Special Issue "Exercise Evaluation and Prescription"

A special issue of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (ISSN 2411-5142). This special issue belongs to the section "Physical Exercise for Health Promotion".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 February 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Cristina Cortis
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Human Sciences, Society and Health University of Cassino e Lazio Meridionale, 03043 Cassino, Italy
Interests: sport; performance; monitoring; physical activity; training; testing; motor control
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Dr. Andrea Fusco
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Human Sciences, Society and Health University of Cassino e Lazio Meridionale, Cassino, Italy
Interests: sport; performance; physical activity; training; monitoring; balance
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Prof. Dr. Carl Foster
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
Department of Exercise and Sport Science, University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI, USA
Interests: sport; performance; physical activity; training, exercise physiology; monitoring
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals

Special Issue Information

Dear colleagues, 

This Special Issue will focus on exercise evaluation and prescription, aiming to attract papers related to how to use either laboratory or field evaluations to generate training advice. Training might seem related mostly to athletes, but normal people (and patients) need specific advice as much as the athletes.  We suspect that there are a number of strategies available that will allow the generation of quantitatively specific training advice that is appropriate for individuals within the “exercise universe.” 

Authors are invited to submit papers focusing on exercise evaluation and prescription on patients, healthy people, and athletes, based on findings observed in laboratory or field evaluation.

Prof. Cristina Cortis
Dr. Andrea Fusco
Prof. Carl Foster
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Exercise prescription
  • Exercise testing
  • Training programs
  • Translation of exercise testing to exercise prescription

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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Editorial
Exercise Evaluation and Prescription
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6010031 - 23 Mar 2021
Viewed by 693
Abstract
Ever since the farm boy, Milo of Crotone, lifted a growing bullock every day, to become the strongest man in the world, and six-time champion of the ancient Olympic Games, we have known about the principle of progression of exercise training [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)

