Special Issue "Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition"

A special issue of Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology (ISSN 2411-5142). This special issue belongs to the section "Musculoskeletal Disorders".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 29 December 2020.

Special Issue Editors

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Musumeci
Website
Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Anatomy, Histology and Movement Sciences Section, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia 87, 95123 Catania, Italy
Research Center on Motor Activities (CRAM), University of Catania, Via Santa Sofia 97, 95123 Catania, Italy
Department of Biology, Sbarro Institute for Cancer Research and Molecular Medicine, College of Science and Technology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA 19122, USA
Interests: anatomy; histology; morphology; kinesiology; musculoskeletal disorders; rehabilitation; physical activity; exercise; sports medicine; aging; nutrition; cartilage; osteoarthritis; tissue engineering
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Dr. Silvia Ravalli

Guest Editor
Department of Biomedical and Biotechnological Sciences, Human Anatomy and Histology Section, School of Medicine, University of Catania, Catania, Italy

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Physical activity covers not just sports but also simple everyday movements, such as housework, walking, and playing. Regular exercise has a great importance in maintaining good health: “Mens sana in corpore sano”. Indeed, inactivity is a risk factor for different chronic diseases. Physical exercise can play a crucial role in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders, optimizing both physical and mental health, decreasing fatigue, and improving sleep. An exercise program for patients with musculoskeletal disorders aims to preserve or restore a range of motion of the affected joints, enhancing bone turnover, increase functional joint stability, increase muscle strength and endurance, improve balance, reduce pain, and decrease health risks associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Moreover, physical activity is a good way to socialize and improve mood, and it is an excellent antistress agent. The benefits of exercise on physical limitations and fatigue in musculoskeletal disorders seem to have both short- and long-term effectiveness. This Special Issue will focus on the “Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders”. Original papers and review articles are all welcome.

Prof. Dr. Giuseppe Musumeci
Dr. Silvia Ravalli
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Functional Morphology and Kinesiology is an international peer-reviewed open access quarterly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1000 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • musculoskeletal disorders
  • physical activity
  • exercises
  • sport medicine
  • rehabilitation
  • osteoarthtritis
  • fatigue, pain, and balance
  • muscle strength and endurance
  • joint stability
  • rheumatic diseases

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial
Coronavirus Outbreak in Italy: Physiological Benefits of Home-Based Exercise During Pandemic
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020031 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 11
Abstract
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has forced the hardest-hit populations, like Italians, to radically change their daily habits, starting with social distancing, strict preventive measures, and self-isolation. These precautions also apply to sport-related facilities and activities. The difficulty to practice physical activity [...] Read more.
The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has forced the hardest-hit populations, like Italians, to radically change their daily habits, starting with social distancing, strict preventive measures, and self-isolation. These precautions also apply to sport-related facilities and activities. The difficulty to practice physical activity during this dramatic moment in time adds to the risks associated with sedentary habits, due to staying all the time at home. Here, the importance and the benefits of maintaining exercise routine, even at home, are emphasized in order to avoid the consequences of inactivity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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Open AccessEditorial
Elite Athletes and COVID-19 Lockdown: Future Health Concerns for an Entire Sector
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 30; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020030 - 07 May 2020
Cited by 11
Abstract
In this editorial, we focused our attention on elite athletes during the COVID-19 lockdown. A high level of physical fitness is required by elite athletes irrespective of the specific type of sport. Generally speaking, elite athletes avoid long periods of rest during and [...] Read more.
In this editorial, we focused our attention on elite athletes during the COVID-19 lockdown. A high level of physical fitness is required by elite athletes irrespective of the specific type of sport. Generally speaking, elite athletes avoid long periods of rest during and at the end of the competitive season. Normally, elite athletes stop training or reduce training volume and intensity for a period that ranges from two weeks to a maximum of four weeks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)

