the present findings, it could be assumed that gestation period could represent a risk factor for craniomandibular dysfunctions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Motor Control and Rehabilitation)
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Review
A Systematic Review of the Effects of Exercise on Hormones in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 35; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020035 - 31 May 2020
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3281
Abstract
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that is characterized by menstrual irregularity and elevated serum androgens, and is often accompanied by insulin resistance. The etiology of PCOS is unknown. Lifestyle interventions and weight loss, where appropriate, remain first-line treatments [...] Read more.
Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine disorder that is characterized by menstrual irregularity and elevated serum androgens, and is often accompanied by insulin resistance. The etiology of PCOS is unknown. Lifestyle interventions and weight loss, where appropriate, remain first-line treatments for women with PCOS. Regular physical activity is recommended for women with PCOS to maintain a healthy weight and cardiovascular fitness. Purpose: To review the evidence for the impact of various exercise interventions on hormone levels in women with PCOS. Methods: A systematic review of original studies indexed in PubMed that utilized an exercise intervention in women with PCOS and reported hormone values pre- and post-intervention. Studies in which the effects of the exercise intervention could be determined were included. Results: Vigorous aerobic exercise improves insulin measures in women with PCOS. Resistance or strength training may improve androgen levels, though additional studies are warranted. Studies with yoga are limited but suggest improvements in androgens. Limited information is available on the impact of exercise on adipokines and anti-Müllerian hormone, warranting further investigation. Conclusions: Recommended guidelines for women with PCOS include vigorous aerobic exercise and resistance training to improve measures of insulin sensitivity and androgen levels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Exercise for Health Promotion)
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Article
Examination of Curcumin and Fenugreek Soluble Fiber Supplementation on Submaximal and Maximal Aerobic Performance Indices
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 34; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020034 - 30 May 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1202
Abstract
This study examined the effects of curcumin and fenugreek soluble fiber supplementation on the ventilatory threshold (VT) and peak oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O2 peak). Methods: Forty-five untrained men and women were randomly assigned to one of three supplementation groups: placebo [...] Read more.
This study examined the effects of curcumin and fenugreek soluble fiber supplementation on the ventilatory threshold (VT) and peak oxygen consumption ( V ˙ O2 peak). Methods: Forty-five untrained men and women were randomly assigned to one of three supplementation groups: placebo (PLA, n = 13), 500 mg·day−1 CurQfen® (CUR, n = 14), or 300 mg·day−1 fenugreek soluble fiber (FEN, n = 18). Participants completed a maximal graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer to determine the VT and V ˙ O2 peak before (PRE) and after (POST) 28 days of daily supplementation. Separate, one-way analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs) were used to examine the between-group differences for adjusted POST VT and V ˙ O2 peak values, covaried for the respective PRE-test values. Results: The adjusted POST VT V ˙ O2 values for the CUR (mean ± SD = 1.593 ± 0.157 L·min−1) and FEN (1.597 ± 0.157 L·min−1) groups were greater than (p = 0.039 and p = 0.025, respectively) the PLA (1.465 ± 0.155 L·min−1) group, but the FEN and CUR groups were not different (p = 0.943). There were no differences in the adjusted V ˙ O2 peak values (F = 0.613, p = 0.547) among groups. Conclusion: These findings indicated that fenugreek soluble fiber was responsible for the improvements in the submaximal performance index for both CUR and FEN groups. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 2.0)
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Review
Effectiveness of Workplace Yoga Interventions to Reduce Perceived Stress in Employees: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 33; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020033 - 26 May 2020
Cited by 16 | Viewed by 3497
Abstract
Work-related stress represents a relevant public health issue and solution strategies are mandatory. Yoga is a common approach to manage stress and its effectiveness has been extensively confirmed. Therefore, this study aims systematically to review the effectiveness of Yoga interventions carried out at [...] Read more.