Research

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Article
Prevalence of Low Energy Availability in Collegiate Women Soccer Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040096 - 18 Dec 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 921
Abstract
(1) Background: Limited information exists on the prevalence of low energy availability (LEA) in collegiate team sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of LEA in collegiate women soccer players. (2) Methods: Collegiate women soccer athletes (n = [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Limited information exists on the prevalence of low energy availability (LEA) in collegiate team sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of LEA in collegiate women soccer players. (2) Methods: Collegiate women soccer athletes (n = 18, height: 1.67 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 65.3 ± 7.9 kg; body fat %: 24.9 ± 5.6%) had their body composition and sport nutrition knowledge assessed in the pre-season. Energy availability was assessed mid-season using a 4-day dietary log and activity energy expenditure values from a team-based monitoring system. A validated screening tool was used to screen for LEA. (3) Results: The screening tool classified 56.3% of athletes as at risk of LEA (<30 kcal/kg of FFM); however, the actual dietary intake identified 67% as LEA. Athletes identified as non-LEA consumed significantly more absolute (p = 0.040) and relative (p = 0.004) energy than LEA athletes. (4) Conclusions: There was a high prevalence of LEA among collegiate women soccer athletes. Although previously validated in women endurance athletes, the LEA screening tool was not effective in identifying those at risk of LEA in this sample of athletes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
Article
Potential Use of Wearable Sensors to Assess Cumulative Kidney Trauma in Endurance Off-Road Running
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040093 - 14 Dec 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 629
Abstract
(1) Background: This study aimed to explore wearable sensors′ potential use to assess cumulative mechanical kidney trauma during endurance off-road running. (2) Methods: 18 participants (38.78 ± 10.38 years, 73.24 ± 12.6 kg, 172.17 ± 9.48 cm) ran 36 k off-road race wearing [...] Read more.
(1) Background: This study aimed to explore wearable sensors′ potential use to assess cumulative mechanical kidney trauma during endurance off-road running. (2) Methods: 18 participants (38.78 ± 10.38 years, 73.24 ± 12.6 kg, 172.17 ± 9.48 cm) ran 36 k off-road race wearing a Magnetic, Angular Rate and Gravity (MARG) sensor attached to their lower back. Impacts in g forces were recorded throughout the race using the MARG sensor. Two blood samples were collected immediately pre- and post-race: serum creatinine (sCr) and albumin (sALB). (3) Results: Sixteen impact variables were grouped using principal component analysis in four different principal components (PC) that explained 90% of the total variance. The 4th PC predicted 24% of the percentage of change (∆%) of sCr and the 3rd PC predicted the ∆% of sALB by 23%. There were pre- and post-race large changes in sCr and sALB (p ≤ 0.01) and 33% of participants met acute kidney injury diagnosis criteria. (4) Conclusions: The data related to impacts could better explain the cumulative mechanical kidney trauma during mountain running, opening a new range of possibilities using technology to better understand how the number and magnitude of the g-forces involved in off-road running could potentially affect kidney function. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
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Article
Effect of Video Observation and Motor Imagery on Simple Reaction Time in Cadet Pilots
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040089 - 05 Dec 2020
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 685
Abstract
Neuromotor training can improve motor performance in athletes and patients. However, few data are available about their effect on reaction time (RT). We investigated the influence of video observation/motor imagery (VO/MI) on simple RT to visual and auditory stimuli. The experimental group comprised [...] Read more.
Neuromotor training can improve motor performance in athletes and patients. However, few data are available about their effect on reaction time (RT). We investigated the influence of video observation/motor imagery (VO/MI) on simple RT to visual and auditory stimuli. The experimental group comprised 21 cadets who performed VO/MI training over 4 weeks. Nineteen cadets completed a sham intervention as control. The main outcome measure was RT to auditory and visual stimuli for the upper and lower limbs. The RT to auditory stimuli improved significantly post-intervention in both groups (control vs. experimental mean change for upper limbs: −40 ms vs. −40 ms, p = 0.0008; for lower limbs: −50 ms vs. −30 ms, p = 0.0174). A trend towards reduced RT to visual stimuli was observed (for upper limbs: −30 ms vs. −20 ms, p = 0.0876; for lower limbs: −30 ms vs. −20 ms, p = 0.0675). The interaction term was not significant. Only the specific VO/MI training produced a linear correlation between the improvement in the RT to auditory and visual stimuli for the upper (r = 0.703) and lower limbs (r = 0.473). In conclusion, VO/MI training does not improve RT when compared to control, but it may be useful in individuals who need to simultaneously develop a fast response to different types of stimuli. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
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Article
Effects of Dehydration on Archery Performance, Subjective Feelings and Heart Rate during a Competition Simulation
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 67; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030067 - 27 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1053
Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effect of dehydration on archery performance, subjective feelings and heart rate response. Ten national level archers performed two archery competition simulations, once under euhydration (EUH) and once in a dehydrated state (DEH), induced by 24-h reduced fluid [...] Read more.