Research

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Open AccessArticle
Does Warm-up Type Matter? A Comparison between Traditional and Functional Inertial Warm-up in Young Soccer Players
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040084 - 19 Nov 2020
Abstract
Functional inertial training, a popular high-intensity training mode, provides high neuromuscular activation, developing proprioception, postural control, power, and sprint time. Aim of the study was to assess the acute effects of two types of warm-up (WU), inertial warm-up (IWU) vs. traditional warm-up (TWU), [...] Read more.
Functional inertial training, a popular high-intensity training mode, provides high neuromuscular activation, developing proprioception, postural control, power, and sprint time. Aim of the study was to assess the acute effects of two types of warm-up (WU), inertial warm-up (IWU) vs. traditional warm-up (TWU), on explosive and reactive strength, sprint, and Change of Directions (COD) in young soccer players. In a randomized cross-over design study, twelve soccer players (aged 13.3 ± 0.7) performed 16 min of IWU and 16 min of TWU. IWU and TWU were spaced two weeks apart. Pre and post intervention tests, aimed at assessing explosive and reactive strength, sprint, and COD ability included: Squat Jump test (SJ), Countermovement Jump test (CMJ), Drop Jump test (DJ), Seven Repetition Hopping test (7R-HOP), 40 m-sprint test (40 m), and Illinois Agility Test (IAT). RM-ANOVA, used to compare differences between IWU and TWU effects (the level of significance set at ρ ≤ 0.05), showed enhanced performance after the IWU compared to the TWU. In addition, the effects of the IWU on performance lasted longer after the IWU than after the TWU. For IAT, the enhanced effects of IWU on performance lasted up to ten minutes after the administration of the IWU. Our results suggest that IWU affects functional changes displaying earlier adaptation in explosive and reactive strength with longer lasting effects compared to TWU and it could be recommended in young soccer athletes as a WU procedure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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Open AccessArticle
Immunofluorescence Evaluation of Myf5 and MyoD in Masseter Muscle of Unilateral Posterior Crossbite Patients
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040080 - 07 Nov 2020
Abstract
A unilateral posterior crossbite is a malocclusion where the low activity of the affected masseter muscle is compensated by the contralateral muscle hypertrophy. It is still unknown if, in the same condition, myogenesis with new fibre formation takes place. Aim: the aim of [...] Read more.
A unilateral posterior crossbite is a malocclusion where the low activity of the affected masseter muscle is compensated by the contralateral muscle hypertrophy. It is still unknown if, in the same condition, myogenesis with new fibre formation takes place. Aim: the aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of myogenesis markers, such as Myf5 and MyoD, in masseter muscles of unilateral posterior crossbite patients. Materials and methods: biopsies from fifteen surgical patients with unilateral posterior crossbites have been analysed by immunofluorescence reactions. The results show the expression of Myf5 and MyoD in the contralateral muscle but not in the ipsilateral one. Moreover, statistical analysis shows the higher number of satellite cells in the contralateral side if compared to the ipsilateral one. Conclusions: these results suggest that in contralateral muscle, hyperplastic events take place, as well as hypertrophy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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Open AccessArticle
Low Body Fat Does Not Influence Recovery after Muscle-Damaging Lower-Limb Plyometrics in Young Male Team Sport Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040079 - 05 Nov 2020
Abstract
Aim: This study assessed the influence of fat mass to fat-free mass ratio (FM:FFM) on recovery from plyometric exercise. Method: After assessment of body composition, 20 male team sport players (age 20.7 ± 1.1 years; body mass 77.1 ± 11.5 kg) were divided [...] Read more.
Aim: This study assessed the influence of fat mass to fat-free mass ratio (FM:FFM) on recovery from plyometric exercise. Method: After assessment of body composition, 20 male team sport players (age 20.7 ± 1.1 years; body mass 77.1 ± 11.5 kg) were divided into low- (n = 10; 0.11 ± 0.03) and normal- (n = 10; 0.27 ± 0.09) fat groups based on FM:FFM ratio. Thereafter, participants completed measurements of knee extensor torque at 60 and 240°∙s−1, countermovement jump flight time, plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity and perceived muscle soreness (VAS) before and at 0, 24 and 48 h after 10 × 10 maximal plyometric vertical jumps. Results: Evidence of muscle damage was confirmed by alterations in VAS, peak torque at 60 and 240°∙s−1 and flight time at 0, 24 and 48 h after plyometric exercise (P < 0.05). CK was increased at 0 and 24 h (P < 0.05) but returned to baseline values by 48 h. No time by group effects were observed for any of the dependent variables (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The current findings indicate that while muscle damage was present after plyometric exercise, the magnitude was similar across the two body composition groups. Applied practitioners can allow for a similar recovery time after plyometric exercise in those with low and normal body fat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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Open AccessArticle
Human Dental Pulp Tissue during Orthodontic Tooth Movement: An Immunofluorescence Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 65; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030065 - 22 Aug 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
The orthodontic tooth movement is the last step of several biological processes that take place after the application of external forces. During this process, dental pulp tissue is subjected to structural and protein expression modifications in order to maintain their integrity and functional [...] Read more.
The orthodontic tooth movement is the last step of several biological processes that take place after the application of external forces. During this process, dental pulp tissue is subjected to structural and protein expression modifications in order to maintain their integrity and functional morphology. The purpose of the present work was to perform an in vivo study, evaluating protein expression modifications in the human dental pulp of patients that have undergone orthodontic tooth movement due to pre-calibrated light force application for 30 days. Dental pulp samples were extracted from molars and premolars of the control group and after 7 and 30 days of treatment; the samples were then processed for immunofluorescence reactions using antibodies against fibronectin, collagen I and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Our results show that, after 7 days of treatment, all tested proteins change their pattern expression and will reset after 30 days. These data demonstrate that the dental pulp does not involve any irreversible iatrogenic alterations, supporting the efficacy and safety of using pre-calibrated force application to induce orthodontic tooth movement in clinical practice. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of Mandibular Arch Expansion by the Schwartz Appliance Using Two Activation Protocols: A Preliminary Retrospective Clinical Study