Work-related stress represents a relevant public health issue and solution strategies are mandatory. Yoga is a common approach to manage stress and its effectiveness has been extensively confirmed. Therefore, this study aims systematically to review the effectiveness of Yoga interventions carried out at workplace on work-related stress among employees and to assess their impact quantitatively. Springerlink, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane CENTRAL and PEDro databases were searched. Clinical trials comparing workplace Yoga interventions to control groups, and evaluating perceived stress as outcome measure, were assessed for eligibility. All forms and styles of Yoga were considered for the analysis. Out of 3392 initially identified, 6 studies were included in the meta-analysis; 266 participants practicing Yoga interventions at worksite were compared to 221 subjects in control group. Included studies showed “some concerns” about different domains of source of bias. Quantitative analysis showed an overall effect size of −0.67 [95% confidence interval (CI): −0.86, −0.49] in favor of Yoga intervention in reducing stress outcome measures. Hence, workplace Yoga interventions were more effective when compared to no treatment in work-related stress management. Further high-quality studies are needed to improve the validity of these results and to specify more characteristics of the Yoga intervention, such as style, volume, and frequency. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Physical Exercise for Health Promotion)
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Article
25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Vitamin D Binding Protein, Bioavailable 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, and Body Composition in a Diverse Sample of Women Collegiate Indoor Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 32; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020032 - 09 May 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1213
Abstract
Women athletes are at higher risk for bone diseases; yet, information on vitamin D status ((25(OH)D), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP), and bioavailable 25(OH)D is limited. Collegiate athletes (n = 36) from volleyball (WVB), basketball (WBB), and track and field (WTF) were [...] Read more.
Women athletes are at higher risk for bone diseases; yet, information on vitamin D status ((25(OH)D), vitamin D binding protein (VDBP), and bioavailable 25(OH)D is limited. Collegiate athletes (n = 36) from volleyball (WVB), basketball (WBB), and track and field (WTF) were measured for (25(OH)D), VDBP, and bioavailable 25(OH)D; body composition and bone mineral density (BMD); and skin pigmentation. Participants self-reported daily vitamin D intake and sun exposure. One-way analysis of variance analyzed mean differences in measures across sports. Linear regression examined relationships between 25(OH)D; VDBP; bioavailable 25(OH)D; and whole body, hip, and spine BMD. Participants’ (mean ± SD, 19.4 ± 1.4 years, 172.75 ± 8.21 cm, 70.9 ± 13.2 kg, and 22.9 ± 4.1% body fat) overall mean 25(OH)D was 70.5 ± 32.25 nmol/L, and 28% of participants were deemed inadequate and 61% below thresholds identified as sufficient for athletes. Although WBB athletes consumed higher (p = 0.007) dietary vitamin D (760.9 ± 484.2 IU/d) than WVB (342.6 ± 257.8) and WTF (402.3 ± 376.4) athletes did, there were no differences across sport in serum 25(OH)D. WVB and WTF had higher bioavailable 25(OH)D than WBB. No relationships existed between vitamin D status and body composition. Vitamin D inadequacy was identified among 1/3 of women indoor sport athletes. Consistent monitoring of vitamin D status and diet are recommended to sustain athlete health and sport performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 2.0)
Editorial
Coronavirus Outbreak in Italy: Physiological Benefits of Home-Based Exercise During Pandemic
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020031 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 45 | Viewed by 6263
Abstract
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has forced the hardest-hit populations, like Italians, to radically change their daily habits, starting with social distancing, strict preventive measures, and self-isolation. These precautions also apply to sport-related facilities and activities. The difficulty to practice physical activity [...] Read more.