This study aimed to investigate the effect of dehydration on archery performance, subjective feelings and heart rate response. Ten national level archers performed two archery competition simulations, once under euhydration (EUH) and once in a dehydrated state (DEH), induced by 24-h reduced fluid intake. Hydration status was verified prior to each trial by urine specific gravity (USG ≥ 1.025). Archery score was measured according to official archery regulations. Subjective feelings of thirst, fatigue and concentration were recorded on a visual analogue scale. Heart rate was continuously monitored during the trials. Archery performance was similar between trials (p = 0.155). During DEH trial (USG 1.032 ± 0.005), the athletes felt thirstier (p < 0.001), more fatigued (p = 0.041) and less able to concentrate (p = 0.016) compared with the EUH trial (USG 1.015 ± 0.004). Heart rate during DEH at baseline (85 ± 5 b∙min−1) was higher (p = 0.021) compared with EUH (78 ± 6 b∙min−1) and remained significantly higher during the latter stages of the DEH compared to EUH trial. In conclusion, archery performance over 72 arrows was not affected by dehydration, despite the induced psychological and physiological strain, revealed from decreased feeling of concentration, increased sensation of fatigue and increased heart rate during the DEH trial. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
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Article
Effects of a Supervised Nordic Walking Program on Obese Adults with and without Type 2 Diabetes: The C.U.R.I.A.Mo. Centre Experience
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 62; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030062 - 07 Aug 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1253
Abstract
Exercise is a convenient non-medical intervention, commonly recommended in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (DM2) managements. Aerobic exercise and aerobic circuit training have been shown to be able to reduce the risk of developing DM2-related complications. Growing literature proves the usefulness of [...] Read more.
Exercise is a convenient non-medical intervention, commonly recommended in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (DM2) managements. Aerobic exercise and aerobic circuit training have been shown to be able to reduce the risk of developing DM2-related complications. Growing literature proves the usefulness of Nordic walking as exercise therapy in different disease populations, therefore it has a conceivable use in DM2 management. Aims of this study were to analyze and report the effects of two different supervised exercises (gym-based exercise and Nordic walking) on anthropometric profile, blood pressure values, blood chemistry and fitness variables in obese individuals with and without DM2. In this study, 108 obese adults (aged 45–65 years), with or without DM2, were recruited and allocated into one of four subgroups: (1) Gym-based exercise program (n = 49) or (2) Nordic walking program (n = 37) for obese adults; (3) Gym-based exercise program (n = 10) or (4) Nordic walking program (n = 12) for obese adults with DM2. In all exercise subgroups, statistically significant improvements in body weight, body mass index, fat mass index, muscular flexibility and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) were observed. Moreover, a higher percentage of adherence to the gym-based program compared to Nordic walking was recorded. Our findings showed that, notwithstanding the lower adherence, a supervised Nordic walk is effective as a conventional gym-based program to improve body weight control, body composition parameters, muscular flexibility and VO2 max levels in obese adults with and without type 2 diabetes. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
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Article
Effects of Different Resistance Training Frequencies on Body Composition, Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, and Handgrip Strength in Overweight and Obese Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 51; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030051 - 17 Jul 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1302
Abstract
Background: Resistance training improves health in obese and overweight people. However, it is not clear what is the optimal weekly resistance training frequency and the most efficacious training protocol on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, and handgrip strength (HS). The aim of this [...] Read more.
Background: Resistance training improves health in obese and overweight people. However, it is not clear what is the optimal weekly resistance training frequency and the most efficacious training protocol on body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, and handgrip strength (HS). The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a supervised structured 24 week resistance training program on obese and overweight women. Methods: Forty-five women (BMI 37.1 ± 6.3 kg/m2; age 56.5 ± 0.7 years) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: A group with a high weekly training frequency of three times a week (HIGH) and a group that performed it only once a week (LOW). Cardiometabolic risk factors, anthropometric and HS measures were taken before and after the intervention period. Results: A significant (p < 0.05) group by time interaction was observed for body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, fat mass, plasma glucose, plasma insulin, homeostatic model assessment, and for dominant and absolute HS. Additionally, only the HIGH group saw increased HS and decreased total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol after the intervention period (p < 0.05). The observed increase in HS was associated with an improved insulin resistance sensitivity (absolute handgrip strength: r = −0.40, p = 0.007; relative handgrip strength: r = −0.47, p = 0.001) after training, which constitutes an essential element for cardiovascular health. Conclusions: The results suggest that high weekly frequency training give greater benefits for weight loss and cardiometabolic risk factors improvement than a training program with a training session of once a week. Furthermore, the improvement of HS can be achieved with a high weekly frequency training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