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030061 - 06 Aug 2020
Abstract
Background and objectives: Dental crowding is more pronounced in the mandible than in the maxilla. When exceeding a significant amount, the creation of new space is required. The mandibular expansion devices prove to be useful even if the increase in the lower arch [...] Read more.
Background and objectives: Dental crowding is more pronounced in the mandible than in the maxilla. When exceeding a significant amount, the creation of new space is required. The mandibular expansion devices prove to be useful even if the increase in the lower arch perimeter seems to be just ascribed to the vestibular inclination of teeth. The aim of the study was to compare two activation protocols of the Schwartz appliance in terms of effectiveness, particularly with regard to how quickly crowding is solved and how smaller is the increasing of vestibular inclination of the mandibular molars. Materials and Methods: We compared two groups of patients treated with different activation’s protocols of the lower Schwartz appliance (Group 1 protocol consisted in turning the expansion screw half a turn twice every two weeks and replacing the device every four months; Group 2 was treated by using the classic activation protocol—1/4 turn every week, never replacing the device). The measurements of parameters such as intercanine distance (IC), interpremolar distance (IPM), intermolar distance (IM), arch perimeter(AP), curve of Wilson (COW), and crowding (CR) were made on dental casts at the beginning and at the end of the treatment. Results: A significant difference between protocol groups was observed in the variation of COWL between time 0 and time 1 with protocol 1 with protocol 1 subjects showing a smaller increase in the parameter than protocol 2 subjects. The same trend was observed also for COWR, but the difference between protocol groups was slightly smaller and the interaction protocol-by-time did not reach the statistical significance. Finally, treatment duration in protocol 1 was significantly lower than in protocol 2. Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that the new activation protocol would seem more effective as it allows to achieve the objective of the therapy more quickly, and likely leading to greater bodily expansion. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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Open AccessArticle
Effects of Hoverboard on Balance in Young Soccer Athletes
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 60; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030060 - 06 Aug 2020
Abstract
Hoverboards are always more popular among children. Hoverboards are to them like a game or a mean of transport, but they could be used as a valid and useful instrument in children’s training programs to improve their performance. In this study, we compared [...] Read more.
Hoverboards are always more popular among children. Hoverboards are to them like a game or a mean of transport, but they could be used as a valid and useful instrument in children’s training programs to improve their performance. In this study, we compared the athletic performance of two groups of 12 children. A total of 24 children aged between 8 and 11 years followed a similar training program for five months, but the first group used a hoverboard (Hb+ group: Age: Standard Deviation (SD) = 1.15 Mean = 9.66; Weight: SD = 5.90 Mean = 32; Height: SD = 7.64 Mean = 135.08) for some of the training time, differently from the second group (Hb- group: Age: SD = 1.15 Mean = 9.66; Weight: SD = 5.82 Mean = 31.16; Height: SD = 7.66 Mean = 136.16), which never used it. All of the children were asked to complete three tests (one leg test, stork test and balance beam walking test) before starting their own training program and after five months, to evaluate how their performances changed in terms of time. Comparing the recorded time difference between T0 and T1 of the Hb+ group with the same difference measured in Hb- group, it was found that there was a statistically significant difference (p value < 0.05) between these data for all three tests. Children who used the hoverboard in their training program achieved better result than children who did not use it. In the future, the hoverboard could help athletes to improve their performances, possibly applying it not only in football training, but even in other sports. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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Open AccessArticle
Intermittent Pneumatic Compression and Cold Water Immersion Effects on Physiological and Perceptual Recovery during Multi-Sports International Championship
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030045 - 30 Jun 2020
Cited by 1
Abstract
Background: Congested-fixture championships are common during the selection of the athletes and teams participating in the Olympic Games. Throughout these tournaments, it is fundamental to perform optimally, rest well, and recover between competitions. This study aimed to (a) explore the effectiveness of the [...] Read more.
Background: Congested-fixture championships are common during the selection of the athletes and teams participating in the Olympic Games. Throughout these tournaments, it is fundamental to perform optimally, rest well, and recover between competitions. This study aimed to (a) explore the effectiveness of the use of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) and cold water immersion (CWI) to recover muscle mechanical function (MuscleMechFx), hydration status (HydS), pain perception (PainPercep), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), sleep hours, and sleep quality (SleepQual) during a regional multi-sports international championship and (b) compare these results by sex. Methods: A total of 52 basketball and handball players were exposed to a recovery protocol after the competition as follows: IPC, sequential 20 min at 200 mmHg, and CWI, continuous 12 min at 12 °C. Results: MuscleMechFx presented differences by match and sex (p = 0.058) in time of contraction of biceps femoris; SleepQual and sleep hours were different between matches (<0.01). Conclusions: IPC + CWI seems to be effective to maintain some MuscleMechFx, HydS, and recovery and pain perception during a congested multi-sport tournament. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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Review