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has forced the hardest-hit populations, like Italians, to radically change their daily habits, starting with social distancing, strict preventive measures, and self-isolation. These precautions also apply to sport-related facilities and activities. The difficulty to practice physical activity during this dramatic moment in time adds to the risks associated with sedentary habits, due to staying all the time at home. Here, the importance and the benefits of maintaining exercise routine, even at home, are emphasized in order to avoid the consequences of inactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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Editorial
Elite Athletes and COVID-19 Lockdown: Future Health Concerns for an Entire Sector
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020030 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 37 | Viewed by 5534
Abstract
In this editorial, we focused our attention on elite athletes during the COVID-19 lockdown. A high level of physical fitness is required by elite athletes irrespective of the specific type of sport. Generally speaking, elite athletes avoid long periods of rest during and [...] Read more.
In this editorial, we focused our attention on elite athletes during the COVID-19 lockdown. A high level of physical fitness is required by elite athletes irrespective of the specific type of sport. Generally speaking, elite athletes avoid long periods of rest during and at the end of the competitive season. Normally, elite athletes stop training or reduce training volume and intensity for a period that ranges from two weeks to a maximum of four weeks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
Editorial
Effects of Physical Activity on Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020029 - 06 May 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1477
Abstract
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons. To date, no resolutive cure is available, and only two Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs are used to treat ALS without a resolutive outcome. [...] Read more.
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons. To date, no resolutive cure is available, and only two Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs are used to treat ALS without a resolutive outcome. In recent years, the study of the beneficial effects of physical activity on health has acquired special relevance. However, the relationship between ALS progression and physical exercise is still a hotly debated topic in medicine. Some studies have suggested higher risks to develop the disease that are associated with practicing intense physical activity, as seen in professional soccer or football players, for example. On the contrary, moderate training has been shown to exert several benefits in ALS-affected patients. Overall, more studies are needed to clarify whether physical activity is helpful or harmful for developing ALS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise and Neurodegenerative Disease)
Article
The Effect of Training with Weightlifting Catching or Pulling Derivatives on Squat Jump and Countermovement Jump Force–Time Adaptations
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020028 - 01 May 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 3172
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) force–time curve characteristics following 10 weeks of training with either load-matched weightlifting catching (CATCH) or pulling derivatives (PULL) or pulling derivatives that included force- and [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ) force–time curve characteristics following 10 weeks of training with either load-matched weightlifting catching (CATCH) or pulling derivatives (PULL) or pulling derivatives that included force- and velocity-specific loading (OL). Twenty-five resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to the CATCH, PULL, or OL groups. Participants completed a 10 week, group-specific training program. SJ and CMJ height, propulsion mean force, and propulsion time were compared at baseline and after 3, 7, and 10 weeks. In addition, time-normalized SJ and CMJ force–time curves were compared between baseline and after 10 weeks. No between-group differences were present for any of the examined variables, and only trivial to small changes existed within each group. The greatest improvements in SJ and CMJ height were produced by the OL and PULL groups, respectively, while only trivial changes were present for the CATCH group. These changes were underpinned by greater propulsion forces and reduced propulsion times. The OL group displayed significantly greater relative force during the SJ and CMJ compared to the PULL and CATCH groups, respectively. Training with weightlifting pulling derivatives may produce greater vertical jump adaptations compared to training with catching derivatives. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Applied Sport Physiology and Performance)
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Case Report
Physiological, Psychological and Performance-Related Changes Following Physique Competition: A Case-Series
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 27; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020027 - 25 Apr 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2544
Abstract
The purpose of this case-series was to evaluate the physiological, psychological and performance-related changes that occur during the postcompetition period. Participants included three male (34.3 ± 6.8 years, 181.6 ± 8.9 cm) and four female (29.3 ± 4.9 years, 161.4 ± 6.0 cm) [...] Read more.