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Article
Adjuvant Therapy Reduces Fat Mass Loss during Exercise Prescription in Breast Cancer Survivors
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 49; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030049 - 15 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 821
Abstract
Improvements in cancer care over the years have increased the numbers of cancer survivors. Therefore, quality of life, fat mass management and physical activity are growing areas of interest in these people. After the surgical removal of a breast cancer, adjuvant therapy remains [...] Read more.
Improvements in cancer care over the years have increased the numbers of cancer survivors. Therefore, quality of life, fat mass management and physical activity are growing areas of interest in these people. After the surgical removal of a breast cancer, adjuvant therapy remains anyway a common strategy. The aim of this study was to assess how adjuvant therapy can affect the effectiveness of an unsupervised exercise program. Forty-two women were enrolled (52.0 ± 10.1 years). Assessments performed at baseline and after six months of exercise prescription were body composition, health-related quality of life, aerobic capacity by Six-Minute Walk Test, limbs strength by hand grip and chair test and flexibility by sit and reach. Statistical analyses were conducted by ANOVA tests and multiple regression. Improvements in body composition, physical fitness and quality of life (physical functioning, general health, social functioning and mental health items) were found. The percentage change in fat mass has been associated with adjuvant cancer therapy (intercept = −0.016; b = 8.629; p < 0.05). An unsupervised exercise prescription program improves body composition, physical fitness and health-related quality of life in breast cancer survivors. Adjuvant therapy in cancer slows down the effectiveness of an exercise program in the loss of fat mass. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
Article
Associations between Activity Pacing, Fatigue, and Physical Activity in Adults with Multiple Sclerosis: A Cross Sectional Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020043 - 15 Jun 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1163
Abstract
Fatigue is common in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Activity pacing is a behavioral way to cope with fatigue and limited energy resources. However, little is known about how people with MS naturally pace activities to manage their fatigue and optimize daily activities. [...] Read more.
Fatigue is common in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Activity pacing is a behavioral way to cope with fatigue and limited energy resources. However, little is known about how people with MS naturally pace activities to manage their fatigue and optimize daily activities. This study explored how activity pacing relates to fatigue and physical activity in people with MS. Participants were 80 individuals (60 females, 20 males) with a diagnosis of MS. The participants filled in questionnaires on their activity pacing, fatigue, physical activity, and health-related quality of life, 3–6 weeks before discharge from rehabilitation. The relationships between the variables were examined using hierarchical regression. After controlling for demographics, health-related quality of life, and perceived risk of overactivity, no associations were found between activity pacing and fatigue (β = 0.20; t = 1.43, p = 0.16) or between activity pacing and physical activity (β = −0.24; t = −1.61, p = 0.12). The lack of significant associations between activity pacing and fatigue or physical activity suggests that without interventions, there appears to be no clear strategy amongst people with MS to manage fatigue and improve physical activity. People with MS may benefit from interventions to manage fatigue and optimize engagement in physical activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
Article
Body Fat Assessment in International Elite Soccer Referees
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 38; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020038 - 06 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1040
Abstract
Soccer referees are a specific group in the sports population that are receiving increasing attention from sports scientists. A lower fat mass percentage (FM%) is a useful parameter to monitor fitness status and aerobic performance, while being able to evaluate it with a [...] Read more.
Soccer referees are a specific group in the sports population that are receiving increasing attention from sports scientists. A lower fat mass percentage (FM%) is a useful parameter to monitor fitness status and aerobic performance, while being able to evaluate it with a simple and quick field-based method can allow a regular assessment. The aim of this study was to provide a specific profile for referees based on morphological and body composition features while comparing the accuracy of different skinfold-based equations in estimating FM% in a cohort of soccer referees. Forty-three elite international soccer referees (age 38.8 ± 3.6 years), who participated in the 2018 Russian World Cup, underwent body composition assessments with skinfold thickness and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Six equations used to derive FM% from skinfold thickness were compared with DXA measurements. The percentage of body fat estimated using DXA was 18.2 ± 4.1%, whereas skinfold-based FM% assessed from the six formulas ranged between 11.0% ± 1.7% to 15.6% ± 2.4%. Among the six equations considered, the Faulkner’s formula showed the highest correlation with FM% estimated by DXA (r = 0.77; R2 = 0.59 p < 0.001). Additionally, a new skinfold-based equation was developed: FM% = 8.386 + (0.478 × iliac crest skinfold) + (0.395 × abdominal skinfold, r = 0.78; R2 = 0.61; standard error of the estimate (SEE) = 2.62 %; p < 0.001). Due to these findings, national and international federations will now be able to perform regular body composition assessments using skinfold measurements. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
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Review