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Open AccessReview
Evidence-Based Practice in Rehabilitation of Myasthenia Gravis. A Systematic Review of the Literature
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(4), 71; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5040071 - 27 Sep 2020
Abstract
Myasthenia gravis is a rare neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue. This review analyzes the most recent evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of different rehabilitative approaches to the disease. The review was carried out in accordance with the Preferred Reporting [...] Read more.
Myasthenia gravis is a rare neuromuscular disorder characterized by muscle weakness and fatigue. This review analyzes the most recent evidence regarding the effectiveness and safety of different rehabilitative approaches to the disease. The review was carried out in accordance with the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A total of 365 articles were found in the main scientific databases. Applying the inclusion/exclusion criteria, 11 studies were admitted to the final phase of the review. Three different rehabilitative approaches were identified: physical training, respiratory training, and balance training. All rehabilitative modalities contributed to enhancing functional outcomes, reducing fatigue, and improving quality of life, but currently none can be recommended over another for the lack of cross-comparative studies. The included studies showed methodological quality from low to fair. Despite the range of rehabilitative interventions available, there is a lack of high-quality evidence. However, this review suggests that a multidisciplinary rehabilitation approach should be recommended to people with myasthenia gravis, and above all, for those with mild to moderate symptomatology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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Open AccessReview
Beneficial Effects of Physical Activity in Diabetic Patients
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 70; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030070 - 04 Sep 2020
Abstract
One of the main goals of diabetic therapy is to achieve the best metabolic control to prevent the development and progression of potential complications. A multidisciplinary approach characterized by the combination of diet, physical activity (PA) and drug therapy with oral and injectable [...] Read more.
One of the main goals of diabetic therapy is to achieve the best metabolic control to prevent the development and progression of potential complications. A multidisciplinary approach characterized by the combination of diet, physical activity (PA) and drug therapy with oral and injectable (non-insulin) pharmacological agents, is desirable to optimize metabolic control. The aim of this review is to explain the contribution of PA and its beneficial effects on patients affected by type 1 (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We provide an overview of evidence on the effects of PA for the main two types of diabetes mellitus (DM) to identify the right level of PA to be recommended. We discuss the physiological and clinical role of PA in people with DM. It can be concluded that the objective of antidiabetic therapy should be the achievement and optimization of metabolic control through a multidisciplinary approach involving non-pharmacological therapy such as diet and PA, which has a crucial role. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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Other