The purpose of this case-series was to evaluate the physiological, psychological and performance-related changes that occur during the postcompetition period. Participants included three male (34.3 ± 6.8 years, 181.6 ± 8.9 cm) and four female (29.3 ± 4.9 years, 161.4 ± 6.0 cm) natural physique athletes. Body composition (fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM); Skinfold), resting metabolic rate (RMR; indirect calorimetry), total body water (TBW; bioelectrical impedance analysis), sleep quality (PSQI; Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), quality of life measures (RAND SF36), menstrual irregularities, and knee extension performance were assessed 1–2 weeks prior to competition, and 4 weeks and 8–10 weeks postcompetition. Blood hormones (free triiodothyronine; T3, free thyroxine; T4, and leptin) were assessed at 1–2 weeks prior to competition and 8–10 weeks postcompetition. Participants tracked daily macronutrient intake daily for the duration of the study. Group-level data were analyzed using exploratory, one-tailed, nonparametric statistical tests. Bodyweight, FM, bodyfat%, RMR, and blood hormones (T3, T4, and leptin) increased significantly (p < 0.05) at the group level. Relative (%Δ) increases in fat mass were associated with △RMR (τ = 0.90; p = 0.001) and △leptin (τ = 0.68; p = 0.02), and △leptin was associated with △RMR (τ = 0.59; p = 0.03). The time course for recovery appears to vary substantially between individuals potentially due to strategies implemented postcompetition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Research on Sports Nutrition: Body Composition and Performance 2.0)
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Article
Effects of the Enriched Sports Activities-Program on Executive Functions in Italian Children
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020026 - 23 Apr 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1915
Abstract
Physical activity (PA) during childhood plays an important role in brain development. This role is played in both the structural domain, prefrontal cortex area, and in the functional domain, involving the higher cognitive functions, including the executive functions (EF). Working memory (WM), inhibition, [...] Read more.
Physical activity (PA) during childhood plays an important role in brain development. This role is played in both the structural domain, prefrontal cortex area, and in the functional domain, involving the higher cognitive functions, including the executive functions (EF). Working memory (WM), inhibition, and switching as fundamental EF were investigated in an Italian children sample before and after four months of an Enriched Sports Activities-Program (ESA-Program). EFs were assessed at pre-test and post-test using, respectively, the digit span test, the color word Stroop test, and the trail making test derived from Millisecond Software. The Italian sample was composed of 141 children aged 8.54 years. The intervention group (IG) was composed of 61 children and the control group (CG) of 80 children. Significant differences in WM (p < 0.05) were found in the IG following the ESA-Program intervention. Children’s performance improved both in forward digit span (FDS1 mean difference = 0.26; p = 0.04; FDS2 mean difference = 0.21; p = 0.01) and backward digit span (BDS2 mean difference = 0.14; p = 0.02). No significant improvements were observed for inhibition and switching processes (p > 0.05). Since this finding suggests that brain functioning is sensitive to lifestyle factors, such as PA, an essential goal for ESA-Program is to emphasize the importance of PA to enhance cognitive skills in childhood and prevent sedentary life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychology of Development and Education Applied to Movement)
Editorial
The “Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology” Journal Club Series: Resistance Training
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 25; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020025 - 02 Apr 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1812
Abstract
We are glad to introduce the Second Journal Club of Volume Five, Second Issue. This edition is focused on relevant studies published in the last few years in the field of resistance training, chosen by our Editorial Board members and their colleagues. We [...] Read more.
We are glad to introduce the Second Journal Club of Volume Five, Second Issue. This edition is focused on relevant studies published in the last few years in the field of resistance training, chosen by our Editorial Board members and their colleagues. We hope to stimulate your curiosity in this field and to share with you the passion for the sport, seen also from the scientific point of view. The Editorial Board members wish you an inspiring lecture. Full article
Editorial
Spine and TMJ: A Pathophysiology Report
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 24; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020024 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1671
Abstract
The relationship between posture, spine, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is still a hotly debated topic in medicine. TMJ takes part in different physiological functions of the organism, starting from its embryological development, it is possible that it influences different vital functions. There is [...] Read more.