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Review
Adapted Physical Activity to Ensure the Physical and Psychological Well-Being of COVID-19 Patients
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2021, 6(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk6010013 - 29 Jan 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1934
Abstract
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been responsible for a global pandemic involving massive increases in the daily numbers of cases and deaths. Due to the emergency caused by the pandemic, huge efforts have been made to develop COVID-19 vaccines, the first [...] Read more.
The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been responsible for a global pandemic involving massive increases in the daily numbers of cases and deaths. Due to the emergency caused by the pandemic, huge efforts have been made to develop COVID-19 vaccines, the first of which were released in December 2020. Effective vaccines for COVID-19 are needed to protect the population, especially healthcare professionals and fragile individuals, such as older people or chronic-disease-affected patients. Physical exercise training generally has health benefits and assists in the prevention of several chronic diseases. Moreover, physical activity improves mental health by reducing anxiety, depression, and negative mood and improving self-esteem. Therefore, the present review aims to provide a detailed view of the literature, presenting updated evidence on the beneficial effects of adapted physical activity, based on personalized and tailor-made exercise, in preventing, treating, and counteracting the consequences of COVID-19. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
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Other

Brief Report
Bioimpedance Vector References Need to Be Period-Specific for Assessing Body Composition and Cellular Health in Elite Soccer Players: A Brief Report
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 73; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040073 - 01 Oct 2020
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 813
Abstract
Purpose: Bioimpedance data through bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA) is used to evaluate cellular function and body fluid content. This study aimed to (i) identify whether BIVA patters differ according to the competitive period and (ii) provide specific references for assessing bioelectric properties at [...] Read more.
Purpose: Bioimpedance data through bioimpedance vector analysis (BIVA) is used to evaluate cellular function and body fluid content. This study aimed to (i) identify whether BIVA patters differ according to the competitive period and (ii) provide specific references for assessing bioelectric properties at the start of the season in male elite soccer players. Methods: The study included 131 male soccer players (age: 25.1 ± 4.7 yr, height: 183.4 ± 6.1 cm, weight: 79.3 ± 6.6) registered in the first Italian soccer division (Serie A). Bioimpedance analysis was performed just before the start of the competitive season and BIVA was applied. In order to verify the need for period-specific references, bioelectrical values measured at the start of the season were compared to the reference values for the male elite soccer player population. Results: The results of the two-sample Hotelling T2 tests showed that in the bivariate interpretation of the raw bioimpedance parameters (resistance (R) and reactance (Xc)) the bioelectric properties significantly (T2 = 15.3, F = 7.6, p ≤ 0.001, Mahalanobis D = 0.45) differ between the two phases of the competition analyzed. In particular, the mean impedance vector is more displaced to the left into the R-Xc graph at the beginning of the season than in the first half of the championship. Conclusions: For an accurate evaluation of body composition and cellular health, the tolerance ellipses displayed by BIVA approach into the R-Xc graph must be period-specific. This study provides new specific tolerance ellipses (R/H: 246 ± 32.1, Xc/H: 34.3 ± 5.1, r: 0.7) for performing BIVA at the beginning of the competitive season in male elite soccer players. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
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Viewpoint
Generalized Approach to Translating Exercise Tests and Prescribing Exercise
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 63; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030063 - 12 Aug 2020
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1553
Abstract
Although there is evidence supporting the benefit of regular exercise, and recommendations about exercise and physical activity, the process of individually prescribing exercise following exercise testing is more difficult. Guidelines like % heart rate (HR) reserve (HRR) require an anchoring maximal test and [...] Read more.