Open AccessCase Report
Multifaceted Exercise Prescription in the Management of an Overhead Athlete with Suspected Distal Biceps Tendinopathy: A Case Report
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(3), 56; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5030056 - 29 Jul 2020
Abstract
Background and Purpose: Distal biceps brachii tendinopathy is an uncommon diagnosis. Various exercise prescriptions have demonstrated efficacy in the management of tendinopathy, although studies frequently focus on the effects of a specific type of muscular contraction (i.e., concentric, isometric, or eccentric). Currently, there [...] Read more.
Background and Purpose: Distal biceps brachii tendinopathy is an uncommon diagnosis. Various exercise prescriptions have demonstrated efficacy in the management of tendinopathy, although studies frequently focus on the effects of a specific type of muscular contraction (i.e., concentric, isometric, or eccentric). Currently, there is limited research guiding the conservative management of distal biceps tendinopathy, particularly with overhead athletes, and even less evidence reporting a multifaceted exercise prescription for individuals with tendinopathy. The purpose of this case report is to describe the integration of various modes of therapeutic exercise into a rehabilitation program for an overhead athlete with suspected distal biceps brachii tendinopathy. Case Description: A 19-year-old male collegiate baseball pitcher presented to an outpatient physical therapy clinic via direct access for left antecubital pain, which began 6 weeks prior to the evaluation while pitching during try-outs. Following physical examination, distal biceps tendinopathy was the likely clinical diagnosis. Interventions focused on early eccentric exercise eventually progressing to concentric and plyometric activity for return to sport. Outcomes: The patient was seen five times over the course of 4 weeks. He had significant improvements of pain, patient-reported functional outcomes, global rating of change, strength, tenderness, and provocation testing. The patient was able to return to an off-season pitching program. Discussion: An impairment-based and task-specific exercise prescription was effective for this patient with distal biceps tendinopathy. Understanding the biomechanical demands of an individual’s functional limitation, in this case baseball pitching, may assist the decision-making process and optimize outcomes. Additional research into the most effective exercise prescriptions for individuals with uncommon tendinopathies is warranted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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Open AccessCase Report
Secondary Scoliosis as a Complication of Acute Transverse Myelitis in a Child
J. Funct. Morphol. Kinesiol. 2020, 5(2), 39; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfmk5020039 - 09 Jun 2020
Abstract
Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is a rare neurological condition that affects the spinal cord. Several events, including infections, autoimmune conditions, inflammatory, and drug-induced factors, may cause this disorder. Correct and rapid etiological diagnosis is necessary in order to start appropriate treatment that mainly [...] Read more.
Acute transverse myelitis (ATM) is a rare neurological condition that affects the spinal cord. Several events, including infections, autoimmune conditions, inflammatory, and drug-induced factors, may cause this disorder. Correct and rapid etiological diagnosis is necessary in order to start appropriate treatment that mainly consists of immunomodulating therapy, high dose intravenous corticosteroids, and in plasma exchange in noninfectious cases. The outcome is varied and depends on several factors. In children, the prognosis is usually good. We report a case of an 11-year-old boy who presented with interscapular pain, right leg steppage, homolateral hyposthenia of the upper limb, and signs of autonomic dysfunction. After performing specific and instrumental exams, a diagnosis of transverse myelitis was reached, and appropriate therapy was performed. A few days post-treatment, the child developed a secondary scoliosis, involving a thoracolumbar curve with loss of cervical and lumbar lordosis. After rehabilitative treatment was undertaken for 12 months, a complete recovery and normal restoration of spinal physiological curves was obtained. The pediatric cases of ATM have a good response to steroid therapy combined with physiotherapy. Collaboration among the various specialists is worthwhile, in order to lead to a correct and rapid diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Role of Exercises in Musculoskeletal Disorders—3th Edition)
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