The relationship between posture, spine, and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is still a hotly debated topic in medicine. TMJ takes part in different physiological functions of the organism, starting from its embryological development, it is possible that it influences different vital functions. There is a strong connection between the respiratory tract and dental/maxillary occlusion or anatomy. The altered physiology of this district leads to pathologies that could affect the whole organism. On the contrary, it is also possible to highlight some symptoms of distant organism districts. Knowing well the pathophysiology of this district and semiotics, it is also possible to diagnose pathologies affecting other organs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue TMJ Dysfunctions and Systemic Correlations)
Review
Finding a Balance: A Systematic Review of the Biomechanical Effects of Vestibular Prostheses on Stability in Humans
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020023 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1641
Abstract
The vestibular system is located in the inner ear and is responsible for maintaining balance in humans. Bilateral vestibular dysfunction (BVD) is a disorder that adversely affects vestibular function. This results in symptoms such as postural imbalance and vertigo, increasing the incidence of [...] Read more.
The vestibular system is located in the inner ear and is responsible for maintaining balance in humans. Bilateral vestibular dysfunction (BVD) is a disorder that adversely affects vestibular function. This results in symptoms such as postural imbalance and vertigo, increasing the incidence of falls and worsening quality of life. Current therapeutic options are often ineffective, with a focus on symptom management. Artificial stimulation of the vestibular system, via a vestibular prosthesis, is a technique being explored to restore vestibular function. This review systematically searched for literature that reported the effect of artificial vestibular stimulation on human behaviours related to balance, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) technique. A total of 21 papers matched the inclusion criteria of the literature search conducted using the PubMed and Web of Science databases (February 2019). The populations for these studies included both healthy adults and patients with BVD. In every paper, artificial vestibular stimulation caused an improvement in certain behaviours related to balance, although the extent of the effect varied greatly. Various behaviours were measured such as the vestibulo-ocular reflex, postural sway and certain gait characteristics. Two classes of prosthesis were evaluated and both showed a significant improvement in at least one aspect of balance-related behaviour in every paper included. No adverse effects were reported for prostheses using noisy galvanic vestibular stimulation, however, prosthetic implantation sometimes caused hearing or vestibular loss. Significant heterogeneity in methodology, study population and disease aetiology were observed. The present study confirms the feasibility of vestibular implants in humans for restoring balance in controlled conditions, but more research needs to be conducted to determine their effects on balance in non-clinical settings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Advances in Human Posture and Movement 2.0)
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Review
Brachial Plexus Injuries in Sport Medicine: Clinical Evaluation, Diagnostic Approaches, Treatment Options, and Rehabilitative Interventions
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 22; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020022 - 30 Mar 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2659
Abstract
The brachial plexus represents a complex anatomical structure in the upper limb. This “network” of peripheral nerves permits the rearrangement of motor efferent fibers, coming from different spinal nerves, in several terminal branches directed to upper limb muscles. Moreover, afferent information coming from [...] Read more.
The brachial plexus represents a complex anatomical structure in the upper limb. This “network” of peripheral nerves permits the rearrangement of motor efferent fibers, coming from different spinal nerves, in several terminal branches directed to upper limb muscles. Moreover, afferent information coming from different cutaneous regions in upper limb are sorted in different spinal nerves through the brachial plexus. Severe brachial plexus injuries are a rare clinical condition in the general population and in sport medicine, but with dramatic consequences on the motor and sensory functions of the upper limb. In some sports, like martial arts, milder injuries of the brachial plexus can occur, with transient symptoms and with a full recovery. Clinical evaluation represents the cornerstone in the assessment of the athletes with brachial plexus injuries. Electrodiagnostic studies and imaging techniques, like magnetic resonance and high-frequency ultrasound, could be useful to localize the lesion and to define an appropriate treatment and a functional prognosis. Several conservative and surgical techniques could be applied, and multidisciplinary rehabilitative programs could be performed to guide the athlete toward the recovery of the highest functional level, according to the type of injury. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sport Medicine and Nutrition)
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