Although there is evidence supporting the benefit of regular exercise, and recommendations about exercise and physical activity, the process of individually prescribing exercise following exercise testing is more difficult. Guidelines like % heart rate (HR) reserve (HRR) require an anchoring maximal test and do not always provide a homogenous training experience. When prescribing HR on the basis of % HRR, rating of perceived exertion or Talk Test, cardiovascular/perceptual drift during sustained exercise makes prescription of the actual workload difficult. To overcome this issue, we have demonstrated a strategy for “translating” exercise test responses to steady state exercise training on the basis of % HRR or the Talk Test that appeared adequate for individuals ranging from cardiac patients to athletes. However, these methods depended on the nature of the exercise test details. In this viewpoint, we combine these data with workload expressed as Metabolic Equivalent Task (METs). We demonstrate that there is a regular stepdown between the METs during training to achieve the same degree of homeostatic disturbance during testing. The relationship was linear, was highly-correlated (r = 0.89), and averaged 71.8% (Training METs/Test METs). We conclude that it appears possible to generate a generalized approach to correctly translate exercise test responses to exercise training. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
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Brief Report
Differences in Balance Ability and Motor Control between Dancers and Non-Dancers with Varying Foot Positions
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030054 - 20 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1028
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate balance and motor control in dancers and non-dancers with different foot positions. Physically active female dancers (n = 11) and non-dancers (n = 9) randomly completed two balance tests in a single visit: [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate balance and motor control in dancers and non-dancers with different foot positions. Physically active female dancers (n = 11) and non-dancers (n = 9) randomly completed two balance tests in a single visit: 1) Y-balance test (YBT), and 2) motor control test (MCT). Each test was completed with two different foot positions: 1) first ballet position in which heels were touching and feet were externally rotated to 140 degrees, and 2) sixth ballet position in which heels were spaced 10 cm apart and forward parallel. For the YBT, participants completed three attempts at anterior, posteromedial, and posterolateral reaches, which were averaged and standardized to limb length for a composite score. For the MCT, participants completed a multi-directional target test on a Biosway balance system, and accuracy and time to completion were analyzed. Findings revealed no differences in YBT score (p = 0.255), MCT score (p = 0.383), or MCT time (p = 0.306) between groups in the sixth position. However, dancers displayed better YBT scores (p = 0.036), MCT scores (p = 0.020), and faster MCT times (p = 0.009) in the first position. Results suggest that superior balance and motor control in dancers may be limited to less innate dance-specific foot positions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
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Viewpoint
Perspective of Dose and Response for Individualized Physical Exercise and Training Prescription
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 48; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030048 - 14 Jul 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1848
Abstract
Physical interventions are used to increase physical (sports) performance and considered as effective low-cost strategies in the fields of healthcare, disease or injury prevention, and medical treatment. In general, a considerable amount of evidence buttress the application of physical interventions in various fields [...] Read more.
Physical interventions are used to increase physical (sports) performance and considered as effective low-cost strategies in the fields of healthcare, disease or injury prevention, and medical treatment. In general, a considerable amount of evidence buttress the application of physical interventions in various fields as it has been demonstrated to contribute to the maintenance and recovery of physical performance, cognitive function, and overall state of health. To implement physical interventions effectively, it is essential to provide an appropriate exercise and training prescription. Exercise and training prescription are key for “dose” specification and for the individualization (personalizing) of physical exercise and training, precisely adjusted and controlled like medication. Since the physiological response to physical interventions is demonstrably individual and dependent on many influencing factors, individualization is an emerging approach aiming to maximize the efficiency of an intervention by accounting for the interindividual heterogeneity. The present brief viewpoint article aims to distinguish and to redefine between the terms dose and response in order to improve the understanding of practitioners, the methodology of study protocols, and to relate future findings to the actual biological (interindividual) variability of acute and chronic responses. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Exercise Evaluation and Prescription)
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